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Encyclopedia > Peninsular War
Peninsular War
Part of the Napoleonic Wars

The Second of May, 1808: The Charge of the Mamelukes, by Francisco Goya (1814)
Date May 2, 1808 (sometimes October 27, 1807[1]) – April 17, 1814[2]
Location Iberian Peninsula
Result Allied victory; Peace of Fontainebleau
Combatants
Flag of Spain Spain
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of Portugal Portugal
Flag of France French Empire

The Peninsular War(i) pitted an alliance of Spain, Portugal, and United Kingdom against France on the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when French armies occupied Spain in 1808 and lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814. Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... The name First Coalition (1793–1797) designates the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Great Britain France The Battle of the Pyramids, Louis-François, Baron Lejeune, 1808. ... The name Second Coalition (1798 - 1800) designates the second major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... Combatants Austria Russia United Kingdom Naples and Sicily Portugal Sweden France Batavia Italy Etruria Spain Bavaria Württemberg Commanders Francis II Karl Mack von Leiberich Archduke Charles Alexander I Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov Horatio Nelson† Napoleon I André Masséna Pierre-Charles Villeneuve The War of the Third Coalition was a... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Russian Empire United Kingdom Sweden Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Sicily First French Empire: - Kingdom of Italy - Kingdom of Naples - Kingdom of Holland - Kingdom of Etruria - Confederation of the Rhine - Swiss Confederation - Polish insurgents Kingdom of Spain Commanders Duke of Brunswick Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen Count... The Russo-Turkish War, 1806–1812 was one of many wars fought between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Empire. ... Battle between the frigate HMS Tartar and Norwegian gunboats near Bergen in 1808 The Gunboat War (1807-1814) was the naval conflict between Denmark-Norway against the British navy during the Napoleonic Wars. ... The Anglo-Russian War (1807-1812) was a war between the United Kingdom and Russia which took place in 1807-1812, during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... The Fifth Coalition was an alliance between Austria and Great Britain formed in 1809 to fight Napoleon Bonapartes French Empire. ... Combatants First French Empire Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine Kingdom of Bavaria Kingdom of Saxony Kingdom of Westphalia Swiss Confederation Austrian Empire Kingdom of Prussia Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon Eugène de Beauharnais Jérôme Bonaparte Jaques MacDonald Prince Schwarzenberg Alexander... Combatants Prussia Russia Austria United Kingdom Sweden Sicily Sardinia French Empire Italy Naples Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine[1] Swiss Confederation Commanders Gebhard von Blücher Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Mikhail Kutuzov Prince Wittgenstein Prince Schwarzenberg Prince Charles John Napoleon I of France Michel Ney Jozef Antoni Poniatowski Europe... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... Combatants Spain French Empire Commanders Pedro Velarde y Santillán Luís Daoíz de Torres Joachim Murat Casualties 200[1]–450 dead[2] 31[1]–150 dead[2] On May 2, 1808 (Spanish: Dos de Mayo) the people of Madrid rebelled against the occupation of the city by French... Combatants France Spain Commanders General Schwartz General Franch Strength 3,800 regulars 2,000 regulars and militia Casualties 300 dead Unknown The Battle of El Bruc (English: The Bruch) was an engagement fought between a French column and a body of Spanish volunteers and mercenaries on June 4, 1808 in... Combatants Kingdom of Spain First French Empire Commanders Gregorio de la Cuesta Jean-Baptiste Bessières Antoine Lasalle Strength 300 regular cavalry 4,700 militia 4 guns[1] 9,000 regulars Casualties Unknown 50 dead[2] The Battle of Cabezón was an engagement early in the Peninsular War on... Combatants France Spain Commanders Charles de Lefebvre José de Palafox y Melzi Strength 8,500 regular infantry 1,000 cavalry 12 guns 500 regulars 6,000 militia Casualties 3,000 dead or wounded Unknown The First Siege of Saragossa (Spanish: Zaragoza) was a bloody struggle in the Peninsular War. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Jean-Baptiste Bessières Joaquín Blake Gregorio de la Cuesta Strength 12,000 regulars 24,000 regulars and militia Casualties 1,000 dead or wounded 3,500 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Medina del Rio Seco was fought during the Peninsular War on... Combatants First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Pierre Dupont Francisco Castaños Strength 24,000 regulars 33,000 regulars and militia Casualties 2,200 dead, 400 wounded, 17,600 captured 240 dead, 730 wounded The Battle of Bailén was contested between the Spanish regular army, led by Generals... The Battle of Roliça (formerly spelt as Roleia in English) was the first battle fought by the British army during the Peninsular War, fought on August 17, 1808 near the village of Roliça in Portugal, between the British under General Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington and the... The Battle of Vimeiro was fought on August 20, 1808 and resulted the victory of the British under the Duke of Wellington against the French under General Junot. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Charles de Lefebvre Joaquín Blake Strength 24,000 19,000 Casualties 300 dead or wounded 600 dead or wounded The Battle of Pancorbo was one of the opening engagements in Napoleons invasion of Spain. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Claude Victor-Perrin, duc de Belluno Joaquín Blake y Joyes Strength 13,000 24,000 Casualties 300 dead or wounded 300 captured 50 dead or wounded The Battle of Valmaseda took place on November 5, 1808, during Lieutenant-General Blakes retreat from superior French... The Battle of Burgos was fought on November 7, 1808, and resulted in a French victory under Marshall Soult against the Spanish under General Belveder. ... The Battle of Espinosa was fought on November 10, - 11, 1808 at Cantabrian mountains and resulted in a French victory under General Victor against the Spanish under Lieutenant General Blake, leading his army of Galicia. ... The Battle of Tudela was a battle during the Peninsular War fought on November 23, 1808 near Tudela, Spain. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Napoleon I of France Benito de San Juan Strength 45,000 20,000 infantry 16 guns Casualties Unknown 250 dead or wounded The Battle of Somosierra was a battle of the Peninsular War that took place on November 30, 1808 at the Somosierra pass in the... The Battle of Sahagún, part of the Peninsular War, occurred on December 21, 1808. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Jeannot de Moncey Édouard Mortier José de Palafox y Melzi Strength 35,500 regulars 33,000 regulars Casualties 10,000 dead 54,000 dead The Second Siege of Saragossa was the second of the two sieges of that city during the Peninsular War and is widly... For the battle near Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, see Battle of the La Corunna Road. ... Combatants French Empire  Spain Commanders Unknown José de Mendizábal Strength 1,000 regulars 1,500 militia Casualties 1,000 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown The Battle of Villafranca took place on March 17, 1809, during the French occupation of León in the Peninsular War. ... The Battle of Grijo (May 10 – May 11, 1809) was a victory for the Anglo-Portuguese army commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley (the future 1st Duke of Wellington) over the French army commanded by Marshal Soult in the Peninsular War In The History of the Rifle Brigade, Willoughby Verner describes... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants First French Empire United Kingdom Commanders Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult General Lord Wellesley In the (Second) Battle of Oporto (or the Battle of the Douro) Wellesley took the town of Porto and the French lost heavily. ... The Battle of Ucles was fought on January 13, 1809, and resulted in a French victory under General Victor against the Spanish under General Venegas. ... The Battle of Ciudad-Real was fought on March 27, 1809, and resulted in a French victory under General Sebastiani against the Spanish under General Cartojal. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Claude Victor Gregorio de la Cuesta Strength 13,000 infantry 4,500 cavalry 50 guns 20,000 infantry 3,000 cavalry 30 guns Casualties 1,000 dead or wounded 8,000 dead or wounded 2,000 captured In the Peninsular War, the Battle of Medellín... There were two Battles of Alcantara: Battle of Alcantara (1581) - Spain and Portugal are united when Spain, led by the Duke of Alva, defeats Portugal Battle of Alcantara (1809) _ An inconclusive battle during the Napoleonic Wars (the Peninsular War) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... The battle of Talavera was fought on July 27 and 28 of 1809 and resulted in the difficult victory of the British and Spanish under Sir Arthur Wellesley against the French under King Joseph. ... The Battle of Almonacid was fought on August 11, 1809 during the Peninsular War and resulted in a French victory under General Sebastiani against the Spanish under General Venegas. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Michel Ney Duque del Parque Strength 10,000 infantry 1,200 cavalry 14 guns 10,000 infantry 1,000 cavalry Casualties 1,300 dead or wounded 672 dead or wounded The Battle of Tamamés was a sharp reversal suffered by part of Marshal Neys... Combatants France Spain Commanders Nicolas Soult Juan de Arizagua Strength 35,000 51,000 Casualties 2,000 dead or wounded 4,000 dead or wounded 15,000 captured In the Peninsular War, the Battle of Ocana (in spanish batalla de Ocaña) was fought on November 19, 1809 and resulted... Combatants  Spain, United Kingdom, Portugal French Empire Commanders Manuel La Peña Thomas Graham Claude Victor Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Strength 13,000 Spanish 4,000 Anglo-Portuguese 60,000 Casualties 896 dead, 3,706 wounded[1] 4,000–5,000 dead or wounded[2] The Siege of C... Combatants  Spain, United Kingdom, Portugal French Empire Commanders Manuel La Peña Thomas Graham Claude Victor Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Strength 13,000 Spanish 4,000 Anglo-Portuguese 60,000 Casualties 896 dead, 3,706 wounded[1] 4,000–5,000 dead or wounded[2] The Siege of C... Battle of Fuengirola was one of the battles of the Peninsular War. ... The Battle of Barrosa took place on March 5, 1811 between Anglo-Spanish and French forces as part of the Peninsular war. ... Combatants First French Empire Spain Commanders Marshal Gouvion St. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Louis Gabriel Suchet Joaquín Blake Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 1,500 dead or wounded 300 dead or wounded The Battle of Alcañiz resulted in the defeat of General Suchets French army on May 23, 1809 by a Spanish force under General Blake. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Louis Gabriel Suchet Joaquín Blake Strength 12,000 infantry 14,000 infantry 500 cavalry Casualties 800 dead or wounded 2,000 dead or wounded The Battle of María, also known as the Battle of Belchite, resulted in the defeat of part of General Blake... Combatants Britain Portugal France Commanders Duke of Wellington André Masséna Michel Ney Strength 25,000 British 25,000 Portuguese 65,000 Casualties 1,250 dead or wounded 4,500 dead or wounded The Battle of Buçaco (pron. ... The Lines of Torres Vedras The Lines of Torres Vedras were a line of forts in Portugal built in secrecy between November 1809 and September 1810 during the Peninsular War. ... Combatants French Empire United Kingdom Commanders Marshal André Masséna Sir William Erskine Strength 8,800 3,200—13,200 Casualties 1,540 179 The Battle of Sabugal was an engagement of the Peninsular War which took place on April 3, 1811 between British forces under Sir William Erskine and... // In the Battle of Fuentes de Onoro (May 3 - 5, 1811) the British army under Sir Arthur Wellesley checked an attempt by French troops under Marshall André Masséna to relieve the besieged city of Almeida. ... Combatants Spain Portugal Britain France Duchy of Warsaw Commanders William Beresford Joaquin Blake Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Strength 10,000 British 10,000 Portuguese 13,000 Spanish 38 guns 23,000 infantry 4,000 cavalry 40 guns Casualties 5,916 dead or wounded[2] 5,936 dead or wounded... The Battle of Fuentes de Onoro was fought between May 3 - 5, 1811 and saw the British army under Sir Arthur Wellesley check an attempt by French troops under Marshall André Masséna to relieve the beseiged city of Almeida. ... Combatants United Kingdom, Portugal First French Empire Commanders Earl of Wellington General Philippon Strength 25,000 regulars 5,000 regulars Casualties 5,000 dead or wounded 1,500 dead or wounded In the Battle of Badajoz (March 16-April 6, 1812) an Anglo-Portuguese army under Earl of Wellington, besieged... Combatants United Kingdom, Portugal, Spain French Empire Commanders Earl of Wellington Auguste Marmont Strength 51,949[1] 49,647[2] Casualties 5,914 dead or wounded 13,000 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Salamanca (July 22, 1812) was an important victory for an Anglo-Portuguese army under Earl... Combatants French Empire United Kingdom Spain Portugal Commanders Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, Joseph Bonaparte Marquess of Wellington Strength 58,000 80,000 Casualties ~5,000 dead or wounded, 3,000 captured[1] ~5,000 dead or wounded[1] In the Battle of Vitoria (June 21, 1813) Wellington and his Portuguese and... Combatants France Britain Portugal Commanders Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Arthur Wellesley Strength 80,000 60,000 Casualties 1,300 dead and 8,600 wounded 2,700 captured 4,500 dead or wounded A large-scale offensive launched[1] on 25 July 1813 by Marshal Soult from the Pyrenees region... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article is about Battle of Roncesvalles (1813). ... Combatants Britain Spain Portugal First French Empire Commanders Arthur Wellesley Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Strength 24,000 30,000 Casualties 2,600 dead or wounded 4,000 dead or wounded The Battle of Sorauren was part of a series of engagements in late July 1813 called the Battle of... Combatants French Empire Spain Commanders Nicolas Jean Dieu Soult Manuel Freire Strength 18,000–55,000[1] 16,000[2] Casualties 4,000 dead or wounded[3] 2,500 dead or wounded[3] At the Battle of San Marcial, August 31, 1813, the Spanish Army of Galicia under General Freire... Combatants French Empire United Kingdom,  Spain, Portugal Commanders Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Arthur Wellesley, 1st Marquess of Wellington Strength 60,000 80,000 Casualties 4,351 dead or wounded 2,450 dead or wounded The Battle of Nivelle (November 10, 1813) took place in front of the River Nivelle... Combatants French Empire United Kingdom Spain Portugal Commanders Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Arthur Wellesley, 1st Marquess of Wellington Strength 62,000 64,000 Casualties 1,600 1,600 The Battle of the Nive (9-12 December 1813) was a battle towards the end of the Peninsular War (1808-1814). ... The Battle of Orthez was fought on February 27, 1814, between the First French Empire and the forces of the Allies. ... The battle of Toulouse, fought on April 10, 1814, was one of the final battles of the Napoleonic Wars, although its official classification is disputed as the battle occurred four days after Napoleons surrender of the French Empire to the nations of the Sixth Coalition. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... Combatants Prussia Russia Austria United Kingdom Sweden Sicily Sardinia French Empire Italy Naples Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine[1] Swiss Confederation Commanders Gebhard von Blücher Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Mikhail Kutuzov Prince Wittgenstein Prince Schwarzenberg Prince Charles John Napoleon I of France Michel Ney Jozef Antoni Poniatowski Europe...


