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Encyclopedia > Pennsylvania
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Flag of Pennsylvania Seal
Nickname(s): Keystone State, Quaker State,
Coal State, Oil State, State of Independence
Motto(s): Virtue, Liberty and Independence
Capital Harrisburg
Largest city Philadelphia
Largest metro area Delaware Valley
Area  Ranked 33rd in the US
 - Total 46,055 sq mi
(119,283 km²)
 - Width 280 miles (455 km)
 - Length 160 miles (255 km)
 - % water 2.7
 - Latitude 39° 43′ N to 42° 16′ N
 - Longitude 74° 41′ W to 80° 31′ W
Population  Ranked 6th in the US
 - Total 12,281,054
 - Density 274.02/sq mi 
105.80/km² (10th in the US)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mount Davis[1]
3,213 ft  (979 m)
 - Mean 1,099 ft  (335 m)
 - Lowest point Delaware River[1]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  December 12, 1787 (2nd)
Governor Ed Rendell (D)
Lieutenant Governor Catherine Baker Knoll (D)
U.S. Senators Arlen Specter (R)
Bob Casey, Jr. (D)
Congressional Delegation List
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations PA Penna. US-PA
Website www.pa.gov

The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (IPA: /ˌpɛnsəlˈveɪnjə/), often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation) by natives and Northeasterners, is a state located in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States of America. Pennsylvania can mean: Pennsylvania, one of the United States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pennsylvania. ... State seal of Pennsylvania. ... The flag of Pennsylvania consists of a blue field on which is embroidered the state coat of arms surrounded by draft horses on both sides, and a bald eagle, which represents the new nation, above. ... The Pennsylvania State Seal has a central image of a crest containing a ship under full sail, a plow, and three sheaves of wheat. ... This is a list of U.S. state nicknames -- both official and traditional (official state nicknames are in bold). ... Here is a list of state mottos for the states of the United States. ... Image File history File links Map_of_USA_PA.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pennsylvania ... Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ... This article is about the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas. ... The Delaware Valley is a term used widely to refer to the metropolitan area centered on the city of Philadelphia in the United States. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... This is a complete list of the states of the United States ordered by total area, land area, and water area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... “km” redirects here. ... Map of states populations (2007) This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison) as of July 1, 2007, according to the 2007 estimates of the United States Census Bureau. ... Map of states showing population density This is a list of the 50 U.S. states, ordered by population density. ... This is a list of United States states by elevation. ... Mount Davis is the highest mountain in Pennsylvania, located in the 5,685 acre (23. ... For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas). ... The order which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order that the others were admitted to the union This is a list of U.S. states by date of statehood, that is, the date when each U.S. state joined the Union. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Edward Gene Ed Rendell (born January 5, 1944) is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party. ... This is a complete and current List of United States Lieutenant Governors. ... Catherine Baker Knoll (born September 3, 1930 in McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania) is the present lieutenant governor of Pennsylvania. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Arlen J. Specter (born February 12, 1930) is a United States Senator from Pennsylvania. ... Robert Patrick Casey, Jr. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Map of Pennsylvania, depicting its congressional districts since the 108th Congress. ... Map of U.S. time zones with new CST and EST areas displayed This is a list of United States of America States by time zone. ... EST is UTC-5 The North American Eastern Standard Time Zone (abbreviated EST) is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) resulting in UTC-5. ... ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... The following is a list of abbreviations used by the United States Postal Service. ... U.S. states This is a list of traditional abbreviations for U.S. states and territorries, which were in wide use prior to the U.S. postal abbreviations. ... ISO 3166-2 codes for the United States of America cover 50 states, 1 district, 6 outlying areas (including 9 minor outlying islands under separate ISO 3166-1 country code UM). ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Map of the US northeast. ... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


Pennsylvania has been known as the Keystone State since 1802,[2] based in part upon its central location among the original Thirteen Colonies forming the United States.[2] It was also a keystone state economically, having both the industry common to the North, making such wares as Conestoga wagons[3] and rifles,[4] and the agriculture common to the South, producing feed, fiber, food, and tobacco.[5] In architecture, a keystone is the stone at the top of an arch. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The Conestoga Wagon is a heavy, broad-wheeled covered freight carrier used extensively during the United States Westward Expansion in the late 1700s and 1800s. ... The term Long Rifle (or alternately Kentucky Rifle) refers to a type of rifle used in early America by both military and civilians. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Another one of Pennsylvania's nicknames is the Quaker State; in colonial times, it was known officially as the Quaker Province,[6] in recognition of Quaker[7] William Penn's First Frame of Government[8] constitution for Pennsylvania that guaranteed liberty of conscience. He knew of the hostility[9] Quakers faced when they opposed religious ritual, taking oaths, violence, war and military service, and what they viewed as ostentatious frippery.[10] Quaker redirects here. ... A map of the Province of Pennsylvania. ... For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... Penns draft of the First Frame The Frame of Government of Pennsylvania was a constitution for the Pennsylvania Colony, a proprietary colony granted to William Penn by Charles II of England. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... François Chifflart (1825-1901), The Conscience (after Victor Hugo) Conscience is an ability or faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ...


Pennsylvania has 51 miles (82 km)[11] of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles (92 km)[12] of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Philadelphia is Pennsylvania's largest city and is home to a major seaport and shipyards on the Delaware River.[13] Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas). ...

Contents

Geography

Further information: Geography of Pennsylvania
Further information: List of Pennsylvania counties
Map of Pennsylvania, showing major cities and roads

Pennsylvania is 170 miles (274 km) north to south and 283 miles (455 km) east to west.[14] Of a total 46,055 square miles (119,282 km²), 44,817 square miles (116,075 km²) are land, 490 square miles (1,269 km²) are inland waters and 749 square miles (1,940 km²) are waters in Lake Erie.[15] It is the 33rd largest state in the United States.[15] The highest point of 3,213 feet (979 m) above sea level is at Mount Davis, which was named for its owner, John Davis, a schoolteacher who fought for the Union Army at the Battle of Gettysburg. The lowest point is at sea level on the Delaware River, and the approximate mean elevation is 1,100 feet (335 m).[16] Pennsylvania is in the Eastern time zone.[17] Pennsylvania cities and rivers The Geography of Pennsylvania is complex and interesting, and has played an important role in the nations history. ... List of Pennsylvania counties: Pennsylvania counties Adams County, formed in 1800 from parts of York County. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Pennsylvania Categories: National Atlas images | Pennsylvania maps ... File links The following pages link to this file: Pennsylvania Categories: National Atlas images | Pennsylvania maps ... This is a complete list of the states of the United States ordered by total area, land area, and water area. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Mount Davis is the highest mountain in Pennsylvania, located in the 5,685 acre (23. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... This article is about mathematical mean. ... Metronome, a public art installation showing the time in New York City The Eastern Time Zone (ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of Northern America and the west coast of South America. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ...

Counties of Pennsylvania

The original southern boundary of Pennsylvania was supposed to be at 40° North latitude,[18] but as a result of a bad faith compromise by Lord Baltimore during Cresap's War, the king's courts moved the boundary 20 miles (32 km) south[19] to 39° 43' N.[14] The city of Philadelphia, at 40°0'N 75°8'W,[20] would have been split in half by the original boundary. While he was a captive, Cresap, a Marylander, was paraded through Philadelphia. He taunted the officers by announcing that Philadelphia was one of the prettiest towns in Maryland.[19] Download high resolution version (865x532, 52 KB) SOURCE: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (865x532, 52 KB) SOURCE: http://www. ... Baron Baltimore is a defunct title in the Peerage of Ireland. ... Cresaps War was a border conflict between Pennsylvania and Maryland, fought in the 1730s. ... Colonel Thomas Cresap (1702–1790) was a pioneer settler in the state of Maryland. ...

Climate

Main article: Climate of Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania's diverse geography also produces a variety of climates. Straddling two major zones, the southeastern corner of the state has the warmest climate. Greater Philadelphia lies at the southernmost tip of the humid continental climate zone, with some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that lies in Delaware and Maryland to the south. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the climate becomes markedly colder, the number of cloudy days increases, and winter snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state, particularly cities near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches (250 cm) of snowfall annually, and the entire state receives plentiful rainfall throughout the year. For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... The humid continental climate is a climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between polar and tropical air masses. ... The humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly to mild winters. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ...

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Pennsylvania Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Scranton 34/18 37/20 47/28 59/38 71/48 78/57 83/61 81/60 72/53 61/42 49/34 39/24
Erie 33/20 36/21 45/28 56/38 67/49 76/59 80/64 79/63 72/56 61/46 49/36 39/27
Pittsburgh 37/20 39/21 50/29 62/38 71/48 80/56 85/62 83/60 76/53 64/41 53/33 42/25
Harrisburg 38/23 41/25 51/33 63/42 73/51 81/61 86/66 84/64 76/57 64/45 53/36 42/28
Philadelphia 39/25 42/28 51/35 62/44 72/55 81/64 86/70 84/69 77/61 66/49 55/40 44/31
[citation needed]

History

Main article: History of Pennsylvania

Before the Commonwealth was settled, the area was home to the Delaware (also known as Lenni Lenape), Susquehannock, Iroquois, Eries, Shawnee, and other Native American tribes.[21] The History of Pennsylvania is as varied as any in the American experience and reflects the melting pot vision of the United States. ... For the language, see Lenape language. ... Susquehannock The Susquehannock people were natives of areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries from the southern part of what is now New York, through Pennsylvania, to the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... The Eries were a Native American tribe. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...

In 1681, Charles II granted a land charter[22] to William Penn, to repay a debt of £20,000 ($20,000,000 in today’s money) owed to William's father, Admiral Penn. This was one of the largest land grants to an individual in history.[23] It was called Pennsylvania, meaning "Penn's Woods", in honor of Admiral Penn. http://teachpol. ... http://teachpol. ... John Dickinson (November 2, 1732 – February 14, 1808) was an American lawyer, artist and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... Admiral Sir William Penn, 1621–1670 by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ...


Penn established a government with two innovations that were much copied in the New World: the county commission, and freedom of religious conviction.[23]


Between 1730 and when it was shut down by Parliament with the Currency Act of 1764, the Pennsylvania Colony made its own paper money to account for the shortage of actual gold and silver. The paper money was called Colonial Scrip. The Colony issued "bills of credit" which were as good as gold or silver coins because of their legal tender status. Since they were issued by the government and not a banking institution, it was an interest-free proposition, largely defraying the expense of the government and therefore taxation of the people. It also promoted general employment and prosperity since the Government used discretion and did not issue too much to inflate the currency. Benjamin Franklin had a hand in creating this currency, of which he said its utility was never to be disputed, and it also received the high praise of Adam Smith.[citation needed] Colonial Scrip was paper money issued by the colonies in the revolution/pre-revolution era. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ...