Spain's liberation struggle marked one of the first national wars[3] and was among the first modern, large-scale guerrilla conflicts, from which the English language borrowed the word.[4] Its success was in part decided by the exploits of Spanish guerrillas and the inability of Napoleon Bonaparte's large armies to pacify the people of Spain:[5] French units in Spain, forced to guard their vulnerable supply lines, were always in danger of being cut off and overwhelmed by the partisans, and proved unable to stamp out the Spanish army.[6] Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Irregular Soldiers, 19th Century Irregulars are soldiers or warriors that are not part of a regular army organization. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra in Spanish; literally, Land Army) is one of oldest active armies in the world and a branch of the Spanish Armed Forces, in charge of land operations. ...


Meanwhile, a growing British and Portuguese army defended Portugal and staged successful campaigns to attack French forces. This left the guerrillas free to bleed the occupiers and helped to prevent Napoleon's marshals from subduing the rebellious Spanish provinces.[7] In the final years of war, with France gravely weakened, the allied army, commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley, drove across Spain from Portugal and pursued a series of offensives that brought it past the Pyrenees and liberated the country. Baton of a modern Marshal of France The Marshal of France (French: Maréchal de France) is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a military rank. ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ...


However, the burden of war destroyed the social and economic fabric of Portugal and Spain and ushered in an era of turbulence, instability, and economic crisis. Devastating civil wars between liberal and absolutist factions, led by officers trained in the Peninsular War, persisted in Iberia until 1850. The shock of war also led to the independence of the former Spanish colonies of the Americas and the independence of Brazil from Portugal. Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The term absolutism can mean: A belief in absolute truth moral absolutism, the belief that there is some absolute standard of right and wrong political absolutism, a political system where one person holds absolute power, also called apolytarchy from Gr. ... An anachronous map of the Spanish Empire (1492-1898). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... After its independence from the Portuguese on September 7, 1822, Brazil became a monarchy, the Brazilian Empire, which lasted until the establishment of the Republican government on November 15, 1889. ...

Contents

Background

For more details on this topic, see Enlightenment Spain.

In 1806, while in Berlin, Napoleon declared the Continental Blockade, forbidding British imports into continental Europe. Of the two remaining neutral countriesSweden and Portugal – the latter tried in vain to avoid Napoleon's ultimatum (since 1373 it had a treaty of alliance with the British). After the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807, now free from obligations in the east, Napoleon decided to capture the Iberian ports. The Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the accession of King Philip V, the first Spanish king of the French Bourbon dynasty. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Neutrality: Neutrality in international law is the status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. ... Events Bristol is made an independent county. ... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


On October 27, 1807, Spain and France signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau, splitting Portugal into three kingdoms: the new Kingdom of Northern Lusitania, the Algarve (expanded to include Alentejo), and a rump Kingdom of Portugal. In November 1807, after the refusal of Prince Regent John to join the Continental System, Napoleon sent an army into Spain under General Jean-Andoche Junot with the task of invading Portugal. At the same time, General Dupont was sent in the direction of Cádiz and Marshal Soult towards Corunna. is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Fontainebleau was signed on October 27, 1807 in Fontainebleau between Charles IV of Spain and Napoleon I of France. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... Algarve NUTS II region, and the district of Faro in Portugal. ... NUTS II Alentejo region. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... John VI, King of Portugal (13 May 1767 – 26 March 1826) KG KGF (Portuguese João, pron. ... Jean-Andoche Junot, Duke of Abrantes (October 23, 1771 – July 29, 1813) was a French general under Napoleon Bonaparte. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, marshal of France Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1760 - November 26, 1851), marshal of France, was born at Saint-Arnans-la-Bastide (now in department of the Tarn), and was the son of a country notary at that place. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name A Coruña (Galician) Spanish name La Coruña Postal code 15xxx Area code 34 (Spain) + 981 (A Coruña) Website http://www. ...

Flight of the royal family to Brazil.

Two Spanish divisions joined the French troops in an attempt to occupy Portugal. Spain initially requested Portugal's alliance against the incoming French armies, but later secretly agreed with France that, in return for its cooperation, it would receive Portugal's territories; Spain's main ambition was the seizure of the Portuguese fleet. The Portuguese army was positioned to defend the ports and the coast from a British attack, and on December 1 Lisbon was captured with no military opposition. The escape on November 29 of the Portuguese Queen Maria I and Prince Regent John together with the Administration and the Court (around 10,000 people and 9,000 sailors aboard 23 portuguese war ships 31 merchant ships), enabled John VI to continue to rule over his overseas possessions, including Brazil. This was a major setback for Napoleon, who wrote, C'est ça qui m'a perdu ("This was what defeated me.").[8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A rare occurance of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John VI, King of Portugal (13 May 1767 – 26 March 1826) KG KGF (Portuguese João, pron. ...


Course of the war

Invasion by stealth (February–July 1808)

Second of May, 1808: Pedro Velarde takes his last stand

Under the pretext of reinforcing the Franco-Spanish army occupying Portugal, Napoleon began sending troops into Spain, where they were greeted with enthusiasm in spite of growing diplomatic unease. In February 1808, this "invasion by stealth" swung into action; Napoleon dropped his charade and turned on his ally, ordering French commanders to halt their march and seize key Spanish fortresses.[9] Pamplona soon fell to a ruse and Barcelona followed on February 29 when a French column, disguised as a convoy of wounded, convinced the authorities to open the city's gates.[10] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1432x914, 212 KB)The death of Pedro Velarde y Santillán during the Defensa del Parque de Artillería de Monteleón (Defence of the Monteleon Artillery Fields) by Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (1863 - 1923). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1432x914, 212 KB)The death of Pedro Velarde y Santillán during the Defensa del Parque de Artillería de Monteleón (Defence of the Monteleon Artillery Fields) by Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (1863 - 1923). ... Defensa del Parque de Artillería de Monteleón by Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida depicts Pedro Velardes last stand. ... ‹ The template below (Dabneeded) is being considered for deletion. ... Pamplona (Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre, Basque Country. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ...


When Brigadier Alvarez garrisoned the Barcelona citadel against the French, his own superiors ordered him to stand down. They were not particularly concerned about the fate of the ruling regime, nor were they in any position to fight. The Spanish Royal Army, numbering only 100,000 men, stood unprepared for battle, under-equipped,[11] leaderless, paralyzed by the turmoil in the government, and scattered throughout dozens of regional posts from Portugal to the Balearic Islands. Fifteen thousand of its finest troops, La Romana's "Division of the North," had been lent to Napoleon in 1807 and remained stationed in Denmark under French command. Only in far-off Galicia, under Blake and Cuesta, and in Andalusia, under Castaños, were armies of any size to be found. The French had seized the country by a coup de main and any hope of resisting them militarily was stillborn. Brigadier Mariano Alvarez de Castro (1749-1810) was a Spanish military officer, and the military governor of Gerona during the siege by the French during the War of Spanish Independence. ... The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra in Spanish; literally, Land Army) is one of oldest active armies in the world and a branch of the Spanish Armed Forces, in charge of land operations. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Lieutenant-General Caro y Sureda, Marquis de La Romana. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Captain-General Joaquín Blake y Joyes Joaquín Blake y Joyes (August 19, 1759 – April 27, 1827) was a Spanish military officer who served with distinction in the French Revolutionary and Peninsular wars. ... Gregorio García de la Cuesta y Fernandez de Celis (1741 – 1811) was a prominent Spanish general of the Peninsular War known for his participation in many unfortunate military and political episodes. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... General Castaños, Conde de Castaños y Aragones, primero Duque de Bailén. ... A Coup de main is a swift attack that relies on speed and surprise to accomplish its objectives in a single blow. ...

General La Romana
General La Romana

Meanwhile, Napoleon moved to secure his gains by pursuing a series of intrigues against the Spanish royal family. A Spanish coup, instigated by the aristocratic party, forced Charles IV from his throne and replaced him with his son Ferdinand. Napoleon removed the royals to Bayonne and forced them both to abdicate on May 5, giving the throne to his brother Joseph. A puppet Spanish council approved the new king, but when Joseph tried to enforce his rule in Spain, he provoked a popular uprising that would eventually spread throughout the country. Citizens of Madrid rose up in rebellion against French occupation on May 2, 1808; it took Maréchal Murat many hours and several full-scale charges from the Guard and mameluk cavalry to crush the revolt, with the loss of some 150 French soldiers.[12] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 445 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (504 × 679 pixel, file size: 214 KB, MIME type: image/png) Pedro Caro y Sureda, III Marqués de la Romana (1761-1811) A detail of this portrait makes the cover of the book : EL MARQUES DE... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 445 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (504 × 679 pixel, file size: 214 KB, MIME type: image/png) Pedro Caro y Sureda, III Marqués de la Romana (1761-1811) A detail of this portrait makes the cover of the book : EL MARQUES DE... Lieutenant-General Caro y Sureda, Marquis de La Romana. ... Charles IV (November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication on March 19, 1808. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Naples, King of Spain (January 7, 1768 – July 28, 1844) was the older brother of French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808) and later King of Spain. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... Combatants Spain French Empire Commanders Pedro Velarde y Santillán Luís Daoíz de Torres Joachim Murat Casualties 200[1]–450 dead[2] 31[1]–150 dead[2] On May 2, 1808 (Spanish: Dos de Mayo) the people of Madrid rebelled against the occupation of the city by French... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... The Imperial Guard (French:Garde impériale) was originally a small group of elite soldiers of the French Army under the direct command of Napoleon I, but grew considerably over time. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for...


The next day, immortalized by Goya as The Third of May 1808, the French army shot hundreds of Madrid citizens in retaliation. Reprisals of this kind were repeated in other cities and continued for days, with no effect but to strengthen the resistance; soon afterwards, bloody, spontaneous fighting known as guerilla ("little war") war erupted in much of the rest of country; the term "guerilla" has been used ever since to describe such combat. Asturias rose up in arms, cast out its French governor on May 25 and with no knowledge of events elsewhere in Spain,[13] "declared war on Napoleon at the height of his greatness."[14] Within weeks, all the Spanish provinces had followed its example.[15] Mobs butchered 338 French citizens in Valencia. Every French ship of the line anchored at Cádiz was bombarded and captured.[16] Napoleon had unwittingly provoked a total war against the Spaniards, a mistake from which the French Empire would never truly recover.[17] “Goya” redirects here. ... The Third of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid is a 1814 oil painting by the Spanish painter Francisco Goya. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...

Agustina, maid of Aragón, fires a gun on the French invaders at Saragossa
Agustina, maid of Aragón, fires a gun on the French invaders at Saragossa

As the situation deteriorated, the French responded by increasing their military commitments. In February, Napoleon had boasted that 12,000 men would suffice to conquer Spain;[18] by June, 165,120 troops had poured into the country in an effort to defuse the crisis.[19] The main French army of 80,000 men held only a narrow strip of central Spain stretching from Pamplona and San Sebastian in the north through to Madrid and Toledo to the south. The French in Madrid took shelter behind an additional 30,000 troops under Moncey. Junot, meanwhile, stood stranded in Portugal, cut off by 300 miles of hostile territory. Image File history File links The_Defence_of_Saragossa. ... Image File history File links The_Defence_of_Saragossa. ... // By the Summer of 1808, Zarragoza has become more than just another town under seige. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Zaragoza (Spanish) Spanish name Zaragoza Founded 24 Postal code 50001 - 50018 Website http://www. ... Pamplona (Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre, Basque Country. ... San Sebastián (the Spanish-language name of Saint Sebastian) may refer to: Donostia-San Sebastián, a city in the Basque Country, between Spain and France San Sebastián de La Gomera, a town in the Canary Islands, Spain San Sebastián de los Reyes, a city in Madrid... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey, duc de Conegliano (1754–1842), Marshal of France, was a prominent soldier in Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. ... Jean-Andoche Junot, Duke of Abrantes (October 23, 1771 – July 29, 1813) was a French general under Napoleon Bonaparte. ...


Napoleon, from Murat's optimistic reports, concluded that if his brother could hold the throne in Madrid while his armies seized Spain's major cities with flying columns, the uprisings would die down and order would be restored. To this end, General Dupont led 24,430 men south toward Seville and Cádiz; Marshal Bessières moved into Aragon and Old Castile with 25,000 men, aiming to capture Santander with one hand and Saragossa with the other; General Moncey marched toward Valencia with 29,350 men; and General Duhesme marshalled 12,710 troops in Catalonia and put Girona under siege.[20][21] A Flying column, in military organization pre-dating World War I, is an independent corps of troops usually composed of all arms, to which a particular task is assigned. ... Pierre-Antoine, comte Dupont de lÉtang (1765-1840) was a French general of the Napoleonic Wars. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... Jean-Baptiste Bessières Jean Baptiste Bessières, duke of Istria (August 6, 1768 – May 1, 1813), was a French marshal. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Old Castille (Spanish: Castilla la Vieja) is an historic region of Spain, which included territory that later corresponded to the provinces of politically, Santander (now Cantabria), Burgos, Logroño (now La Rioja), Soria, Segovia, and Ávila, to which some scholars add Valladolid and Palencia. ... Cantabria Population (2004) 183,799 inhabitants Area 34 km² Altitude 15 metres, at its peak Population density (2004) 5406 people/km² The port city of Santander is the capital of the autonomous community of Cantabria situated on the north coast of Spain between Asturias (to the west) and the Basque... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Zaragoza (Spanish) Spanish name Zaragoza Founded 24 Postal code 50001 - 50018 Website http://www. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Valencian) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ... General Duhesme Count Guillaume Philibert Duhesme (July 7th 1766, Bourgeuf, Burgundy - June 18th 1815 near Waterloo) was a French general during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ...


Having no respect for the "insolent" Spanish militias which everywhere opposed him,[22] Napoleon tried to do too much at once with too little. Signs of trouble came very quickly; the somatén virtually overran Duhesme in Catalonia, and Girona twice resisted all efforts to conquer it.[23] Catalan militia surrounded Barcelona and French units attempting to break the ring were turned back at the Bruc with heavy casualties. At Saragossa, French overtures for an honorable capitulation met with the laconic reply: "War to the knife."[24] General Palafox and the Spaniards defied the French for three months, fighting inch by inch, corps à corps in the streets, before forcing Lefebvre to lift the siege in August and limp away in defeat. Moncey's masterful push toward the coast ended in defeat outside the walls of Valencia, where 1,000 French recruits fell trying to storm the city. Making short work of attempted Spanish counterattacks, Moncey began a long retreat, harried at every step.[25] After storming and sacking Cordoba, Dupont, cowed by the mass hostility of the Andalusians, broke off his offensive and retired to Andujar. Miquelets in a popular celebration in Badalona, Catalonia, Spain. ... Capital Barcelona Official languages Spanish and Catalan In Val dAran, also Aranese. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders General Schwartz General Franch Strength 3,800 regulars 2,000 regulars and militia Casualties 300 dead Unknown The Battle of El Bruc (English: The Bruch) was an engagement fought between a French column and a body of Spanish volunteers and mercenaries on June 4, 1808 in... Combatants France Spain Commanders Charles de Lefebvre José de Palafox y Melzi Strength 8,500 regular infantry 1,000 cavalry 12 guns 500 regulars 6,000 militia Casualties 3,000 dead or wounded Unknown The First Siege of Saragossa (Spanish: Zaragoza) was a bloody struggle in the Peninsular War. ... An adverb describing the tendency to convey an idea in the smallest possible number of words. ... General Palafox, Duke of Saragossa For the 1936-1939 Spanish Civil War unit, see Palafox Battalion Don José de Palafox y Melzi, Duke of Saragossa (es: José Rebolledo de Palafox y Melci, duque de Zaragoza) (1776, Zaragoza – February 15, 1847, Madrid), the youngest son of an old Aragonese family, was... Urban warfare is a modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... Charles, comte Lefebvre-Desnouettes or Desnoettes (1773 - 22 May 1822) was a French cavalry general who later emigrated to the United States. ... See Córdoba for other places with the same name. ... And jar (the ancient Slilurgi), a town of southern Spain, in the province of Ja n; on the right bank of the river Guadalquivir and the Madrid-C rdoba railway. ...