After the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, Delegate John Dickinson of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania wrote the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. The Congress was the first meeting of the thirteen colonies, called at the request of the Massachusetts Assembly, but only nine colonies sent delegates.[24] Dickinson then wrote Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, To the Inhabitants of the British Colonies, which were published in the Pennsylvania Chronicle between December 2, 1767, and February 15, 1768.[25] The Stamp Act Congress was a meeting in New York City in October of 1765 consisting of delegates from 9 of the 13 colonies that discussed and acted upon the recently passed Stamp Act. ... John Dickinson (November 2, 1732 – February 14, 1808) was an American lawyer, artist and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1767 (MDCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


When the Founding Fathers of the United States were to convene in Philadelphia in 1774, 12 colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress.[26] The First Continental Congress drew up and signed the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia,[27] but when that city was captured by the British, the Continental Congress escaped westward, meeting at the Lancaster courthouse on Saturday, September 27, 1777, and then to York. There they drew up the Articles of Confederation that formed 13 independent colonies into a new nation. Later, the Constitution was written, and Philadelphia was once again chosen to be cradle to the new American Nation.[28] Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... The First Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of twelve North American colonies of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1774. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... , Official name: City of Lancaster Nickname: The Red Rose City Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Location Penn Square  - coordinates , Highest point  - elevation 368 ft (112 m) Area 7. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country United States State Pennsylvania County York Incorporated  - Borough September 24, 1787  - City January 11, 1887 Government  - Mayor John Brenner Area  - City  5. ... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ...


Pennsylvania became the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution on December 12, 1787,[29] five days after Delaware became the first. Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ...

The "Redbrick Capitol", used from 1821 until it burned in 1897

Dickinson College of Carlisle was the first college founded in the United States. Established in 1773, the college was ratified five days after the Treaty of Paris on September 9th, 1783. The school was founded by Benjamin Rush and named after John Dickinson. Image File history File links HillsCapitol. ... A mermaid sits atop Dickinson Colleges Old West. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Cumberland Founded 1751 Government  - Mayor Kirk R. Wilson Area  - Borough  5. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... Dr. Benjamin Rush, painted by Charles Willson Peale, c. ...


For half a century, the Commonwealth's legislature met at various places in the general Philadelphia area before starting to meet regularly in Independence Hall in Philadelphia for 63 years.[30] But it needed a more central location, as for example the Paxton Boys massacres of 1763 had made them aware. So, in 1799 the legislature moved to the Lancaster Courthouse,[30] and finally in 1812 to Harrisburg.[30] The legislature met in the old Dauphin County Court House until December 1821,[30] when the Redbrick Capitol was finished. It burned down in 1897, presumably due to a faulty flue.[30] The legislature met at Grace Methodist Church on State Street (still standing), until the present capitol was finished in 1907.[30] The Paxton Boys were a group of backcountry frontiersmen from western Pennsylvania who banded together to defend themselves against Indian attack during Pontiacs Rebellion. ... , Official name: City of Lancaster Nickname: The Red Rose City Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Location Penn Square  - coordinates , Highest point  - elevation 368 ft (112 m) Area 7. ... This article is about the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... Dauphin County is a county located in the state of Pennsylvania and is one of four counties comprising the greater Harrisburg metropolitan area. ... A flue is a duct, pipe, or chimney for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, furnace, water heater, boiler, or generator to the outdoors. ...


The new state Capitol drew rave reviews.[30] Its dome was inspired by the domes of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome and the United States Capitol.[30] President Theodore Roosevelt called it the "the most beautiful state Capitol in the nation", and said "It's the handsomest building I ever saw" at the dedication. In 1989, the New York Times praised it as "grand, even awesome at moments, but it is also a working building, accessible to citizens ... a building that connects with the reality of daily life".[30] The State Capitol of Pennsylvania, located in downtown Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, is the seat of government of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Pennsylvania accounts for 9% of all wooded areas in the United States


James Buchanan, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, was the only bachelor President of the United States.[31] The Battle of Gettysburg — the major turning point of the Civil War — took place near Gettysburg.[32] An estimated 350,000 Pennsylvanians served in the Union Army forces along with 8,600 African American military volunteers.[33] For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... , Official name: City of Lancaster Nickname: The Red Rose City Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Location Penn Square  - coordinates , Highest point  - elevation 368 ft (112 m) Area 7. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... A military volunteer is a person who enlists in military service by free will, and is not a mercenary or a foreign legionaire. ...


Pennsylvania was also the home of the first commercially drilled oil well. In 1859, near Titusville, Pennsylvania, Edwin L. Drake successfully drilled the well, which led to the first major oil boom in United States history. Titusville is a city located in Crawford County, Pennsylvania. ...

See also: List of Pennsylvania firsts  and List of people from Pennsylvania

This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Pennsylvania is the birthplace of many famous Americans. ...

Demographics

Further information: List of people from Pennsylvania
Demographics of Pennsylvania (csv)
By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI
AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native — NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
2000 (total population) 87.60% 10.71% 0.43% 2.04% 0.07%
2000 (Hispanic only) 2.74% 0.44% 0.06% 0.03% 0.02%
2005 (total population) 86.83% 11.20% 0.45% 2.46% 0.09%
2005 (Hispanic only) 3.52% 0.53% 0.07% 0.05% 0.02%
Growth 2000–2005 (total population) 0.32% 5.83% 5.64% 22.23% 18.99%
Growth 2000–2005 (non-Hispanic only) -0.64% 5.21% 2.77% 21.86% 14.13%
Growth 2000–2005 (Hispanic only) 29.86% 20.24% 23.61% 45.64% 35.44%

The center of population of Pennsylvania is located in Perry County, in the borough of Duncannon [1]. Pennsylvania is the birthplace of many famous Americans. ... Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the United States Census Bureau and the Federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB), is a self-identification data item in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify. ... Center of population is a subject of study in the field of demographics. ... Perry County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania and is one of four counties comprising the greater Harrisburg metropolitan area. ... Duncannon is a borough located in Perry County, Pennsylvania. ...


As of 2006, Pennsylvania has an estimated population of 12,440,621, which is an increase of 35,273 from the previous year, and an increase of 159,567 since the year 2000. Net migration from other states resulted in a decrease of 27,718, and immigration from other countries resulted in an increase of 126,007. Net migration to the Commonwealth was 98,289. Migration of native Pennsylvanians resulted in a decrease of 100,000 people. In 2006, 5.00% of Pennsylvanians were foreign born (621,480 people).[34] The state has an estimated 2005 poverty rate of 11.9%.[35] The state also has the 3rd highest proportion of elderly (65+) citizens in 2005.[35] Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... Old age consists of ages nearing the average lifespan of human beings, and thus the end of the human life cycle. ...


Foreign-born Pennsylvanians are largely from Asia (36.0%), Europe (35.9%), Latin America (30.6%), 5% coming from Africa, 3.1% coming from North America, and 0.4% coming from Oceania. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... North American redirects here. ...

Pennsylvania Population Distribution

Pennsylvania's reported population of Hispanics, especially among the Asian, Hawaiian and White races, has markedly increased in recent years.[36] It is not clear how much of this change reflects a changing population, and how much reflects increased willingness to self-identify minority status. Image File history File links Pennsylvania_population_map. ... Image File history File links Pennsylvania_population_map. ...

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 434,373
1800 602,365 38.7%
1810 810,091 34.5%
1820 1,049,458 29.5%
1830 1,348,233 28.5%
1840 1,724,033 27.9%
1850 2,311,786 34.1%
1860 2,906,215 25.7%
1870 3,521,951 21.2%
1880 4,282,891 21.6%
1890 5,258,113 22.8%
1900 6,302,115 19.9%
1910 7,665,111 21.6%
1920 8,720,017 13.8%
1930 9,631,350 10.5%
1940 9,900,180 2.8%
1950 10,498,012 6.0%
1960 11,319,366 7.8%
1970 11,793,909 4.2%
1980 11,863,895 0.6%
1990 11,881,643 0.1%
2000 12,281,054 3.4%

Pennsylvania's population was reported as 5.9% under 5 and 23.8% under 18, with 15.6% were 65 or older. Females made up 51.7% of the population.[37] The United [[States Census of 1790 was the first Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1800 was the second Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1810 was the third Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1820 was the fourth Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1830 was the fifth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Sixth Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 — an increase of 32. ... The Seventh Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876 — an increase of 35. ... The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Ninth United States Census was taken in 1870. ... 1880 US Census The United States Census of 1880 was the tenth United States Census. ... The Eleventh United States Census was taken June 1, 1890. ... 1900 US Census The Twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21. ... The Thirteenth United States Census was taken in 1910. ... The Fourteenth United States Census was taken in 1920. ... The Fifteenth United States Census was taken in 1930. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... The Seventeenth United States Census was taken in 1950. ... The Eighteenth United States Census was taken in 1960. ... The Nineteenth United States Census was taken in 1970. ... The Twentieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11. ... The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...


The five largest ancestry groups self-reported in Pennsylvania are: German (27.66%), Irish (17.66%), Italian (12.82%), English (8.89%) and Polish (7.23%).[38] English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or in part in the northwest European nation of England. ...


Religion

The new sovereign also enacted several wise and wholesome laws for his colony, which have remained invariably the same to this day. The chief is, to ill–treat no person on account of religion, and to consider as brethren all those who believe in one God. - Voltaire, speaking of William Penn[39]

Of all the colonies, only in Rhode Island was religious freedom as secure as in Pennsylvania - and one result was an incredible religious diversity, one which continues to this day.[40] For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ...


Pennsylvania's population in 2000 was 12,281,054. Of these, 8,448,193 were estimated to belong to some sort of organized religion. According to the Association of religion data archives at Pennsylvania State University, reliable data exists for 7,116,348 religious adherents in Pennsylvania in 2000, following 115 different faiths.[41] Their affiliations, including percentage of all adherents, were:[42] The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) is a free source of online information related to American and international religion. ... This article is about the state-related university. ...