Only in the north did the French find a measure of success. In June, General Lasalle's cavalry trampled Cuesta's small, would-be army at Cabezón and unbarred the road to Valladolid. When Bessières' march on Santander was checked by a string of partisan attacks in July, the French turned back and found Blake and Cuesta with their combined army atop Medina del Rio Seco. The Spanish generals, at Cuesta's insistence, were making a dash towards the vulnerable French supply lines at Valladolid. The two armies deployed on July 14, Cuesta unwisely leaving a gap between his troops and Blake's. The French poured into the hole and, after a sharp fight against Blake, swept the motley Spanish army from the field, putting Old Castile firmly back in Napoleon's hands. The Lunéville statue of Antoine Charles Louis, comte de Lasalle. ... Combatants Kingdom of Spain First French Empire Commanders Gregorio de la Cuesta Jean-Baptiste Bessières Antoine Lasalle Strength 300 regular cavalry 4,700 militia 4 guns[1] 9,000 regulars Casualties Unknown 50 dead[2] The Battle of Cabezón was an engagement early in the Peninsular War on... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Jean-Baptiste Bessières Joaquín Blake Gregorio de la Cuesta Strength 12,000 regulars 24,000 regulars and militia Casualties 1,000 dead or wounded 3,500 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Medina del Rio Seco was fought during the Peninsular War on... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Spanish Army's shocking triumph at Bailén gave the French Empire its first major defeat on the European continent
The Spanish Army's shocking triumph at Bailén gave the French Empire its first major defeat on the European continent

At a stroke, Bessières' victory salvaged the strategic position of the French army in northern Spain. The road to Madrid lay open to Joseph. The failures at Girona, Valencia, and Saragossa were forgotten; all that remained was to reinforce Dupont and allow him to force his way south through Andalusia. A delighted Napoleon asserted, "if Marshal Bessières has been able to beat the Army of Galicia with few casualties and small effort, General Dupont will be able to overthrow everybody he meets."[26] Just a few days later however, Dupont was sorely defeated at Bailén and had to surrender his entire Army Corps to General Castaños. Image File history File links The Surrender of Bailen. ... Image File history File links The Surrender of Bailen. ... The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra in Spanish; literally, Land Army) is one of oldest active armies in the world and a branch of the Spanish Armed Forces, in charge of land operations. ... Combatants First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Pierre Dupont Francisco Castaños Strength 24,000 regulars 33,000 regulars and militia Casualties 2,200 dead, 400 wounded, 17,600 captured 240 dead, 730 wounded The Battle of Bailén was contested between the Spanish regular army, led by Generals... Combatants First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Pierre Dupont Francisco Castaños Strength 24,000 regulars 33,000 regulars and militia Casualties 2,200 dead, 400 wounded, 17,600 captured 240 dead, 730 wounded The Battle of Bailén was contested between the Spanish regular army, led by Generals... A corps (a word that immigrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: , but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body; plural same as singular) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or signals... General Castaños, Conde de Castaños y Aragones, primero Duque de Bailén. ...


The catastrophe was total. With the loss of 24,000 troops, Napoleon's military machine abruptly collapsed. Joseph and the French command panicked and ordered a general retreat to the Ebro, abandoning Madrid and undoing all of Bessières' hard-fought gains. Europe trembled at this first check to the hitherto unbeatable Imperial armies; a Bonaparte had been chased from his throne; tales of Spanish heroism inspired Austria and showed the force of national resistance. Bailén set in motion the rise of the Fifth Coalition against Napoleon.[27] The Ebro (Greek: Έβρος, Latin: Iberus, Spanish: Ebro, Catalan: Ebre) is Spains most voluminous and second longest river. ... The Fifth Coalition was an alliance between the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom, formed in 1809 to fight Napoleons French Empire. ...


British intervention (August 1808)

Before the Peninsular War, British military operations on mainland Europe had been marked by bungling half-measures and a series of failures (the 1809 Walcheren expedition being the last of these.) The British Army was not large enough to operate on its own against the French, and without strong allies, Britain had been forced to withdraw from Europe. On 18 June, the Portuguese uprising broke out. The popular uprisings in Portugal and Spain encouraged the British to commit substantial forces once again and British propaganda was quick to capture the novelty of the situation; for the first time, peoples, and not princes, were in rebellion against the "Great Disturber." The Walcheren expedition (July 30 - December 10, 1809), a British military operation during the Napoleonic Wars, formed the last in a series of operations in Flanders (present-day Belgium) in 1809. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

In August 1808, British forces landed in Portugal under the command of Major-General Sir Arthur Wellesley. Wellesley checked Delaborde's forces at Roliça on August 17, while the Portuguese Observation Army of Bernardim contained Loison. On August 20, the Anglo-Portuguese held their line at the Vimeiro and repulsed Junot. Wellesley, however, was considered too junior an officer to command the newly-reinforced expedition to Portugal and was replaced by Harry Burrard, who proceeded to grant Junot very favourable armistice terms, allowing for his unmolested evacuation from Portugal — courtesy of the Royal Navy — under the controversial Convention of Sintra in August. The British commanders were ordered back to England for an inquiry into Sintra, leaving Sir John Moore to head the 30,000-strong British force. Image File history File links Assault_on_Saragossa. ... Image File history File links Assault_on_Saragossa. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Charles de Lefebvre José de Palafox y Melzi Strength 8,500 regular infantry 1,000 cavalry 12 guns 500 regulars 6,000 militia Casualties 3,000 dead or wounded Unknown The First Siege of Saragossa (Spanish: Zaragoza) was a bloody struggle in the Peninsular War. ... January Suchodolski (September 19, 1797 in Grodno – March 20, 1875 in Boimie near Siedlce) was a Polish painter and Army officer. ... Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Henri François Delaborde (1764-1833) was a French general of the Napoleonic Wars. ... The Battle of Roliça (formerly spelt as Roleia in English) was the first battle fought by the British army during the Peninsular War, fought on August 17, 1808 near the village of Roliça in Portugal, between the British under General Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington and the... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is an order of battle for the Battle of Vimeiro that was fought 20 August 1808. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Vimeiro was fought on August 20, 1808 and resulted the victory of the British under the Duke of Wellington against the French under General Junot. ... Jean-Andoche Junot (October 23, 1771 - July 29, 1813) was a French general under Napoleon Bonaparte. ... Sir Harry Burrard, 1st Baronet (1 June 1755 – 17 October 1813) was a British General. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Convention of Sintra (or Cintra) was an agreement signed on August 30, 1808 during the Peninsular War. ... General John Moore Sir John Moore, KB (November 13, 1761 – January 16, 1809) was a British soldier and General. ...


The role of the Royal Navy in supply, convoy protection, and intelligence-gathering around the Iberian Peninsula in 1808 was vital to eventual allied success. Vice-Admiral Lord Collingwood's Mediterranean Fleet bottled up the remaining French fleet, stationed at Toulon since the disaster of Trafalgar. In June, General La Romana orchestrated a remarkable escape from Gothenburg by slipping the better part of his Division of the North aboard a British squadron, which set sail for Santander.[28] The presence of the Royal Navy along the coast of France and Spain slowed the French entry into eastern and southern Spain and drained their military resources in the area. Frigates commanded the strategic Gulf of Roses north of Barcelona, close to the French border, and were conspicuously involved in the defence of Rosas; Lord Cochrane held a cliff-top fortress against the French for nearly a month, destroying it when the main citadel capitulated to a superior French force.[citation needed] This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... A convoy is a group of vehicles traveling together for mutual support. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood (26 September 1750 – 7 March 1810) was an admiral of the Royal Navy, notable as a partner with Horatio Nelson in several of the great victories of the Napoleonic Wars. ... Several countries have or have had a Mediterranean Fleet in their navy. ... Panorama of Toulon area. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... Location of Gothenburg in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden County Västra Götaland County Province Västergötland Charter 1621 Government  - Mayor Göran Johansson Area  - City 450 km²  (174 sq mi)  - Water 14. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... The Gulf of Roses is the most north eastern bay on the Spanish coast. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...


Imperial triumph (October 1808–January 1809)

Napoleon triumphant — the Spanish surrender Madrid. Antoine-Jean Gros, 1810

Bailén and the loss of Portugal convinced Napoleon of the peril he faced in Spain. Deeply disturbed by news of Sintra, the Emperor remarked in disgust, "I see that everybody has lost their head since the infamous capitulation of Bailén. I realise that I must go there myself to get the machine working again."[29] The French, so lately all but masters of Spain, now stood with their backs to the Pyrenees, clutching at scraps of land in Navarre and Catalonia. It was doubtful if even these two footholds could be maintained in the face of a Spanish attack. Download high resolution version (2560x1811, 450 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1811, 450 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Napoleon on the battlefield of Preussisch-Eylau (detail), 1808. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Capital Pamplona Official language(s) Spanish and Basque Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 11th  10,391 km²  2. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ...


However, no attack was forthcoming. The Spanish social fabric, shaken by the shock of rebellion, had given way to crippling social and political tensions; the patriots stood divided and their nascent war effort suffered accordingly. With the fall of the monarchy, constitutional power devolved to local juntas which interfered in military operations, undermined the tentative central government taking shape in Madrid,[30] proved almost as dangerous to each other as to the French, and went about the business of war with hardly a trace of coordination.[31] The British army in Portugal, meanwhile, was itself immobilized by logistical problems and bogged down in administrative disputes, and did not budge. In the Napoleonic Era, junta was the name chosen by several local administrations forming in Spain during the Peninsular War as a patriotic alternative to the official administration topped by the French invaders. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The Battle of Tudela by January Suchodolski. Oil on canvas, 1895
The Battle of Tudela by January Suchodolski. Oil on canvas, 1895

Consequently, months of inaction passed at the front, the revolution having "temporarily crippled Patriot Spain at the very moment when decisive action could have changed the whole course of the war."[32] While the allies inched forward, a vast consolidation of bodies and bayonets from the far reaches of the French Empire brought 100,000 veterans of the Grande Armée into Spain, led in person by Napoleon and his Marshals.[33] With his Armée d'Espagne of 278,670 men drawn up on the Ebro, facing a scant 80,000 raw, disorganized Spanish troops, the Emperor announced to the Spanish deputies:[34] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 792 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 606 pixel, file size: 69 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 792 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 606 pixel, file size: 69 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... The Battle of Tudela was a battle during the Peninsular War fought on November 23, 1808 near Tudela, Spain. ... January Suchodolski (September 19, 1797 in Grodno – March 20, 1875 in Boimie near Siedlce) was a Polish painter and Army officer. ... La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ... Baton of a modern Marshal of France The Marshal of France (French: Maréchal de France) is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a military rank. ...

I am here with the soldiers who conquered at Austerlitz, at Jena, at Eylau. Who can withstand them? Certainly not your wretched Spanish troops who do not know how to fight. I shall conquer Spain in two months and acquire the rights of a conqueror.

The second French campaign, a brilliant[35] double envelopment offensive, began in November and has been described as "an avalanche of fire and steel."[36] Combatants French Empire Russian Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Francis II Strength 65,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead, 6,940 wounded, 573 captured, 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded, 12,000 captured, 180 guns lost, 50 standards lost[3] War... The Battle of Jena was fought on October 14, 1806, in Jena, in todays Germany, and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon Bonaparte against the Prussians under General Hohenlohe. ... The Battle of Eylau, fought on February 7–8, 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive contest between the forces of Napoléon and a mostly Russian army under General Bennigsen. ... A pincer movement whereby the blue force doubly envelops the red force. ...

La bataille de Somo-Sierra by Louis-François, Baron Lejeune (1775 - 1848). Oil on canvas, 1810
La bataille de Somo-Sierra by Louis-François, Baron Lejeune (1775 - 1848). Oil on canvas, 1810

Napoleon's conquest, however, opened to some setbacks. In the west, the Spanish left wing slipped the noose when Marshal Lefebvre botched a premature attack at Pancorbo and failed to encircle the Army of Galicia; General Blake withdrew his artillery to safety and the bloodied Spanish infantry followed in good order. Lefebvre and Victor offered a careless chase that ended in humiliation at Valmaseda, where their scattered troops were roughly handled by La Romana's newly repatriated Spanish veterans. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 758 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1361 × 1077 pixel, file size: 259 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 758 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1361 × 1077 pixel, file size: 259 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- (All user names refer to en. ... The Battle of the Pyramids, 1808. ... Charles, comte Lefebvre-Desnouettes or Desnoettes (1773 - 22 May 1822) was a French cavalry general who later emigrated to the United States. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Charles de Lefebvre Joaquín Blake Strength 24,000 19,000 Casualties 300 dead or wounded 600 dead or wounded The Battle of Pancorbo was one of the opening engagements in Napoleons invasion of Spain. ... Claude Victor-Perrin, duc de Belluno (7 December 1764 – 1 March 1841) was a marshal of France during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Claude Victor-Perrin, duc de Belluno Joaquín Blake y Joyes Strength 13,000 24,000 Casualties 300 dead or wounded 300 captured 50 dead or wounded The Battle of Valmaseda took place on November 5, 1808, during Lieutenant-General Blakes retreat from superior French... Lieutenant-General Caro y Sureda, Marquis de La Romana. ...


While this defeat stung Napoleon's ego, the campaign raced to a swift conclusion in the south, where the unprotected Spanish centre, true to Napoleon's expectations, was overrun in a devastating attack at Burgos. The Spanish militias, unable to form infantry squares, scattered in the face of massed French cavalry, while the stubborn Spanish and Walloon Guards stood their ground and were slowly chewed up by Lasalle and his sabreurs. Marshal Lannes with a powerful force then smashed through the tottering Spanish right wing at Tudela on November 23, routing Castaños and adding a new inscription to the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. The Battle of Burgos was fought on November 7, 1808, and resulted in a French victory under Marshall Soult against the Spanish under General Belveder. ... An infantry square is a battle tactic of infantry when faced with cavalry. ... The Royal Guard is an independent unit of the Spanish Army dedicated to the protection of H.M. the King of Spain and the members of the Spanish Royal Family. ... The Lunéville statue of Antoine Charles Louis, comte de Lasalle. ... The Battle of Tudela was a battle during the Peninsular War fought on November 23, 1808 near Tudela, Spain. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General Castaños, Conde de Castaños y Aragones, primero Duque de Bailén. ... This article is about the monument in Paris. ...


Finally, Blake's isolated army did an about face on November 17 and dug in at Espinosa. His lines shook off French blows for a day and night of vicious fighting before cracking the next day. Blake again outmarched Soult and escaped with a rump of the army to Santander, but the Spanish front had been torn apart and the Imperial armies raced forward over undefended provinces. Napoleon flung 45,000 men south into the Sierra de Guadarrama which shielded Madrid and what little remained of Spain's armies. 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... The Battle of Espinosa was fought on November 10, - 11, 1808 at Cantabrian mountains and resulted in a French victory under General Victor against the Spanish under Lieutenant General Blake, leading his army of Galicia. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Satellite Map of the Sierra de Guadarrama. ...

Somosierra : Polish cavalry assail the unassailable and Spanish gunners defend the indefensible
Somosierra : Polish cavalry assail the unassailable and Spanish gunners defend the indefensible

The mountains hardly slowed Napoleon at all. At Somosierra pass on November 30, his Polish and Guard cavalry squadrons made an heroic charge through raking fire to overrun General San Juan's artillery emplacements. Within hours, the Emperor had forced the pass: San Juan's militias gave way before the relentless French infantry, while the Spanish royal artillerymen stuck by their guns and fought to the last. French patrols reached Madrid on December 1 and entered the city in triumph on December 4. Joseph Bonaparte was restored to his throne. San Juan retreated west to Talavera, where his mutinous conscripts shot him before dispersing. ImageMetadata File history File links Szarza_w_wawozie_Somosierry. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Szarza_w_wawozie_Somosierry. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Napoleon I of France Benito de San Juan Strength 45,000 20,000 infantry 16 guns Casualties Unknown 250 dead or wounded The Battle of Somosierra was a battle of the Peninsular War that took place on November 30, 1808 at the Somosierra pass in the... Volunteer Representative Squadron of City of Poznań in uniforms of 15th Poznań Uhlans Regiment Polish Cavalry (Polish: ) can trace its origins back to the days of Medieval mounted knights. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Napoleon I of France Benito de San Juan Strength 45,000 20,000 infantry 16 guns Casualties Unknown 250 dead or wounded The Battle of Somosierra was a battle of the Peninsular War that took place on November 30, 1808 at the Somosierra pass in the... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Benito de San Juan was a Spanish military officer and a notable commander of the Spanish forces during the Peninsular War. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A small British army under John Moore then made a sudden appearance, surprising a body of French cavalry at Sahagun in a confused attempt to save Madrid. Alerted to his whereabouts, the Imperial army forced Moore into a precipitate, disorderly retreat punctuated by stubborn rearguard actions at Benavente and Cacabelos. La Romana dutifully marched his tattered army to help his ally, but when British troops evacuated from Corunna in January 1809, the Spaniard had no escape and was defeated by Soult. Moore was killed while directing the successful defence of the town known as the Battle of Corunna. Some 26,000 sickly troops eventually reached Britain, 7,000 men having been lost over the course of the disastrous expedition.[37] General John Moore Sir John Moore, KB (November 13, 1761 – January 16, 1809) was a British soldier and General. ... The Battle of Sahagún, part of the Peninsular War, occurred on December 21, 1808. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name A Coruña (Galician) Spanish name La Coruña Postal code 15xxx Area code 34 (Spain) + 981 (A Coruña) Website http://www. ... For the battle near Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, see Battle of the La Corunna Road. ...


In Catalonia, Napoleon fed his faltering army strong reinforcements as early as October 1808, ordering Marshal St. Cyr with 17,000 men to the relief of Duhesme in Barcelona. Rosas fell to the French at the end of November, opening the path south for St. Cyr, who bypassed Girona and, after a remarkable forced march, fell upon the Spanish army at Cardedeu, near Barcelona (December 18), destroying part of it. St. Cyr and Duhesme then set out in close pursuit of the retreating Spaniards under General Reding, capturing 1,200 men at Molins de Rey. In February 1809, Reding led a reconstituted army against the French right wing and, after vigorous marching and countermarching, attempted a stand at Valls only to be ridden down and killed by French cavalry. Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... Laurent, Marquis de Gouvion Saint-Cyr (April 13, 1764 - March 17, 1830) was a French marshal. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Theodor von Reding ( 1755 – 25 February 1809) was a Swiss general of the Napoleonic Wars most notable for his career in the service of Spain. ... Combatants First French Empire Spain Commanders Marshal Gouvion St. ...


At Saragossa, still scarred by Lefebvre's bombardments that summer, Palafox appeared once again to staunch the Imperial tide. Saragossa's second epic defence brought it enduring national and international fame.[38][39] Lannes and Moncey committed two army corps (45,000 men) to the second siege of the city, but their guns made no impression on the Spaniards: Behind their walls, the Spanish citizen-soldiers who had broken and fled from so many fights proved unmovable. Combatants France Spain Commanders Jeannot de Moncey Édouard Mortier José de Palafox y Melzi Strength 35,500 regulars 33,000 regulars Casualties 10,000 dead 54,000 dead The Second Siege of Saragossa was the second of the two sieges of that city during the Peninsular War and is widly...