Pennsylvania is also noted for having the highest concentration of an Amish population in the United States.[43] The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Eastern Christianity. ... In the United States, the mainline (also sometimes called mainstream) or mainline Protestant denominations are those Protestant denominations with a mix of moderate and liberal theologies. ... This article is about the current Christian denomination based in the United States. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the United States denomination known as United Church of Christ. ... ABCUSA American Baptist Churches USA (ABCUSA) is a group of Baptist churches within the United States; headquartered in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... For other uses, see Assemblies of God (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church of the Brethren is... Mennonite Church USA logo. ... The Christian and Missionary Alliance (C&MA) is an Evangelical Protestant denomination within Christianity. ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States-based Christian denomination that consists of numerous agencies including six seminaries, two mission boards and a variety of other organizations such as: the Executive Committee of the Southern Baptist Convention, which can act for the SBC ad interim between annual meetings... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ...


While Pennsylvania owes its existence to Quakers and many of the older trappings of the Commonwealth are rooted in the teachings of the Religious Society of Friends (as they are officially known), practicing Quakers are a small minority today. The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Quaker redirects here. ...


Economy

Further information: List of people from Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania's 2005 total gross state product (GSP) of $430.31 billion[44] ranks the state 6th in the nation. If Pennsylvania were an independent country, its economy would rank as the 17th largest in the world, ahead of Belgium and behind the Netherlands. On a per-capita basis, Pennsylvania's per-capita GSP of $34,619 ranks 26th among the 50 states.[44] Pennsylvania is the birthplace of many famous Americans. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (771x768, 798 KB) Source http://www. ... Gross state product is a measurment of the economic output of a U.S. state or an Australian state. ...

Bethlehem Steel's closed manufacturing facility in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. This site will become the site of a new multi-million dollar casino in 2007.

Philadelphia in the southeast corner and Pittsburgh in the southwest corner are urban manufacturing centers, with the "t-shaped" remainder of the Commonwealth being much more rural; this dichotomy affects state politics as well as the state economy.[45] Philadelphia is home to eight Fortune 500 companies,[46] with more located in suburbs like King of Prussia; it's a leader in the financial[47] and insurance industry.[48] Pittsburgh is home to seven Fortune 500 companies, including U.S. Steel, PPG Industries, H.J. Heinz, and Alcoa.[46] In all, Pennsylvania is home to fifty Fortune 500 companies.[46] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1004 pixel, file size: 507 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A view of the former Bethlehem Steel from the Fehy Bridge in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1004 pixel, file size: 507 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A view of the former Bethlehem Steel from the Fehy Bridge in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. ... Bethlehem Steel Corporations flagship manufacturing facility in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... Location in Lehigh and Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania Location within Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States State Counties Lehigh and Northampton Founded 1741 Government  - Mayor John B. Callahan Area  - Total 19. ... King of Prussia is an unincorporated community in Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... The United States Steel Corporation (NYSE: X) is an integrated steel producer with major production operations in the United States and Central Europe. ... PPG Industries NYSE: PPG was founded in 1883, under the name Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. ... H. J. Heinz Company, commonly known as just Heinz, famous for its 57 Varieties slogan, was founded in 1869 by Henry John Heinz in Sharpsburg, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the company. ...


Manufacturing

Pennsylvania's factories and workshops manufacture 16.1% of the Gross State Product (GSP); only 10 states are more industrialized.[49] While Educational Services is only 1.8% of the Commonwealth's GSP, that's twice the national average; only Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Vermont outrank Pennsylvania.[49] Although Pennsylvania is known as a coal state, mining only amounts to 0.6% of the Commonwealth's economy, compared to 1.3% for the country as a whole.[49] This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ...

Image Number K5052-5 Farming near Klingerstown, Pennsylvania. ... Image Number K5052-5 Farming near Klingerstown, Pennsylvania. ... Farming near Klingerstown, Pennsylvania. ...

Agriculture

Pennsylvania ranks 19th overall in agricultural production,[50] but 1st in mushrooms, 3rd in Christmas trees and layer chickens, 4th in nursery and sod, milk, corn for silage, grapes grown (including juice grapes),[51] and horses production. It is also 8th in the nation for wine production, has the two highest wineries east of the Rocky Mountains and was home to the nation's first commercial grapevine nursery in Montgomery County.[51] Only about 9,600 of the Commonwealth's 58,000 farmers have sales of $100,000 or more, and with production expenses equaling 84.9% of sales, most not only have a net farming income below the $19,806 that marks poverty for a family of four,[52] but are liable for a 12.4% self-employment tax as well.[53] The average farmer is 53 and getting older,[54] as young Pennsylvanians find low farming income a tough row to hoe.[55] Fungiculture is the process of producing food, medicine, and other products by the cultivation of mushrooms and other fungi. ... For other uses, see Christmas tree (disambiguation). ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... A nursery is a place where plants are propagated, usually for sale as a business, though some gardeners and farmers keep private nurseries. ... Rolled sod Sod is turf and the part of the soil beneath it held together by the roots, or a piece of this material. ... A glass of cows milk. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Silage (hay) somewhere in Allschwil or Schönenbuch, near Basel, Switzerland. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... Concord grapes being cooked down into grape juice for use in making jelly. ... Who ever deleted my page is a prat and i wil hunt them down on lucy and shout at them loudly! RAAAAARRR! connie sansom ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... A winery is a facility where fruit, usually grapes, is processed into wine. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... A nursery is a place where plants are propagated, usually for sale as a business, though some gardeners and farmers keep private nurseries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Many farms in the southeastern part of the Commonwealth have been sold to housing developers in the past years. This is largely due to rising taxes and land prices, reflecting high demand for land in the nation's fifth largest metropolitan area. Bucks and Montgomery counties were the first to suburbanize, but this trend is now extending to Chester, Lancaster, Berks, and Lehigh counties.[51]


Tourism

Pennsylvania state welcome sign

Pennsylvania draws 2.1% of the Gross State Product from Accommodation and Food Services. Only Connecticut, Delaware and Iowa have lower numbers. Philadelphia draws tourists[56] to see the Liberty Bell, Independence Hall, the Franklin Institute and the steps of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, while the Poconos[57] attract honeymooners, golfers, and fishermen, and the Delaware Water Gap[58] and Allegheny National Forest appeal to boaters, hikers, and nature lovers. Another attraction are the many covered bridges in the state, as Pennsylvania has more covered bridges than any other state.[59] Fourteen slots casinos, the majority of which are either in the process of being awarded licenses from the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board or are under construction, are expected to make up a good portion of tourism in the Commonwealth.[60] Image File history File links Pennsylvania. ... Image File history File links Pennsylvania. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the bell. ... Independence Hall is a U.S. national landmark located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets. ... Franklin Institute Front steps as seen from the adjacent Moore College This article is about the science museum in Philadelphia. ... The Rocky Steps are the front steps of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. ... The Philadelphia Museum of Art, located at the west end of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway in Philadelphias Fairmount Park, was established in 1876 in conjunction with the Centennial Exposition of the same year and is now among the largest and most important art museums in the United States. ... Pennsylvanias Pocono region counties The Pocono Mountains region is a mountainous region of about 2,400 square miles (6,200 km²) located in northeastern Pennsylvania. ... The Delaware Water Gap is on the border of New Jersey and Pennsylvania where the Delaware River traverses a large ridge of the Appalachian Mountains. ... Mead Run in the Allegheny National Forest The Allegheny National Forest is a National Forest located in northwestern Pennsylvania. ... A covered bridge is a bridge with enclosed sides and a roof. ... The Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board is a Pennsylvania state governmental agency that was founded in 2004 as the states gaming control board, responsible for administering the Pennsylvania Race Horse Development and Gaming Act, known as Act 71, and its regulations to assure public trust and confidence in the credibility...


The Commonwealth launched an extensive tourism campaign in 2003 under the direction of the Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development. An extensive website[61] has been established to promote visits to the state and new license plates feature the VisitPA.com website.

Recent PA state tourism campaign logo.

The Pennsylvania Dutch region in south-central Pennsylvania is a favorite for sightseers.[62] The Pennsylvania Dutch, including the Old Order Amish, the Old Order Mennonites and at least 35 other sects,[63] are common in the rural areas around the cities of Lancaster, York, and Harrisburg, and Hershey with smaller numbers extending northeast to the Lehigh Valley and up the Susquehanna River valley. Image File history File links PA.soi. ... Image File history File links PA.soi. ... Pennsylvania Dutch Country refers to an area of southeastern Pennsylvania that has a high percentage of Amish, Mennonite and Fancy Dutch inhabitants and where the Pennsylvania German language was historically common. ... The Plain sects are a group of Anabaptist communities who grew from the teachings of Jacob Amman 1644-1720. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... , Official name: City of Lancaster Nickname: The Red Rose City Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Location Penn Square  - coordinates , Highest point  - elevation 368 ft (112 m) Area 7. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country United States State Pennsylvania County York Incorporated  - Borough September 24, 1787  - City January 11, 1887 Government  - Mayor John Brenner Area  - City  5. ... Hershey is an unincorporated community within Derry Township in Dauphin County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... For other uses, see Lehigh Valley (disambiguation). ...


The term "Dutch," when referring to the Pennsylvania Dutch, means "German" or "Teutonic" rather than "Netherlander." Germans, in their own language, call themselves "Deutsch," which in English became, misleadingly, "Dutch."[64] The Pennsylvania Dutch language is a descendant of German, in the West Central German dialect family. The language is only very rarely used as a first language among Pennsylvanians; however, in eastern and south central areas of the state it is a common second language and greatly influences dialect and accent. Pennsylvania German, or more commonly Pennsylvania Dutch, (Deitsch, Pennsylvania Deutsch, Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch, Pennsilweni-Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch), is a West Central German variety spoken by 150,000 to 250,000 people in North America. ... West Central German (Westmitteldeutsch) is a High German dialect family in the German language. ...


Politics

Government of the Commonwealth

Pennsylvania has had five constitutions during its statehood:[65] 1776, 1790, 1838, 1874, and 1968. Prior to that, the province of Pennsylvania was governed for a century by a Frame of Government, of which there were four versions: 1682, 1683, 1696, and 1701.[65] The capital of the Commonwealth is Harrisburg. The legislature meets in the State Capitol there. Penns draft of the First Frame The Frame of Government of Pennsylvania was a constitution for the Pennsylvania Colony, a proprietary colony granted to William Penn by Charles II of England. ... This article is about the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ...

The current Governor is Ed Rendell, a former head of the Democratic National Committee who began as a popular District Attorney and mayor in Philadelphia.[66] The other elected officials composing the executive branch are the Lieutenant Governor Catherine Baker Knoll, Attorney General Tom Corbett, Auditor General Jack Wagner, and State Treasurer Robin Weissman.[67] Image File history File links PaCap. ... Image File history File links PaCap. ... The State Capitol of Pennsylvania, located in downtown Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, is the seat of government of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... List of Pennsylvania Governors The office of Pennsylvania governor was created by the states Constitution of 1790. ... Edward Gene Ed Rendell (born January 5, 1944) is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party. ... The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the principal organization governing the United States Democratic Party on a day to day basis. ... A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Catherine Baker Knoll (born September 3, 1930 in McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania) is the present lieutenant governor of Pennsylvania. ... Tom Corbett is the current Attorney General of the state of Pennsylvania, United States, elected in 2004. ... The name Jack Wagner is shared by the following people: Jack Wagner (1891-1965) was an American screenwriter. ...

See also: List of Pennsylvania state agencies

Pennsylvania has a bicameral legislature set up by Commonwealth's constitution in 1790. The original Frame of Government of William Penn had a unicameral legislature.[68] The General Assembly includes 50 Senators[69] and 203 Representatives.[70] Joseph B. Scarnati III is currently President Pro Tempore of the State Senate,[71] Dominic Pileggi the Majority Leader,[72] and Robert J. Mellow the Minority Leader.[73] Dennis M. O'Brien is Speaker of the House of Representatives,[74] with H. William DeWeese as Majority Leader[75] and Samuel Smith as Minority Leader.[76] The 2006 election resulted in the Democrats regaining control of the House and the balance remaining unchanged in Republicans' favor in the Senate. State related agencies of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Capitol Building The Pennsylvania General Assembly is the U.S. state of Pennsylvanias legislative branch, seated at the states capital, Harrisburg. ... The Pennsylvania State Senate is the upper house of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, the legislative branch of Pennsylvania government. ... The Pennsylvania House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Pennsylvania General Assembly, the legislature of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... A President Pro Tempore is a constitutionally recognized officer of the United States Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the President of the Senate. ... The majority leader is a term used in congressional systems for the chamber leader of the party in control of a legislature. ... Robert J. Mellow is the Minority Leader of the Pennsylvania State Senate. ... In U.S. politics, the minority leader is the Floor Leader of the second-largest caucus in a legislative body. ... Dennis M. OBrien is the 137th and current Speaker of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ... H. William DeWeese (born April 18, 1950) is the Majority Leader of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. ... Samuel H. Smith (b. ...


Pennsylvania is divided into 60 judicial districts,[77] most of which (except Philadelphia and Allegheny Counties) have magisterial district judges (formerly called district justices and justices of the peace), who preside mainly over minor criminal offenses and small civil claims.[77] Most criminal and civil cases originate in the Courts of Common Pleas, which also serve as appellate courts to the district judges and for local agency decisions.[77] The Superior Court hears all appeals from the Courts of Common Pleas not expressly designated to the Commonwealth Court or Supreme Court. It also has original jurisdiction to review warrants for wiretap surveillance.[77] The Commonwealth Court is limited to appeals from final orders of certain state agencies and certain designated cases from the Courts of Common Pleas.[77] The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the final appellate court. All judges in Pennsylvania are elected; the chief justice is determined by seniority.[77] The state holds 21 electoral votes.[35] Philadelphia County is a county located in the U.S. State of Pennsylvania. ... Pittsburgh skyline The Allegheny County Courthouse Allegheny County is a county in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Appeal. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... In law, a warrant can mean any authorization. ... Telephone tapping (or wire tapping/wiretapping in the US) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the court of last resort for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme... This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ...


Sales tax provides 39% of Commonwealth's revenue; personal income tax 34%; motor vehicle taxes about 12%, and taxes on cigarettes and alcohol beverage 5%.[78] A sales tax is a consumption tax charged at the point of purchase for certain goods and services. ...


Counties, municipalities, and school districts levy taxes on real estate. In addition, some local bodies assess a wage tax on personal income. Generally, the total wage tax rate is capped at 1% of income but some municipalities with home rule charters may charge more than 1%. Thirty-two of the Commonwealth's sixty-seven counties levy a personal property tax on stocks, bonds, and similar holdings. School districts are a form of special-purpose district in the United States (amongst some other places) which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ...


Representation in the 110th Congress

Pennsylvania's two U.S. Senators in the 110th Congress are Arlen Specter and Bob Casey, Jr. Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The 110th United States Congress will be in session from noon on January 3, 2007 until noon on January 3, 2009. ... Arlen J. Specter (born February 12, 1930) is a United States Senator from Pennsylvania. ... Robert Patrick Casey, Jr. ...


Pennsylvania's U.S. Congressmen for the term beginning January 2007 are Robert Brady (1st), Chaka Fattah (2nd), Phil English (3rd), Jason Altmire (4th), John E. Peterson (5th), Jim Gerlach (6th), Joe Sestak (7th), Patrick Murphy (8th), Bill Shuster (9th), Chris Carney (10th), Paul E. Kanjorski (11th), John Murtha (12th), Allyson Schwartz (13th), Michael F. Doyle (14th), Charlie Dent (15th), Joe Pitts (16th), Tim Holden (17th), Tim Murphy (18th), and Todd Russell Platts (19th).[79] The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... For the economist, see Robert A. Brady (economist) Robert A. Bob Brady (b. ... Pennsylvanias first district includes primarily central and South Philadelphia, the City of Chester, the Philadelphia International Airport, and other small sections of Delaware County. ... Chaka Fattah, born Arthur Davenport (21 November 1956 in Philadelphia), has served as a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1994, representing the 2nd congressional district of Pennsylvania (map), which includes North Philadelphia, West Philadelphia, a very small portion of Northeast Philadelphia and Cheltenham Township in... Pennsylvanias second district includes West Philadelphia, North Philadelphia, Chestnut Hill and Cheltenham Township in Montgomery County The district has an overwhelming Democratic majority. ... Phillip Sheridan English (born June 20, 1956) is a Congressman from the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, since 1995 representing the states 3rd Congressional district (map) in the U.S. House. ... Pennsylvanias third district is located in the northwestern part of the state and includes the cities of Erie, Sharon, Butler and Meadville. ... Jason Altmire (born March 7, 1968), is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives representing Pennsylvanias Fourth Congressional district. ... Pennsylvanias fourth district is located in western Pennsylvania and includes suburbs of Pittsburgh as well as Beaver County and Lawrence County The district has an slight Republican edge. ... John E. Peterson (b. ... Pennsylvanias fifth district is currently the largest of all of Pennsylvanias congressional districts. ... James Jim Gerlach (born February 25, 1955) is a politician from the state of Pennsylvania, currently representing the states 6th congressional district (map) in the U.S. House of Representatives. ... Map The 6th Congressional District was substantially redrawn in the 2002 redistricting. ... Joseph A. Joe Sestak, Jr. ... Pennsylvanias 7th congressional district is one of Pennsylvanias voting districts for the United States House of Representatives. ... For the Iowa politician of the same name, see Pat Murphy (Iowa politician). ... Map Pennsylvania District 8 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves Bucks County, along with a small portion of Montgomery County and northeast Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania. ... William Bill Shuster (b. ... Pennsylvanias 9th congressional district is a relatively safe seat for the Republicans. ... Christopher P. Chris Carney (born March 2, 1959) is Congressman-elect for the United States House of Representatives, representing the 10th Congressional District of Pennsylvania. ... Pennsylvanias 10th congressional district has been represented by Republican Don Sherwood since 1999. ... Paul E. Kanjorski (b. ... Pennsylvanias 11th congressional district is an immensely safe seat for the Democrats. ... John Patrick “Jack” Murtha, Jr. ... Pennsylvanias 12th congressional district is one of Pennsylvanias districts of the United States House of Representatives. ... Allyson Y. Schwartz (born October 3, 1948) is a Democratic U.S. politician from the state of Pennsylvania, currently representing the states 13th Congressional district (map) in the U.S. House. ... The 13th Congressional District of Pennsylvania is located in Southeastern Pennsylvania covering eastern Montgomery County and Northeast Philadelphia. ... Michael F. Mike Doyle (born August 5, 1953) is a politician from the state of Pennsylvania currently representing the 14th Congressional District (map) in the U.S. House of Represenatives. ... Pennsylvanias 14th congressional district is overwhelmingly Democratic. ... Charles Charlie Dent (born May 24, 1960 in Allentown, Pennsylvania) is a Republican Member of Congress, representing the Lehigh Valley region of Pennsylvania. ... Pennsylvanias Congressional Fifteenth District (The Fighting Fifteenth) is located in eastern Pennsylvania, comprising all of Northampton County , and parts of Berks, Lehigh, and Montgomery Counties. ... Joseph R. Pitts (b. ... // Pennsylvanias 16th Congressional District Pennsylvania’s 16th District is located in the southeastern part of the state, just west of Philadelphia. ... Thomas Timothy Holden (born March 5, 1957) is an American politician who has been a member of the United States House of Representatives since 1993. ... Pennsylvania’s 17th congressional district is located in the central part of the state, including the state capital, Harrisburg. ... Timothy Tim Murphy (born September 11, 1952, Cleveland, Ohio) is an American politician who currently serves in the House of Representatives for the 18th Congressional District of Pennsylvania (map). ... Pennsylvanias 18th congressional district includes all of Washington County, and parts of Allegheny and Westmoreland Counties. ... Todd Russell Platts (b. ... Pennsylvanias 19th congressional district includes all of Adams and York Counties, and parts of Cumberland County. ...


See map of congressional districts Congressional districts for representation in the United States House of Representatives are determined after each census. ...


Regional strength

In the past decade, no political party has been clearly dominant in Pennsylvania. This, combined with Pennsylvania's rank of 6th in the country in population, has made it one of the most important swing states. Democrats are strong in urban Philadelphia and the areas of Pittsburgh, Reading, Allentown, Erie, Johnstown, and Scranton/Wilkes-Barre. Republicans are generally dominant in the vast rural areas that make up the balance of the Commonwealth. Traditionally, Republicans have also fared well in the densely populated and wealthy suburbs of Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, but in the 1990s and 2000s many of these suburbs began to associate more with the Democratic Party. A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... In United States presidential politics, a swing state (also, battleground state) is a state in which no candidate has overwhelming support, meaning that any of the major candidates have a reasonable chance of winning the states electoral college votes. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Berks County’s location in Pennsylvania Reading’s location in Berks County Country United States State County Berks Founded 1748 Government  - Mayor Thomas McMahon (D) Area  - City 10. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Semper Tyrannis Pennsylvanias location in the United States Allentowns location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Lehigh Founded 1762 Government  - Mayor Ed Pawlowski Area  - City  18. ... “Erie” redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Pennsylvania within the USA Johnstown, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Coordinates: , Country State County Cambria Government  - Mayor Tom Trigona Area  - City  6. ... Scranton redirects here. ... Wilkes-Barre (IPA: , , or [1]) is the central city of the Wyoming Valley and county seat of Luzerne County in northeastern Pennsylvania. ...