Siege of Saragossa : The assault on the San Engracia monastery. Oil on canvas, 1827

When the French invested the city on December 20, the Spaniards fought with a determination which never faltered, street by street, building by building. They entrenched themselves in convents, put their own homes to the torch, and continued to struggle when pestilence and starvation bore down on them. Nearly all those who stood with Palafox met their deaths in the struggle,[40] but for two months, the Grande Armée did not set foot beyond the Ebro's shore. On February 20, 1809, the French left behind burnt-out ruins filled with 64,000 corpses.[41] After only a little more than two months in Spain, Napoleon returned command to his marshals and went back to France, fairly satisfied with what he had accomplished. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1106x977, 274 KB) Detail of Assaut du monastère de San Engracia by Louis-François, Baron Lejeune (1775 - 1848). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1106x977, 274 KB) Detail of Assaut du monastère de San Engracia by Louis-François, Baron Lejeune (1775 - 1848). ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Jeannot de Moncey Édouard Mortier José de Palafox y Melzi Strength 35,500 regulars 33,000 regulars Casualties 10,000 dead 54,000 dead The Second Siege of Saragossa was the second of the two sieges of that city during the Peninsular War and is widly... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about an abbey as a religious building. ... For the 2008 film of the same name, see Incendiary (film). ... Look up pestilence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A female child during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition. ... The Ebro (Greek: Έβρος, Latin: Iberus, Spanish: Ebro, Catalan: Ebre) is Spains most voluminous and second longest river. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In March, Marshal Soult initiated the second invasion of Portugal, through the northern corridor. Initially repulsed in the Minho river by Portuguese militias, he then captured Chaves, Braga and, on March 29, 1809, Porto. Yet, the resistance of Silveira in Amarante and other northern cities isolated Soult in Porto and he embarked upon a gamble to become king of North Portugal. Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1769 – November 26, 1851) was a French general and statesman, named Marshal of France in 1804. ... Miño/Minho designates both the river as well as an adjacent Portuguese region Miño/Minho River The river is the longest in Galicia with an extension of 340 km. ... The Roman Bridge Coat of Arms Chaves, Portugal, is the second most populous city in the district of Vila Real, after the district capital of the same name. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Norte  - Subregion Cávado  - District or A.R. Braga Mayor Mesquita Machado  - Party PS Area 183. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Norte  - Subregion Grande Porto  - District or A.R. Porto Mayor Rui Rio  - Party PSD Area 41. ... Amarante is a city and municipality of the Porto district, in northern Portugal. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Norte  - Subregion Grande Porto  - District or A.R. Porto Mayor Rui Rio  - Party PSD Area 41. ...


In Portugal, Miguel Pereira Forjaz, the Secretary of War, had rebuilt the Portuguese army with money and arms received from the British. The Reform of the army, held up since 1806, was implemented. In a first phase some 20,000 were called to the regular army and some 30,000 to militias. Later on, this number would grow to 50,000 in the army and another 50,000 in militias, in addition to Ordenanças and voluntary units.


Wellesley returns (1809)

Wellesley returned to Portugal in April 1809 to command the Anglo-Portuguese forces. He strengthened the British army with the recently formed Portuguese regiments organized by Forjaz and the Governors of the realm and adapted by General Beresford to the British way of campaigning. These new forces defeated Soult at the Battle of Grijo (May 10May 11) and then the Second Battle of Porto (May 12). All other northern cities were captured by Silveira. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x1111, 108 KB) The Duke of Wellington by Francisco Goya File links The following pages link to this file: Enlightenment Spain ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x1111, 108 KB) The Duke of Wellington by Francisco Goya File links The following pages link to this file: Enlightenment Spain ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... “Goya” redirects here. ... William Carr Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford (October 2, 1768 – January 8, 1854), British soldier and politician. ... The Battle of Grijo (May 10 – May 11, 1809) was a victory for the Anglo-Portuguese army commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley (the future 1st Duke of Wellington) over the French army commanded by Marshal Soult in the Peninsular War In The History of the Rifle Brigade, Willoughby Verner describes... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants First French Empire United Kingdom Commanders Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult General Lord Wellesley In the (Second) Battle of Oporto (or the Battle of the Douro) Wellesley took the town of Porto and the French lost heavily. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Leaving the Portuguese to take care of their newly-won territory, Wellesley advanced into Spain to join up with the Spanish army of Gregorio de la Cuesta. The combined allied force had a sterling opportunity to defeat the French corps of Victor at Talevera, but Cuesta's insistence that the Spanish would not fight on a Sunday (July 25) provided the French the chance to get away. The next day, July 26, having lost the best chance for victory they were likely to get, Cuesta sent his army headlong after Victor, losing a clash with the reinforced French army (now led by King Joseph). The Spanish retreated precipitously, necessitating several British battalions advancing to cover their retreat and almost leading to the capture of Wellesley by French cavalry, just one of the many times the French almost got him. That night, a patrol of French dragoons startled the Spanish infantry: ten thousand opened fire at once in one of the largest single volleys of the Napoleonic Wars. Then, panicked by their own fire, the Spaniards turned and ran, playing nearly no part in the battle the next day. Gregorio García de la Cuesta y Fernandez de Celis (1741 – 1811) was a prominent Spanish general of the Peninsular War known for his participation in many unfortunate military and political episodes. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Naples, King of Spain (January 7, 1768 – July 28, 1844) was the older brother of French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808) and later King of Spain. ... French dragoon, 1745. ...


The next day, July 27, the French advanced in three columns and were repulsed several times throughout the day by British infantry in line, forcing the French to withdraw. The Battle of Talavera was a costly victory that left the allies precariously exposed. The British soon retreated westwards, leaving several thousand of their own wounded under Cuesta's protection. The Spanish abandoned them shortly afterwards and they were rescued from their allies by the French. Although the Spanish had promised food to the British if they advanced into Spain, not only was no food forthcoming, but Spanish troops threatened to pillage any town that sold food to their 'allies,' forcing the British to continue retreating back to Portugal. The British in the peninsula never quite trusted the Spanish again. Wellesley was made Viscount Wellington for his victory at Talavera. Later that year, however, Spanish armies were badly mauled at the Battle of Ocana and the Battle of Alba de Tormes. is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The battle of Talavera was fought on July 27 and 28 of 1809 and resulted in the difficult victory of the British and Spanish under Sir Arthur Wellesley against the French under King Joseph. ... The Dukedom of Wellington is a hereditary title and the senior Dukedom in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Nicolas Soult Juan de Arizagua Strength 35,000 51,000 Casualties 2,000 dead or wounded 4,000 dead or wounded 15,000 captured In the Peninsular War, the Battle of Ocana (in spanish batalla de Ocaña) was fought on November 19, 1809 and resulted...


After his disappointing experience with the Spaniards, and fearing a new French attack, Wellesley took the decision to strengthen Portugal's defences. To protect Lisbon, he took a plan from Major Neves Costa and ordered the construction of a strong line of 162 forts along key roads and entrenchements and earthworks, the Lines of Torres Vedras. The Lines of Torres Vedras The Lines of Torres Vedras were a line of forts in Portugal built in secrecy between November 1809 and September 1810 during the Peninsular War. ...


Stalemate (1810–1812)

The French reinvaded Portugal in July 1810 with an army of around 60,000 led by Marshal Masséna. The first significant clash was at the Battle of Coa. Later on, Masséna took "the worst route in Portugal." At the Battle of Buçaco on September 27, he suffered a tactical defeat with a careless attack on a strong position, but he soon forced the allies to retreat to the Lines. The fortifications were so impressive that, after a small attack at Sobral on October 14, a stalemate ensued. As Charles Oman wrote, "On that misty October 14th morning, at Sobral, the Napoleonic tide attained its highest watermark, then it ebbed." The Portuguese population had subjected the area in front of the lines to a scorched earth policy. The French were eventually forced to withdraw due to disease and a lack of food and other supplies. André Masséna, Marshal of France André Masséna (May 6, 1758 - April 4, 1817), Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling, was a French soldier in the armies of Napoleon and a Marshal of France. ... The Battle of Coa (July 24, 1810) was part of the Peninsular War period of the Napoleonic Wars. ... The Battle of Buçaco was a battle of the Peninsular War, fought by British and Portuguese forces under the command of the Duke of Wellington on September 27, 1810, to check French pursuit of his retreat to the Lines of Torres Vedras. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman (January 12, 1860 - June 23, 1946) was a notable British military historian of the early 20th century. ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ...

A Seville Monument to Luis Daoíz y Torres, hero of the 2nd May 1808 uprising in Madrid

The allies were reinforced by the arrival of fresh British troops in early 1811 and began an offensive. A French force was beaten at Barrosa on March 5 as part of an unsuccessful maneuver to break up the siege of Cádiz, and Masséna was forced to withdraw from Portugal after an allied victory at the Battle of Fuentes de Onoro (May 3-5). Masséna had lost 25,000 men in the fighting in Portugal and was replaced by Auguste Marmont. Soult came from the South to threaten Badajoz, but his force was intercepted by an Anglo-Portuguese and Spanish army led by the Marshal William Beresford. At the Battle of Albuera on May 16, the French were forced to retreat after a bloody battle. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1146x1600, 952 KB) Summary Monument to Daoiz and the Dos de Mayo raising that started Spain War of Independence, Seville. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1146x1600, 952 KB) Summary Monument to Daoiz and the Dos de Mayo raising that started Spain War of Independence, Seville. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Barrosa took place on March 5, 1811 between Anglo-Spanish and French forces as part of the Peninsular war. ... This article is about the day. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... // In the Battle of Fuentes de Onoro (May 3 - 5, 1811) the British army under Sir Arthur Wellesley checked an attempt by French troops under Marshall André Masséna to relieve the besieged city of Almeida. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont, Marshal of France. ... Location Badajoz, Spain location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Badajoz (Spanish) Spanish name Badajoz Founded 875 Area code 34 (Spain) + 924 (Badajoz) Website http://www. ... William Carr Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford (October 2, 1768 – January 8, 1854), British soldier and politician. ... Combatants Spain Portugal Britain France Duchy of Warsaw Commanders William Beresford Joaquin Blake Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Strength 10,000 British 10,000 Portuguese 13,000 Spanish 38 guns 23,000 infantry 4,000 cavalry 40 guns Casualties 5,916 dead or wounded[2] 5,936 dead or wounded... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The war now fell into a temporary lull, the numerically superior French being unable to find an advantage and coming under increasing pressure from Spanish guerilla activity. The French had upwards of 350,000 soldiers in L'Armée de l'Espagne, but the vast majority, over 200,000, was deployed to protect the French lines of supply, rather than as substantial fighting units. Meanwhile, the Spaniards drafted the liberal 1812 Constitution of Cádiz. The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was promulgated by the Cortes Generales (General Courts), the national legislative assembly of Spain. ...