Since 1992, Pennsylvania has been trending Democratic in Presidential elections, voting for Bill Clinton twice by large margins, and slightly closer in 2000 for Al Gore. Most recently, in the 2004 Presidential Election, Senator John F. Kerry beat President George W. Bush in Pennsylvania 2,938,095 (50.92%) to 2,793,847 (48.42%). John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Important cities and municipalities

The skyline of Philadelphia, the largest city in Pennsylvania and the fifth-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
The skyline of Pittsburgh, second largest city in Pennsylvania and 21st largest metropolitan area in the United States.

Municipalities in Pennsylvania are incorporated as cities of several classes, as boroughs, as townships of several classes, or under home rule charters. A "village," often identified by a roadside sign, is unincorporated, and is merely a locale without distinct boundaries. There are 2,567 municipalities in the state.[35] Download high resolution version (2043x498, 92 KB)Phila. ... Download high resolution version (2043x498, 92 KB)Phila. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 4. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... The word borough has many meanings relating to local government in the United States. ... In Pennsylvania, a township is a unit of local government (see civil township) subordinate to a county, and distinct from cities and boroughs. ...


There is some confusion about the number of "towns" in Pennsylvania. In 1870, Bloomsburg, the county seat of Columbia County was incorporated as a town, and is recognized by state government publications as "the only incorporated town" in Pennsylvania.[80][81][82] However, in 1975, McCandless Township, in Allegheny County adopted a home rule charter under the name "Town of McCandless".[83][84] Bloomsburg is a town in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, 40 miles (64 km) southwest of Wilkes Barre along the Susquehanna River. ... Columbia County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... McCandless is a census-designated place and township located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. ... Pittsburgh skyline The Allegheny County Courthouse Allegheny County is a county in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ...


The ten most populated cities in Pennsylvania, in order are: Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, Reading, Scranton, Bethlehem, Lancaster, Altoona, and Harrisburg. However, State College is vaulted to third place during Penn State home football game Saturdays in the fall, as the population goes well over 110 thousand. Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Semper Tyrannis Pennsylvanias location in the United States Allentowns location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Lehigh Founded 1762 Government  - Mayor Ed Pawlowski Area  - City  18. ... “Erie” redirects here. ... Berks County’s location in Pennsylvania Reading’s location in Berks County Country United States State County Berks Founded 1748 Government  - Mayor Thomas McMahon (D) Area  - City 10. ... Scranton redirects here. ... Location in Lehigh and Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania Location within Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States State Counties Lehigh and Northampton Founded 1741 Government  - Mayor John B. Callahan Area  - Total 19. ... , Official name: City of Lancaster Nickname: The Red Rose City Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Location Penn Square  - coordinates , Highest point  - elevation 368 ft (112 m) Area 7. ... Altoona is a city in Blair County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... This article is about the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ...

See also: Pennsylvania locations by per capita income

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Recreation

Pennsylvania is home to the nation's first zoo, the Philadelphia Zoo. [2] Other notable zoos include the Allentown Zoo, Claws 'n Paws, Erie Zoo, Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium, and ZOOAMERICA. The Commonwealth boasts some of the finest museums in the country. One of the unique museums is the Houdini Museum [3] in Scranton, the only building in the world devoted to the legendary magician. It is also home to the National Aviary, located in Pittsburgh. The Philadelphia Zoo, located in Fairmount Park on the west bank of the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia, was the first zoo in the United States. ... Image:Eriezoo01. ... The Pittsburgh Zoo is one of only six major zoo and aquarium combinations in the United States. ... Hersheypark was opened in 1907 as a leisure park for the employees of the Hershey Chocolate Company, an American confectionery company. ... Houdini Museum, located in Scranton, Pa. ... The National Aviary is Americas only independent indoor nonprofit aviary (that is, abird zoo). ...


All 121 state parks in Pennsylvania feature free admission. This is a list of state parks in Pennsylvania. ...


Pennsylvania offers a number of notable amusement parks, including Camel Beach, Conneaut Lake Park, Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom, Dutch Wonderland, DelGrosso Amusement Park, Hershey Park, Idlewild Park, Kennywood, Knoebels, Lakemont Park, Sandcastle Waterpark, Sesame Place, Great Wolf Lodge and Waldameer Park. Pennsylvania also is home to the largest indoor waterpark resort on the East Coast, Splash Lagoon in Erie. Conneaut Lake Park is an amusement park located in Conneaut Lake, Pennsylvania, USA. It has long served as a regional tourist destination, and is loved by roller coaster enthusiasts for its classic Blue Streak coaster. ... Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom is a United States amusement and water park. ... Dutch Wonderland is a 48-acre amusement park just east of Lancaster, Pennsylvania appealing primarily to families with small children. ... Formerly known as Blands Park, the small family friendly amusement park is located in the town of Tipton, in Blair County, Pennsylvania. ... HersheyPark, was opened in 1909 as a leisure park for the employees of Hersheys, an American confectionery company. ... Idlewild Park is a family oriented amusement park situated near Ligonier, Pennsylvania. ... Kennywood is an amusement park near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the borough of West Mifflin. ... Knoebels Amusement Park & Resort is a family owned and operated amusement park, picnic grove and campground which is located in Elysburg, Pennsylvania. ... Lakemont Park houses the worlds oldest-surviving roller coaster, the Leap-The-Dips, and it is one of the few surviving roller coasters with side friction. ... Sandcastle is a water park located in the Pittsburgh suburb of West Homestead. ... Christy Carlson Romano before the Rock Around the Block Parade; Back row: Rosita, Bert, Ernie, Prairie Dawn, Big Bird, Count von Count, Telly Monster. ... Great Wolf Lodge is a chain of hotels, with a lodging/outdoor theme. ... Waldameer Park and Water World is an amusement park in Erie, Pennsylvania located at the base of Presque Isle. ... Overview of the front half of the building. ...


There are also notable music festivals that take place in Pennsylvania. These include Musikfest in Bethlehem (which featured the rock band The Black Crowes in 2007 and routinely draws major music acts), the Philadelphia Folk Festival, Creation Festival, the Great Allentown Fair (which lasts slightly longer than a week in Allentown annually in early September) and Purple Door. Musikfest is a music festival held each August in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. ... Location in Lehigh and Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania Location within Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States State Counties Lehigh and Northampton Founded 1741 Government  - Mayor John B. Callahan Area  - Total 19. ... The Black Crowes are an American, blues-oriented hard rock jam band that has sold over 20 million albums. ... The Philadelphia Folk Festival is a three-day festival of folk music that has been held annually in Schwenksville, Pennsylvania in the vicinity of Philadelphia by the non-profit Philadelphia Folksong Society since 1957. ... Aerial view of the Creation Northeast festival Creation Festival is a series of popular Christian music festivals held in the United States. ... The Purple Door Christian music festival is held annually each August. ...


There are nearly one million licensed hunters in Pennsylvania. Whitetail deer, cottontail rabbits, squirrel, turkey, and grouse are common game species. Pennsylvania is considered one of the finest wild turkey hunting states in the Union, alongside Texas and Alabama. Sport hunting in Pennsylvania is a massive boost for the Commonwealth's economy. A report from The Center for Rural Pennsylvania (A Legislative Agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly) reported that hunting, fishing, and furtaking generated a total of $9.6 billion statewide.


The Boone and Crockett Club shows that five of the ten largest (skull size) black bear entries came from the state.[85] The state also has a tied record for the largest hunter shot black bear in the Boone & Crockett books at 733 lb (332 kg) and a skull of 23 3/16 tied with a bear shot in California in 1993.[85] The largest bear ever found dead was in Utah in 1975 and second largest was shot by a poacher in the state in 1987.[85] Pennsylvania holds the second most number of Boone & Crockett recorded record black bears at 183 second only to Wisconsin's 299.[85] The Boone and Crockett Club is a conservationist organization, founded in the United States in 1877 by Theodore Roosevelt. ... Binomial name Pallas, 1780 Synonyms Euarctos americanus The American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) is the most common bear species native to North America. ... Hunting is, in its most general sense, the pursuit of a target. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Transportation

There are 69 railroads in the state and 5,100 miles (8,200 km) of railways which is 5th in the nation.[35] There is 134 public-use airports and 6 international airports.[35] The port of Pittsburgh is the 2nd largest inland port in the United States.[35] There are 120,000 miles (190,000 km) of highways in the state.[33] railroads redirects here. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... For other uses, see Highway (disambiguation). ...


Sports

Main article: Pennsylvania sports
Further information: List of people from Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania is home to many professional sports teams, including the Philadelphia Phillies and Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball, the Philadelphia Eagles and Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League, the Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association, the Philadelphia Flyers and Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League, and the Philadelphia Soul of the Arena Football League. Among them, these teams have accumulated 6 World Series Championships (Pirates 5, Phillies 1), 14 National League Pennants, 3 pre-Super Bowl era NFL Championships (Eagles), 5 Super Bowl Championships (Steelers), 2 NBA Championships (76ers), and 4 Stanley Cup winners (Flyers 2, Penguins 2). Pennsylvania sports includes numerous professional sporting teams, events and venues, located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Pennsylvania is the birthplace of many famous Americans. ... Major league affiliations National League (1883–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 14, 20, 32, 36, 42 Name Philadelphia Phillies (1884–present) Philadelphia Quakers (1883-1889) (Also referred to as Blue Jays 1943-1945 despite formal name remaining Phillies) Other nicknames The Phils, The Phightin Phils... This article is about the baseball team. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... City Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Team colors Midnight Green, Black, White, and Silver Head Coach Andy Reid Owner Jeffrey Lurie General manager Tom Heckert Fight song Fly, Eagles Fly Mascot Swoop League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1933–present) Eastern Division (1933-1949) American Conference (1950-1952) Eastern Conference (1953-1969) Capitol... Steelers redirects here. ... NFL redirects here. ... The Philadelphia 76ers (also known as the Sixers for short) are a professional basketball team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... NBA redirects here. ... The Philadelphia Flyers are a professional ice hockey team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The Pittsburgh Penguins are a professional ice hockey team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... NHL redirects here. ... Conference National Division Eastern Year founded 2004 Home arena Wachovia Center & Wachovia Spectrum(alt. ... The Arena Football League (AFL) was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league. ... For other events named World Series, see World Series (disambiguation). ... National league can refer to: National Basketball League, in the United States and Canada, which merged with the rival Basketball Association of America to form the National Basketball Association National Football League, the major American football league in the United States National Hockey League, the major ice hockey league in... The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ... The Stanley Cup The Stanley Cup (French: ) is the championship trophy of the National Hockey League (NHL), the major professional ice hockey league in Canada and the United States. ...


In baseball, the Philadelphia Phillies Triple A-level team is moving from Ottawa, Ontario, in Canada, to a newly-constructed stadium, Coca-Cola Park in Allentown, beginning with the 2008 season. Because the Lehigh Valley is a core fan base for both the Phillies and the Philadelphia Eagles (who conduct their pre-season training camp on the practice fields of Lehigh University, there are understandably lofty expectations that the new team, called the Lehigh Valley IronPigs (after pig iron, which is an instrumental part in the construction of steel which has been a large part of the local economy for decades, is likely to prove hugely popular among Allentown and Lehigh Valley Phillies fans. Major league affiliations National League (1883–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 14, 20, 32, 36, 42 Name Philadelphia Phillies (1884–present) Philadelphia Quakers (1883-1889) (Also referred to as Blue Jays 1943-1945 despite formal name remaining Phillies) Other nicknames The Phils, The Phightin Phils... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Coca-Cola Park is a stadium in Allentown, Pennsylvania, in the Lehigh Valley area of Pennsylvania in the United States. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Semper Tyrannis Pennsylvanias location in the United States Allentowns location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Lehigh Founded 1762 Government  - Mayor Ed Pawlowski Area  - City  18. ... City Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Team colors Midnight Green, Black, White, and Silver Head Coach Andy Reid Owner Jeffrey Lurie General manager Tom Heckert Fight song Fly, Eagles Fly Mascot Swoop League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1933–present) Eastern Division (1933-1949) American Conference (1950-1952) Eastern Conference (1953-1969) Capitol... Lehigh University is a private, co-educational university located in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in the Lehigh Valley region of the United States. ... Class-Level AAA Minor League affiliations International League North Division Major League affiliations Philadelphia Phillies Name Lehigh Valley IronPigs (2008-future) Ottawa Lynx (1993-2007) Ballpark Coca-Cola Park (2008-future) Lynx Stadium Minor League titles League titles Division titles Owner(s)/Operated by: Joseph Finley, Craig Stein Manager: Scott... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


College football is also very popular in Pennsylvania. The Penn State University Nittany Lions are coached by Joe Paterno who led Penn State to two national championships (1982 & 1986) as well as five undefeated seasons (1968, 1969, 1973, 1986 and 1994). Penn State plays its home games in the second largest stadium in the United States, Beaver Stadium, that seats 107,282. In addition, the University of Pittsburgh Panthers have won nine national championships (1915, 1916, 1918, 1929, 1931, 1934, 1936, 1937 and 1976) and have played eight undefeated seasons (1904, 1910, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1920, 1937 and 1976).[4] Pitt plays its home games at Heinz Field, a facility it shares with the Pittsburgh Steelers. Other Pennsylvania schools that have won national titles in football include Lafayette College (1896) and the University of Pennsylvania (1895, 1897, 1904 and 1908).[5] The Pennsylvania State University The Pennsylvania State University (commonly known as Penn State) is a state-related land-grant university in Pennsylvania, with over 80,000 students at 24 campuses throughout the state. ... Joseph Vincent Paterno (born December 21, 1926, in Brooklyn, New York), nicknamed JoePa, is the head coach of Pennsylvania State Universitys college football team, a position he has held since 1966. ... Beaver Stadium is an outdoor football stadium located on the campus of The Pennsylvania State University in State College, Pennsylvania. ... The University of Pittsburgh, commonly referred to as Pitt, is a state-related, doctoral/research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... The sports teams of the University of Pittsburgh or Pitt are known as the Panthers and have a legendary history in all sports, especially basketball and football. ... Heinz Field is a football stadium located in the North Shore neighborhood, just across the Allegheny River from downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Steelers redirects here. ... Lafayette College is a private coeducational liberal arts college located in Easton, Pennsylvania, USA. The school, founded in 1826 by citizens of Easton, first began holding classes in 1832. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ...


College basketball is also popular in the state, especially in the Philadelphia area where five universities, collectively termed the Big Five, have a rich tradition in NCAA Division I basketball. National titles in college basketball have been won by the following Pennsylvania universities: La Salle University (1954), Temple University (1938), University of Pennsylvania (1920 and 1921), University of Pittsburgh (1928 and 1930) and Villanova University (1985).[6][7] For other uses of the term Big Five and its variants, see Big five (disambiguation). ... Division I is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States. ... La Salle University is a private, co-educational, comprehensive university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Named for St. ... For the private Christian university in Tennessee, see Tennessee Temple University. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... The University of Pittsburgh, commonly referred to as Pitt, is a state-related, doctoral/research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Villanova University is a private university located in Radnor Township, a suburb northwest of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States. ...


In motorsports, the Mario Andretti dynasty of race drivers is from Nazareth. Notable Racetracks in Pennsylvania include the Jennerstown Speedway in Jennerstown, the Lake Erie Speedway in North East, the Mahoning Valley Speedway in Lehighton, the Motordome Speedway in Smithton, the Mountain Speedway in St. Johns, the Nazareth Speedway in Nazareth; and the Pocono Raceway in Long Pond, which is home both the Pennsylvania 500 and the Pocono 500. Mario Gabriele Andretti (born February 28, 1940 in Montona dIstria, Italy, now Motovun, Croatia) is an Italian American racing driver, and one of the most successful Americans in the history of auto racing. ... Nazareth is a borough in Northampton County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... Jennerstown Speedway is a racetrack in Jennerstown, Pennsylvania. ... Jennerstown is a borough in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Lake Erie Speedway is A 3/8 mile paved oval race track located in Erie, PA, USA. They currently host events for USAR Hooters Pro Cup, Whelen All-American Series, along with other events. ... North East is a borough in Erie County, Pennsylvania, 14 miles (23 km) northeast of Erie. ... Lehighton is a borough in Carbon County, Pennsylvania, 86 miles (138 km) north by west of Philadelphia. ... Smithton is a borough in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Nazareth Speedway Track was a motor racing circuit in Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania. ... Nazareth is a borough in Northampton County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... Pocono Raceway is a superspeedway located in the Pocono Mountains of Pennsylvania at Long Pond; it is the site of two annual NASCAR Nextel Cup races held just a few weeks apart in June and July. ... Long Pond, Pennsylvania is a location in the Pocono Mountains of Pennsylvania, a part of the Appalachian Mountains. ... The Pennsylvania 500 is the second of two stock car races held at the Pocono Raceway in Long Pond, Pennsylvania, on the NASCAR Nextel Cup schedule, the other being the Pocono 500. ... The Pocono 500 is the first of two stock car races held at the Pocono Raceway in Long Pond, Pennsylvania, on the NASCAR Nextel Cup schedule, the other being the Pennsylvania 500. ...


Also, the Little League World Series is held in Williamsport, where it was founded. Also the first World Series between the Boston Pilgrims (now Boston Red Sox) and Pittsburgh Pirates was played in Pittsburgh. A Little League World Series game at Howard J. Lamade Stadium in South Williamsport. ... Map of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania highlighting Williamsport Williamsport is a city in and the county seat of Lycoming County,GR6 Pennsylvania in the United States. ... For other events named World Series, see World Series (disambiguation). ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 4, 8, 9, 27, 42 Name Boston Red Sox (1908–present) Boston Americans (1901-1907) Other nicknames The BoSox, The Olde Towne Team, The Sox Ballpark Fenway Park (1912–present) Huntington Avenue Baseball Grounds... This article is about the baseball team. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ...


There are also two motocross race tracks that host a round of the AMA Toyota Motocross Championships in Pennsylvania. [High Point Raceway]High Point in located in Mt. Morris, PA, and Steel City is located in Delmont, PA.


Race courses for horses in Pennsylvania consist of The Meadows Racetrack, south of Pittsburgh, Mohegan Sun at Pocono Downs, in Wilkes-Barre and Harrah's Chester Casino and Racetrack in Chester which offer harness racing, and Penn National Race Course in Grantville and Philadelphia Park, in Bensalem which offer thoroughbred racing. Smarty Jones, the 2004 Kentucky Derby winner, had Philadelphia Park as his home course. Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Wilkes-Barre (IPA: , , or [1]) is the central city of the Wyoming Valley and county seat of Luzerne County in northeastern Pennsylvania. ... Chester is a city in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, population 36,854 at the 2000 census. ... A trotter training at Vincennes hippodrome Harness racing is a form of horse-racing in which the horses race in a specified gait. ... Penn National Race Course is a Thoroughbred horse racing track in Grantville, Pennsylvania. ... Grantville is an unincorporated community in East Hanover Township Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Bensalem Township is a township located in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. ... Thoroughbred horse racing is the main form of horse-racing throughout the world. ... Smarty Jones (born February 28, 2001) is a thoroughbred race horse, and winner of the 2004 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes. ... The Hannah Derby is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses, held annually in Louisville, Kentucky, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. ...


Arnold Palmer, one of the leading 20th century pro golfers, comes from Latrobe, and Jim Furyk, one of the leading 21-century pro golfers, grew up near in Lancaster. PGA tournaments in Pennsylvania include the 84 Lumber Classic, played at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort, in Farmington and the Northeast Pennsylvania Classic, played at Glenmaura National Golf Club, in Moosic. This article is about the golfer. ... Latrobe is a city located in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Personal Information Birth May 12, 1970 ) West Chester, Pennsylvania Height 6 ft 1 in (1. ... Manheim Township is a township located in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. ... Farmington Township is the name of some places in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania: Farmington Township, Clarion County, Pennsylvania Farmington Township, Tioga County, Pennsylvania Farmington Township, Warren County, Pennsylvania This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Moosic is a borough located in Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania six miles (nine km) south of Scranton, PA and 13 miles (21km) northeast of Wilkes-Barre, PA on the Lackawanna River. ...


Philadelphia is home to LOVE Park, once a skateboarding mecca, and across from City Hall, host to ESPN's X Games in 2001 and 2002. JFK Plaza with the LOVE sculpture and fountain LOVE Park (JFK Plaza) is a plaza located in Center City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... A standard skateboard An old-school skateboard 1970s surfer print fiberglass skateboard A skateboard is a four wheeled platform used for the activity of skateboarding. ... ESPN, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an American cable television network dedicated to broadcasting and producing sports-related programming 24 hours a day. ... For the computer game series named X, see X (computer game series). ...