In January 1812, Napoleon approved the full annexation of Catalonia into the French Empire. Its territory was divided in départements (Ter, Sègre, Montserrat and Bouches-de-l'Èbre). Looking for the approval of the local population, Catalan was declared the official language in those departments together with French. However, it did not succeed because of the historical aversion that Catalan people had against French people, and guerrilla activity continued in Catalonia. For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... The Catalans are an ethnic group or nationality whose homeland is Catalonia, or the Principality of Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya, or Principat de Catalunya), which is a historical region in southern Europe, embracing a territory situated in the north-east of Spain and an adjoining portion of southern France. ... For a specific analysis of the population of France, see Demographics of France. ...


Wellington renewed the allied advance into Spain just after New Year in 1812, besieging and capturing the fortified towns of Ciudad Rodrigo on January 19 and Badajoz, after a costly assault, on April 6. Both towns were pillaged by the troops. The allied army took Salamanca on June 17, as Marmont approached. The two forces finally met on July 22. The Battle of Salamanca was a damaging defeat to the French, and Marshal Marmont was severely wounded. As the French regrouped, the Anglo-Portuguese entered Madrid on August 6 and advanced towards Burgos, before retreating all the way back to Portugal when renewed French concentrations threatened to trap them. Ciudad Rodrigo (Rodrigo City) is a small cathedral city in Salamanca Province in western Spain (approximately a population of 14000 inhabitants, and head of the judicial district). ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Badajoz, Spain location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Badajoz (Spanish) Spanish name Badajoz Founded 875 Area code 34 (Spain) + 924 (Badajoz) Website http://www. ... Combatants United Kingdom, Portugal First French Empire Commanders Earl of Wellington General Philippon Strength 25,000 regulars 5,000 regulars Casualties 5,000 dead or wounded 1,500 dead or wounded In the Battle of Badajoz (March 16-April 6, 1812) an Anglo-Portuguese army under Earl of Wellington, besieged... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Salamanca (population 160,000) is a city in western Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community (region) of Castile-Leon (Castilla y León). ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Kingdom, Portugal, Spain French Empire Commanders Earl of Wellington Auguste Marmont Strength 51,949[1] 49,647[2] Casualties 5,914 dead or wounded 13,000 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Salamanca (July 22, 1812) was an important victory for an Anglo-Portuguese army under Earl... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Allied victory (1813–1814)

French hopes of recovery were stricken by Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. He had taken 30,000 soldiers from the hard-pressed Armée de l'Espagne, and, starved of reinforcements and replacements, the French position became increasingly unsustainable as the allies renewed the offensive in May 1813. Combatants First French Empire Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine Kingdom of Bavaria Kingdom of Saxony Kingdom of Westphalia Swiss Confederation Austrian Empire Kingdom of Prussia Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon Eugène de Beauharnais Jérôme Bonaparte Jaques MacDonald Prince Schwarzenberg Alexander...

A monument to Pedro Velarde y Santillán in Santander.
A monument to Pedro Velarde y Santillán in Santander.

In a strategic move, Wellington planned to move his supply base from Lisbon to Santander. The Anglo-Portuguese forces swept northwards in late May and seized Burgos; they then outflanked the French army, forcing Joseph Bonaparte into the valley of the River Zadorra. At the Battle of Vitoria, June 21, the 65,000 men of Joseph were routed by 53,000 British, 27,000 Portuguese and 19,000 Spaniards. Wellesley pursued and dislodged the French from San Sebastian, which was sacked and burnt. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x3072, 1075 KB) City of Santander. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x3072, 1075 KB) City of Santander. ... Defensa del Parque de Artillería de Monteleón by Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida depicts Pedro Velardes last stand. ... Cantabria Population (2004) 183,799 inhabitants Area 34 km² Altitude 15 metres, at its peak Population density (2004) 5406 people/km² The port city of Santander is the capital of the autonomous community of Cantabria situated on the north coast of Spain between Asturias (to the west) and the Basque... Cantabria Population (2004) 183,799 inhabitants Area 34 km² Altitude 15 metres, at its peak Population density (2004) 5406 people/km² The port city of Santander is the capital of the autonomous community of Cantabria situated on the north coast of Spain between Asturias (to the west) and the Basque... Combatants French Empire United Kingdom Spain Portugal Commanders Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, Joseph Bonaparte Marquess of Wellington Strength 58,000 80,000 Casualties ~5,000 dead or wounded, 3,000 captured[1] ~5,000 dead or wounded[1] In the Battle of Vitoria (June 21, 1813) Wellington and his Portuguese and... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... San Sebastián (the Spanish-language name of Saint Sebastian) may refer to: Donostia-San Sebastián, a city in the Basque Country, between Spain and France San Sebastián de La Gomera, a town in the Canary Islands, Spain San Sebastián de los Reyes, a city in Madrid...


The allies chased the retreating French, reaching the Pyrenees in early July. Soult was given command of the French forces and began a counter-offensive, dealing the allied generals two sharp defeats at the Battle of Maya and the Battle of Roncesvalles. Yet, he was severely repulsed by the Anglo-Portuguese, lost momentum, and finally fled after the allied victory at the Battle of Sorauren (July 28 and July 30). Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article is about Battle of Roncesvalles (1813). ... Combatants Britain Spain Portugal First French Empire Commanders Arthur Wellesley Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Strength 24,000 30,000 Casualties 2,600 dead or wounded 4,000 dead or wounded The Battle of Sorauren was part of a series of engagements in late July 1813 called the Battle of... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


This week of campaigning, called the Battle of the Pyrenees, is perhaps Wellington's finest. The adversaries' numbers were balanced, he was fighting very far from his supply line, the French were defending their territory and, yet, he won by a mixture of manoeuvre, shock, and fire, seldom equalled in the war. It was mountain warfare and at this moment, Wellington qualified the Portuguese Army as "The fighting cocks of the (allied) Army". Combatants France Britain Portugal Commanders Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Arthur Wellesley Strength 80,000 60,000 Casualties 1,300 dead and 8,600 wounded 2,700 captured 4,500 dead or wounded A large-scale offensive launched[1] on 25 July 1813 by Marshal Soult from the Pyrenees region...


On October 7, after Wellington received news of the reopening of hostilities in Germany, the allies finally crossed into France, fording the Bidasoa river. On December 11, a beleaguered and desperate Napoleon agreed to a separate peace with Spain under the Treaty of Valençay, under which he would release and recognize Ferdinand in exchange for a complete cessation of hostilities. But the Spanish had no intention of trusting Napoleon, and the fighting continued. is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bidasoa (French: Bidassoa) is a river in the Basque country of northern Spain. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chateau Valençay Valençay is a small town amd commune in the Indre département in the Loire Valley of France situated on a hillside overlooking the Nahon river. ...


The Peninsular War went on through the allied victories of Vera pass, Battle of Nivelle, and the Battle of Nive near Bayonne (December 1014 1813), the Battle of Orthez (February 27, 1814) and the Battle of Toulouse (April 10). This last one was after Napoleon's abdication. Vera can mean: a placename: Vera, Oklahoma, United States of America Vera, Santa Fe, Argentina Vera, Almería, Spain a work of art: Vera (novel), a novel by Elizabeth von Arnim Vera; or, The Nihilists, a play by Oscar Wilde Vera (song), a song on the Pink Floyd album The... Combatants French Empire United Kingdom,  Spain, Portugal Commanders Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Arthur Wellesley, 1st Marquess of Wellington Strength 60,000 80,000 Casualties 4,351 dead or wounded 2,450 dead or wounded The Battle of Nivelle (November 10, 1813) took place in front of the River Nivelle... Combatants French Empire United Kingdom Spain Portugal Commanders Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Arthur Wellesley, 1st Marquess of Wellington Strength 62,000 64,000 Casualties 1,600 1,600 The Battle of the Nive (9-12 December 1813) was a battle towards the end of the Peninsular War (1808-1814). ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Orthez was fought on February 27, 1814, between the First French Empire and the forces of the Allies. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The battle of Toulouse, fought on April 10, 1814, was one of the final battles of the Napoleonic Wars, although its official classification is disputed as the battle occurred four days after Napoleons surrender of the French Empire to the nations of the Sixth Coalition. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Guerrilla war

Juan Martín Díez, known by his nom de guerre, El Empecinado — the undaunted

During the war, the British gave aid to Portuguese militia levies and Spanish guerrillas, who tied down thousands of French troops. The British gave this aid because it cost them much less than it would have to equip British soldiers to face the French in conventional warfare. This was one of the most successful partisan wars in history and is the origin of the word guerrilla in the English language (from Spanish Guerra de guerrillas or "War of little wars"). However, this guerrilla warfare was costly to both sides. Not only did the 'patriotic' Spaniards trouble the French troops, they also petrified their countrymen with a combination of forced conscription and looting of towns. Many of the partisans were, in fact, either fleeing the law or trying to get rich, although later in the war the authorities tried to make the guerrillas militarily reliable, and many of them formed regular army units, like Espoz y Mina's "Cazadores de Navarra", among others. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (550x733, 19 KB) Portrait of Juan Martín Díez by Francisco Goya (d. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (550x733, 19 KB) Portrait of Juan Martín Díez by Francisco Goya (d. ... Juan Martín Díez (1775, Valladolid - 1825) was a Spanish brigadier-general of cavalry. ... A pseudonym or allonym is a name (sometimes legally adopted, sometimes purely fictitious) used by an individual as an alternative to their birth name. ... Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... Portrait of General Espoz y Mina by Francisco Goya. ...


The idea of forming the Guerillas into an armed force had positive and negative effects. On the one hand, uniform and stronger military discipline would stop men from running off into the streets and disappearing from the band. However, the more disciplined the unit was, the easier it was for the French troops to catch them when they sprang an ambush. Only a few partisan leaders formed with the authorities; most did so just to lay off charges and to retain the effective status of an officer in the Spanish army, so their weaponry, clothes and food would be paid for.


The guerilla style of fighting was the Spanish military's single most effective application. Most organized attempts on the part of regular Spanish forces to take on the French led to defeat for the former. However, once the battle was lost and the soldiers reverted to their guerilla roles, they effectively tied down greater numbers of French troops over a wider area with much less expenditure of men, energy, and supplies. Wellington's final success in the Peninsula is often said to be largely due to the internal rotting and demoralization of the French military structure in Spain caused by the guerillas.