Food

In his book Yo Mama Cooks Like a Yankee, author Sharon Hernes Silverman calls Pennsylvania the snack food capital of the world.[86] It leads all other states in the manufacture of pretzels and potato chips. The Sturgis Pretzel House introduced the pretzel to America, and companies like Anderson Bakery Company, Intercourse Pretzel Factory, and Snyder's of Hanover are leading manufacturers in the Commonwealth. The three companies that define the U.S. potato chip industry are Utz Quality Foods, Inc., which started making chips in Hanover, Pennsylvania in 1921, Wise Snack Foods which started making chips in Berwick in 1921, and Lay's Potato Chips, a Texas company. Other companies such as Herr Foods, Martin's Potato Chips, and Troyer Farms Potato Products are popular chip manufacturers. The U.S. chocolate industry is centered in Hershey, Pennsylvania, with Mars and Wilbur Chocolate Company nearby, and smaller manufacturers such as Asher's near Lansdale and Gertrude Hawk of Dunmore. Other notable companies include Just Born in Bethlehem, PA, makers of Hot Tamales, Mike and Ikes, and the Easter favorite marshmallow Peeps, Benzel's Pretzels and Boyer Candies of Altoona, PA, which is well known for its Mallow Cups. Auntie Anne's Pretzels originated in Gap, but their corporate headquarters is now located in Lancaster, PA. Traditional Pennsylvania Dutch foods include chicken potpie, schnitz un knepp (dried apples, hame, and dumplings), fasnachts (raised doughnuts), scrapple, pretzels, bologna, and chochow. Shoofly is another traditional Pennsylvanian Dutch food. Yuengling Brewery, America's Oldest Brewery, has been brewing beer in Pottsville, PA since 1829. This article is about the baked good. ... The Sturgis Pretzel House of Lititz, Pennsylvania is the oldest pretzel bakery in the US. It is a popular tourist destination today, as well as a pretzel bakery. ... Utz logo featuring Salie Utz. ... Nickname: Motto: Fiat Justitia (Let Justice be Done) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country State County York Founded Incorporated 1730 1815 Government  - Mayor Maggie Hormel Area  - Borough  3. ... Look up wise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Berwick is a borough located in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, 27 miles (43 km) southwest of Wilkes Barre. ... External links Frito-Lay Frito-Lay Canada Frito-Lay company history Frito-Lay company timeline Categories: Food and drink stubs | PepsiCo subsidiaries | Food companies of the United States | Snack companies of the United States ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Hershey redirects here. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... The Wilbur Chocolate Company is located in Lititiz, Pennsylvania. ... Lansdale is a borough located in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. ... Gertrude Hawk is a chocolate company. ... Dunmore is a borough in Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, adjoining Scranton. ... Just Born is a candy company based in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. ... Bethlehem is a city located in USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 71,329. ... A box of Hot Tamales with the old graphic Hot Tamales are a cinnamon candy manufactured by Just Born. ... Mike and Ike is a brand of candy introduced by Just Born in 1940 that come in several flavors. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Look up Peeps in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Boyer Brothers, Inc. ... Altoona is a city located in Blair County, Pennsylvania. ... Fastnachts, Fasnachts or Faschnachts are a fatty doughnut treat served primarily on Fastnacht Day, also known as Shrove Tuesday, Mardi Gras or Fat Tuesday. ...


Among the regional foods associated with Pennsylvania are the pierogies, cheesesteak and the hoagie, the soft pretzel, the lemur on a stick, Italian water ice, scrapple, Tastykake, and the stromboli. In Pittsburgh, tomato ketchup was improved by Henry John Heinz from 1876 to the early 1900s. Famous to a lesser extent than Heinz ketchup are the Pittsburgh's Primanti Brothers Restaurant sandwiches. Outside the city of Scranton, in the Borough of Old Forge there are dozens of Italian restaurants specializing in pizza made unique by thick, light crust and American cheese. Sauerkraut along with pork and mashed potatoes is a common meal on New Year's Day in Pennsylvania. Pierogi frying A plateful of Polish Pierogi Ruskie Pierogi are a kind of dumpling also known as perogi, perogy, piroghi, pirogi, or pyrohy. ... Cheesesteak with Cheez Whiz The cheesesteak, known outside the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area as the Philadelphia cheesesteak, Philly cheesesteak, or steak and cheese is a sandwich principally of thinly sliced pieces of steak and melted cheese on a long roll. ... The hoagie is the term for a lunch sandwich in a region including Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey, Delaware, and parts of New York. ... A modern factory produced hard pretzel. ... Granita (also called granite or Italian water ice) is a frozen dessert that consists of shaved ice, sugar and fruit juice or other flavors. ... A plate of scrapple Scrapple is a savory mush in which cornmeal and flour, often buckwheat flour, are simmered with pork scraps and trimmings, then formed into a loaf. ... Tastykake is a brand of snack food manufactured by the Tasty Baking Company (NASDAQ: TSTY) of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Calzone. ... H. J. Heinz Company (NYSE: HNZ), commonly known as Heinz, famous for its 57 Varieties slogan, is a processed food product company with its headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States of America. ... The Cheese Steak variant of a Primanti Bros sandwich. ... Scranton is the name of several places in the United States of America: Scranton, Arkansas Scranton, Pennsylvania Scranton, South Carolina Scranton, North Dakota See Also: William Scranton, former Pennsylvania governor and presidential candidate This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Old Forge is a borough in Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Sauerkraut and sausage on a plate Pickled Eisbein, served with Sauerkraut Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Multi-ethnic cuisine is common[citation needed], especially in the Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, and Coal Region areas. Amish, Chinese, Italian, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Mexican, Pakistani, Persian, Polish, Russian, Thai, Turkish cuisine and many others can be found not only in specialty restaurants but at hundreds of community or religious festivals. Counties of the Coal Region of Pennsylvania, known for anthracite mining. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Japanese culture and language Japans isolation until the arrival of the Black Ships and the Meiji era produced a culture distinctively different from any other, and echoes of this uniqueness persist today. ... Pakistani Cuisine is generally the same thing as North Indian cuisine, since the area that makes up Pakistan is considered the northern part of the Indian sub-continent. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iranian cuisine. ... Thai seafood curry Thai cuisine is known for its blend of fundamental flavors in each dish -- hot (spicy), sour, sweet, salty and bitter. ... Turkish cuisine inherited its Ottoman heritage which could be described as a fusion and refinement of Turkic, Arabic, Greek, Armenian and Persian cuisines. ...


State symbols

The Ruffed Grouse
US Brig Niagara in Port
Pennsylvania state insignia and historical facts
State tree Eastern Hemlock
State bird Ruffed grouse[2]
State flower Mountain laurel[2]
State insect Photuris pennsylvanica (Pennsylvania Firefly)[2]
State animal White-tailed deer[2]
State dog Great Dane
State fish Brook trout[2]
State fossil the trilobite Phacops rana[2]
State beverage Milk[2]
State capital Harrisburg[87]
Union admission rank 2nd
State song Pennsylvania (Formerly Hail, Pennsylvania!, until 1990)[2]
State toy Slinky[88]
State ship United States Brig Niagara[2]
State electric locomotive Pennsylvania Railroad GG1 #4849 Locomotive
State steam locomotive Pennsylvania Railroad K4s Locomotive
State beautification plant Crown vetch[2]
State soil Hazleton[87]

Ruffed Grouse from USFWS Source: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Seney National Wildlife Refuge File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ruffed Grouse from USFWS Source: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Seney National Wildlife Refuge File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1450x2251, 286 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Brig U.S. Brig Niagara (replica) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1450x2251, 286 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Brig U.S. Brig Niagara (replica) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: U.S. state insignia | Lists of plants | Trees ... Binomial name Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The Ruffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus, is a medium-sized grouse occurring in forests across Canada and the Appalachian and northern United States including Alaska. ... This is a list of U.S. state flowers: External link Juelies State Flower Garden of Gifs See also Lists of U.S. state insignia Categories: Lists of flowers | U.S. state insignia ... Binomial name L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Kalmia latifolia For the Texas Mountain laurel, see Sophora secundiflora Kalmia latifolia (Mountain-laurel, Spoonwood) is a flowering plant in the family Ericaceae, native to the eastern United States, from southern Maine south to northern Florida, and west to Indiana and... This is a list of U.S. state insects: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia Categories: U.S. state insignia ... For the science fiction television series, see Firefly (TV series). ... A state animal is the official or representative animal of a U.S. state. ... Binomial name Zimmermann, 1780 The White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia deer, or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer found throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America, northern portions of South America as far south as Peru, and... A state mammal is the official or representative animal of a U.S. state. ... The Great Dane is a breed of dog known for its giant size and gentle personality. ... This is a list of official U.S. state fish: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia Categories: U.S. state insignia ... This article is about the species of fish. ... It has been suggested that List of U.S. state dinosaurs be merged into this article or section. ... For the robot vacuum cleaner, see Electrolux Trilobite. ... Binomial name Phacops rana Phacops rana is a species of trilobite from the middle Devonian period. ... This is a list of official state beverages:[1] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ... This article is about the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... The order which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order that the others were admitted to the union This is a list of U.S. states by date of statehood, that is, the date when each U.S. state joined the Union. ... Forty-nine states of the United States (all except New Jersey) have one or more state songs, selected by the state legislature as a symbol of the state. ... Pennsylvania is the official state song of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... Hail, Pennsylvania! written by Edgar M. Dilley in 1897 is the official state song of the state Pennsylvania of the United States. ... Metal Slinky Rainbow-colored plastic Slinky A Slinky, or Lazy-Spring, is a coil-shaped toy invented by mechanical engineer Richard James in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... This is a list of offical state ships as designated by each states legislature. ... The replica U.S. Brig Niagara is a museum ship and sail training vessel located in Erie, Pennsylvania at the Erie Maritime Museum. ... 1893 map The Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark PRR) was an American railroad that was founded in 1846 and merged in 1968 into Penn Central Transportation. ... The Pennsylvania Railroads GG1 class of electric locomotives were built between 1934 to 1943 at the PRR shops in Altoona, Pennsylvania, with a total of 139 units constructed. ... 1893 map The Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark PRR) was an American railroad that was founded in 1846 and merged in 1968 into Penn Central Transportation. ... Categories: PRR locomotives | 4-6-2 locomotives | Stub ... Binomial name Securigera varia (L.) Lassen Crown Vetch (Securigera varia, formerly Coronilla varia), also called Purple Crown Vetch, is a low-growing legume vine. ... This is a list of official U.S. state soils: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...

See also

Pennsylvania Portal

It has been suggested that Poverty in Appalachia be merged into this article or section. ... The Geology of Pennsylvania consists of six distinct physiographic provinces, three of which are subdivided into different sections. ... Albright College Allegheny College Allegheny University of the Health Sciences (defunct and bankrupt; absorbed by Drexel University College of Medicine) Alvernia College American College Arcadia University (formerly Beaver College) University at Dallastown Baptist Bible College Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania Bryn Athyn College of the New Church Bryn Mawr College Bucknell... This is a complete list of Senior High Schools in the state of Pennsylvania, United States. ... A list of all hospitals in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... List of Pennsylvania counties: Pennsylvania counties Adams County, formed in 1800 from parts of York County. ... This list includes films and television shows about, or photographed (partially or completely) in Pennsylvania. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of state prisons in Pennsylvania. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... A list of people, places, events, businesses and other things once or currently based in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States, or otherwise affiliated with Pennsylvania. ... Pennsylvania is the birthplace of many famous Americans. ... List of school districts in Pennsylvania Alphabetical listing A Abington Heights School District Abington School District Albert Gallatin School District Aliquippa School District Allegheny-Clarion Valley School District Allegheny Valley School District Allentown City School District Altoona Area School District Ambridge Area School District Annville-Cleona School District Antietam School... The United States Census Bureau has defined 8 Combined Statistical Areas (CSAs),[1] 16 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs),[2] and 21 Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs)[3] in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... The Pennsylvania State Police (PSP) is the state police force of Pennsylvania, responsible for statewide law enforcement. ... Valley Forge Trail Medal Scouting in Pennsylvania has a long and rich tradition, from the 1910s to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Pennsylvania numbered highways. ... The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) is responsible for the establishment and classification of a state highway network which includes interstate highways, U.S. highways, and state routes. ... In the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, a system of BicyclePA bicycle routes exists to provide bicyclists with bicycle routes that cross the state, utilizing various highways and rail trails[1]. These routes were created throughout the 2000s. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 7, 2006.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l PHMC: State Symbols
  3. ^ Lowell Tribune, March 26, 2002
  4. ^ Lancaster rifle
  5. ^ PHMC: Agriculture in Pennsylvania
  6. ^ The Quaker Province
  7. ^ William Penn, Quaker
  8. ^ Frame of Government
  9. ^ Pennsylvania translates to "Penn's woods" and was named after the father of William Penn, the founder of the colony. Digital History: Persecution of the Quakers
  10. ^ The Quaker Province 1681–1776
  11. ^ National Parks Service: Our Fourth Shore
  12. ^ NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resources
  13. ^ Philadelphia Regional Port Authority: History. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  14. ^ a b Pennsylvania geography
  15. ^ a b 2006 Statistical Abstract: Geography & Environment: Land and Land Use
  16. ^ 2006 Statistical Abstract: Geography & Environment:Extreme and Mean Elevations
  17. ^ Pennsylvania Time Zone
  18. ^ Penn's Charter
  19. ^ a b Cecil County, Maryland
  20. ^ Places Named: Philadelphia
  21. ^ Pennsylvania Indian tribes
  22. ^ Charter for the Province of Pennsylvania
  23. ^ a b Quakers and the political process
  24. ^ Library of Congress timeline 1764–1765
  25. ^ Dickinson Letters
  26. ^ Library of Congress timeline 1773–1774
  27. ^ Library of Congress: Primary documents — The Declaration of Independence
  28. ^ Nine Capitals of the United States
  29. ^ Pennsylvania ratifies the Constitution of 1787
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i Pennsylvania's Capitals
  31. ^ James Buchanan White House biography
  32. ^ Battle of Gettysburg
  33. ^ a b Pennsylvania Facts. Pennsylvania State Data Center Penn State Harrisburg (2003). Retrieved on 2007-12-05.
  34. ^ Components of Population Change
  35. ^ a b c d e f g Pennsylvania Facts 2007. Pennsylvania State Data Center Penn State Harrisburg (2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-05.
  36. ^ Annual Estimates of the Population
  37. ^ FactFinder: Census 2000 Demographic Profile Highlights
  38. ^ American Community Survey 2003 Multi-Year Survey for Pennsylvania
  39. ^ The Works of Voltaire, volume 19
  40. ^ Religious diversity in Pennsylvania
  41. ^ The ARDA
  42. ^ These statistics are based on 7,116,348 of the estimated 8,448,193 religious adherents in Pennsylvania, and only the largest of 115 different faiths are reported here. Data excludes most of the historically African-American denominations. Public Law 94-521 prevents the Census Bureau from collecting better data, so this information comes from the Association of religion data archives at Penn State.) Terms used to describe organizations are ARDA's, and may not be the group's own preferred name.
  43. ^ The Amish and the Plain People of Lancaster County, PA
  44. ^ a b Bureau of Economic Analysis
  45. ^ Appeals court races wrap up with focus on voter mobilization
  46. ^ a b c Fortune 500
  47. ^ Philadelphia stock exchange
  48. ^ Tragedy of 9/11 pummels insurance industry
  49. ^ a b c Northeast-Midwest Institute calculations based on data from the BEA
  50. ^ Agricultural Census 2002
  51. ^ a b c PA Wine facts. Pennsylvania Wine & Wineries (2003). Retrieved on 2007-12-06.
  52. ^ Poverty levels
  53. ^ IRS: Tax Guide for farmers
  54. ^ Center for Rural Pennsylvania
  55. ^ Mid-Atlantic Farm Policy Leadership Forum
  56. ^ Philadelphia tourism
  57. ^ Poconos tourism
  58. ^ Delaware Water Gap
  59. ^ [http://www.tfhrc.gov/structur/pubs/04098/index.htm FHWA Covered Bridge Manual
  60. ^ Pa. gaming board awards 5 slots licenses - Pittsburgh Tribune-Review
  61. ^ VisitPA
  62. ^ AAA: Favorite vacation spots
  63. ^ Page 10, The Riddle of Amish Culture, 2001. ISBN 0-8018-6772-X
  64. ^ Definition of "dutch"
  65. ^ a b 23 Pennsylvania Law Weekly 324 (March 27, 2000)
  66. ^ bio of Ed Rendell
  67. ^ State Elected Officials
  68. ^ Pennsylvania State Archives
  69. ^ Pennsylvania Senators
  70. ^ Pennsylvania House of Representatives
  71. ^ Pennsylvania Senate
  72. ^ David Brightbill
  73. ^ Robert Mellow
  74. ^ John Perzel
  75. ^ Samuel Smith
  76. ^ William DeWeese
  77. ^ a b c d e f Judicial districts
  78. ^ Revenue Department Releases August Collections (09/01/2006) http://www.revenue.state.pa.us/revenue/CWP/view.asp?Q=261929&A=208 Retrieved 25 September 2006.
  79. ^ Congressional Directory Online
  80. ^ Pennsylvania Manual 117
  81. ^ Pennsylvania Local Government Fact Sheet, 2005
  82. ^ "Local Government Entities in Pennsylvania" and "Municipal Statistics" in Legislator’s Municipal Deskbook for Pennsylvania
  83. ^ Bloomsburg
  84. ^ McCandless
  85. ^ a b c d Reilly, P. (2007-11-15). Bear facts favor Pennsylvania State remains home to North America’s biggest black bears. Intelligencer Journal. Retrieved on 2007-12-06.
  86. ^ Pa. knack for snacks a Farm Show feature - Pittsburgh Tribune-Review
  87. ^ a b State Symbols
  88. ^ Slinky history

is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) is a free source of online information related to American and international religion. ... This article is about the state-related university. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Find more about Pennsylvania on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Gov. Andrew Curtin's Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps, Civil War 1861–1864
  • Official state government site
  • Pennsylvania Department of Transportation
  • USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Pennsylvania
  • Pennsylvania State Facts
  • Official state tourism site
  • Biography of William Penn from 1829
  • A History of Pennsylvania from 1905
  • Free Original Documents Online: Pennsylvania State Archives 1600s to 1800s
  • Miller, Randall M. and William Pencak, Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth
  • Interactive Pennsylvania for Kids
  • Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development
  • National Association of Counties (information on each Pennsylvania County)


Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Preceded by
Delaware
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on December 12, 1787 (2nd)
Succeeded by
New Jersey

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Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Federal districts are subdivisions of a federal system of government. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... Motto Samoa, Muamua Le Atua(Samoan) Samoa, Let God Be First Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner, Amerika Samoa Capital Pago Pago; Fagatogo (seat of government) Official languages English, Samoan Government  -  Governor Togiola Tulafono United States unincorporated territory  -  Treaty of Berlin 1899   -  Deed of Cession of Tutuila 1900   -  Deed of Cession... Anthem: Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi(Chamorro) Satil Matawal Pacifiko(Carolinian) Capital Saipan Official languages English, Chamorro, Carolinian Government Presidential representative democracy  -  Governor Benigno R. Fitial  -  Lt. ... For the board game, see Puerto Rico (board game). ... Motto United in Pride and Hope Anthem Virgin Islands March Capital (and largest city) Charlotte Amalie Official languages English Government  -  Head of State George W. Bush  -  Governor John de Jongh Organized, unincorporated territory  -  Revised Organic Act 22 July 1954  Area  -  Total 346. ... The flag of the United States is used for all of the United States Minor Outlying Islands The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1, consists of nine insular United States possessions: All of these islands are in the Pacific Ocean except Navassa Island... Bajo Nuevo Bank, also called the Petrel Islands, is located in the western United States and Jamaica. ... Baker Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°13′N 176°31′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Howland Island Howland Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°48′N 176°38′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Jarvis Island (formerly also known as Bunker Island[1]) is an uninhabited 4. ... Johnston Atoll is a 130 km² atoll in the North Pacific Ocean at 16°45′N 169°30′W, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands. ... The flag of the US is used for Kingman Reef Kingman Reef Kingman Reef—NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kingman Reef is a one-square-kilometer tropical coral reef located in the North Pacific Ocean, roughly half way between Hawaiian Islands and American Samoa at 6°24... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ... Navassa Island map from The World Factbook Navassa Island - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Navassa Island (La Navase in French, Lanavaz in Haitian Kreyòl) is a small, uninhabited island in the Caribbean Sea. ... Palmyra Atoll - Landsat Image N-03-05_2000 (1:50,000) Palmyra Atoll - Marplot Map (1:50,000) Orthographic projection over Palmyra Atoll Palmyra Atoll, is an incorporated atoll administered by the United States government. ... Serranilla Bank is a western Caribbean island located about 210 miles north-northeast of Nicaragua. ... USGS Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite image of Wake Island. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... The order which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order that the others were admitted to the union This is a list of U.S. states by date of statehood, that is, the date when each U.S. state joined the Union. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America and is... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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