Role of intelligence

The Heroes of the Second of May memorial, Madrid
The Heroes of the Second of May memorial, Madrid

Intelligence played a crucial role in the successful prosecution of the war by the British after 1810. Spanish and Portuguese guerrillas were asked to capture messages from French couriers. From 1811 onwards, these dispatches were often either partially or wholly enciphered. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 337 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1028 × 1830 pixel, file size: 866 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Heroes of The Second of May (1808, Peninsular War). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 337 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1028 × 1830 pixel, file size: 866 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Heroes of The Second of May (1808, Peninsular War). ... Combatants Spain French Empire Commanders Pedro Velarde y Santillán Luís Daoíz de Torres Joachim Murat Casualties 200[1]–450 dead[2] 31[1]–150 dead[2] On May 2, 1808 (Spanish: Dos de Mayo) the people of Madrid rebelled against the occupation of the city by French... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ...


George Scovell of Wellington's General Staff was given the job of deciphering them. At first the ciphers used were fairly simple and he received help from other members of the General Staff. However, beginning in 1812, a much stronger cipher, originally devised for diplomatic messages, came into use and Scovell was left to work on this himself. He steadily broke it, and the knowledge of French troop movements and deployments was used to great effect in most of the engagements described above. The French never realised that the code had been broken and continued to use it until their code tables were captured at the Battle of Vitoria. George Scovell (1774 – 1861) was a member of the quartermasters staff of the British Army in Iberia during the Peninsular War. ...


Consequences in Spain

For more details on this topic, see Mid-nineteenth century Spain.

King Joseph was cheered initially by Spanish afrancesados ("Frenchified"), who believed that collaboration with France would bring modernization and liberty. An example was the abolition of the Spanish Inquisition. However, priesthood and patriots began an agitation among the populace, which became widespread after the French army's first examples of repression (Madrid, 1808) were presented as fact to unite and enrage the people. The remaining afrancesados were exiled to France following the departure of French troops. The painter Francisco Goya was one of these afrancesados, and after the war he had to exile himself to France to avoid being prosecuted and perhaps lynched. History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain - Visigoths - Al-Andalus - Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History Spain in the... Afrancesado was the term used to denote liberal or revolutionary pro-French Spaniards particularly during the Peninsula War. ... Collaboration is a process defined by the recursive interaction of knowledge[1] and mutual learning between two or more people working together[2] toward a common goal typically creative in nature. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... “Goya” redirects here. ...

Francisco Goya: The Third of May 1808
Francisco Goya: The Third of May 1808

The pro-independence side included both traditionalists and liberals. After the war, they would clash in the Carlist Wars, as new king Ferdinand VII, "the Desired One" (later "the Traitor king"), revoked all the changes made by the independent Cortes, which were summoned in Cádiz acting on his behalf to coordinate the provincial Juntas and resist the French. He restored absolute monarchy, prosecuted and put to death every one suspected of liberalism, and, as his last misdeed, altered the laws of royal succession in favour of his daughter Isabella II, thus starting a century of civil wars against the supporters of the former legal heir to the throne. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1551, 206 KB) Description: Title: de: Erschießung der Aufständischen am 3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1551, 206 KB) Description: Title: de: Erschießung der Aufständischen am 3. ... The Third of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid is a 1814 oil painting by the Spanish painter Francisco Goya. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... In the Napoleonic Era, junta was the name chosen by several local administrations forming in Spain during the Peninsular War as a patriotic alternative to the official administration topped by the French invaders. ... Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was queen of Spain. ...


The liberal Cortes had approved the first Spanish Constitution on 19 March 1812, which was later nullified by the king. In Spanish America, the Spanish and Criollo officials formed Juntas that swore allegiance to King Ferdinand. This experience of self-government led the later Libertadores (Liberators) to promote the independence of the Spanish-American colonies. The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was promulgated by the Cortes Generales (General Courts), the national legislative assembly of Spain. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Americas of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... In the Spanish colonial caste system (castas), a criollo was a person of unmixed Spanish ancestry born in the colonies. ... Libertadores (Spanish and Portuguese for Liberators) refers to the leaders of the revolutions which gained the nations of Latin America independence from Spain and Portugal. ...


French troops seized many of the extensive properties of the Catholic Church. Churches and convents were used as stables and barracks, and artworks were sent to France, leading to an impoverished Spanish cultural heritage. Allied armies also plundered Spanish towns and the countryside. Wellington recovered some of the artwork and offered to return it, but King Ferdinand gave them to him. These pieces can be viewed at the Duke's London home, Apsley House, and at his country estate, Stratfield Saye House. Apsley House in 1829 by TH Shepherd. ... Stratfield Saye House, at Stratfield Saye on the border of Hampshire and Berkshire in England, has been the home of the Dukes of Wellington since 1817. ...


Another notable effect of the war was the severe damage incurred by Spain's economy, devastated by the war, it continued to suffer in the political turbulence that followed.[citation needed]


Consequences in Portugal

The Peninsular War signified the traumatic entry of Portugal into the modern age. The Court's movement to Rio de Janeiro initiated the process of Brazil's state-building that eventually produced its independence. The skilful evacuation by the Portuguese Fleet of more than 15,000 people from the Court, Administration, and Army was a bonus for Brazil and a blessing in disguise for Portugal, as it liberated the energies of the country. The Governors of Portugal nominated by the absent king had a scant impact on account of successive French invasions and British occupation. This article is about the Brazilian city. ...


The role of the War Minister Miguel Pereira Forjaz was unique. Wellington held him as "the only statesman in the Peninsula." With the Portuguese Staff, he managed to build a regular army of 55,000 men and a further 50,000 as national guard milicias and a variable number of home guard ordenanças, perhaps totalling more than 100,000. In an 1812 letter to Baron Stein, the Russian Court Minister, Forjaz recommended a "scorched earth" policy and the trading of time for space as the only way to defeat a French invasion. Alexander I, Tsar of Russia, ordered his generals to use Wellington's Portuguese strategy and avoid battles to starve Napoleon's Grande Armée.[citation needed] Heinrich Friedrich Karl, Baron vom und zum Stein Heinrich Friedrich Karl Reichsfreiherr[1] vom und zum Stein (October 26, 1757 – June 29, 1831), commonly known as Baron vom und zum Stein, was a German statesman for the Kingdom of Prussia. ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... A number of historical people were named Alexander I: Alexander I of Macedon, king of Macedon 495-450 BC Alexander I of Epirus King of Epirus about 342 B.C. Pope Alexander I, Pope from 106 to 115 Alexander I of Scotland (c. ...


The nation at arms had a similar impact on Portugal as the French Revolution on France. A new class, tried, disciplined, and experienced by war against the French Empire, would assert Portuguese independence. Marshal Beresford and 160 officers were retained after 1814 to lead Portugal's Army while the King was still in Brazil. Portuguese politics hinged on the project of a Luso-Brazilian United Kingdom, with the African colonies supplying slaves, Brazil manufacturing and Portugal the trade. By 1820, this became untenable. Portuguese Peninsular War officers expelled the British and began the liberal revolution at Porto on August 24. Liberal institutions were only consolidated after a civil war in 1832-34. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The term French Empire can refer to: The First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1804 - 1814 or 1815) The Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852 - 1870) The Second French Colonial Empire (1830 - 1960) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Norte  - Subregion Grande Porto  - District or A.R. Porto Mayor Rui Rio  - Party PSD Area 41. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pedro IV of Portugal, I of Brazil Miguel I of Portugal The Liberal Wars, also known as the Portuguese Civil War, the War of the Two Brothers, or Miguelite War, was a war between progressive constitutionalists and authoritarian absolutists in Portugal over royal succession that lasted from 1828 to 1834. ...


Other names for the war

In French and in Spanish the war is called the "Spanish War of Independence" Guerre d'indépendance espagnole and Guerra de la Independencia Española respectively. It is also known as Guerra del Francès ("the War of the Frenchman") in Catalonia. In Portugal it is Invasões Francesas (Portuguese: "French Invasions"). Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ...


Cultural impact

Prosper Mérimée's Carmen, on which Bizet's opera Carmen was based, is set during the war. Prosper Mérimée Prosper Mérimée (September 28, 1803–September 23, 1870) was a French dramatist, historian, archaeologist, and short story writer. ... Cover incorporating part of Mérimées own watercolor Carmen Carmen is a novella by Prosper Mérimée written and first published in 1845. ... Georges Bizet (October 25, 1838 – June 3, 1875), was a French composer of the romantic era best known for his opera Carmen. ... Poster from the 1875 premiere of Carmen Carmen is a French opera by Georges Bizet. ...


Curro Jiménez was a very successful Spanish TV series about a generous bandit fighting against the French in Sierra Morena. Curro Jiménez was a successful Spanish TV series that aired on TVE 1 from 22 December 1976 to 1977. ... The Sierra Morena is a mountain chain some 400 km long running East-West in southern Spain, forming the border of the central plateau (Meseta Central) of Iberia, and providing the watershed between the valleys of the Gaudiana to the north and the Guadalquivir to the south. ...


The British Sharpe novels by Bernard Cornwell were a series of novels following the adventures of a British Army officer and were set, partly, during the Peninsular War. They were later made into a series of television movies featuring actor Sean Bean as Sharpe (see Sharpe (TV Series)). Richard Sharpe is the central character in Bernard Cornwells Sharpe novels and of the Sharpe series of TV movies in which he is played by Sean Bean. ... Bernard Cornwell OBE (born February 23, 1944) is a prolific and popular English historical novelist. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... Shaun Mark Bean (born 17 April 1959) is an English film and stage actor. ... This article is about the television series. ...


The C. S. Forester novel Death to the French is set in the Peninsular War. It concerns a private in a British Rifle Regiment who is cut off from his unit and joins a group of Portuguese guerillas. The 1957 motion picture "The Pride and the Passion", also set during the Peninsular War, was based on Forester's novel "The Gun". The cover of the 1974 paperback edition of one of Foresters non-fiction titles: Hunting The Bismarck Cecil Scott Forester was the pen name of Cecil Louis Troughton Smith (August 27, 1899 – April 2, 1966), an English novelist who rose to fame with tales of adventure with military themes. ... For the Wikipedias treatment of anti-French movements in the modern world, see Anti-French sentiment in the United States Death to the French is a 1932 novel by C. S. Forester, the author of the Horatio Hornblower novels. ... French movie poster for The Pride and The Passion The Pride and the Passion is an 1957 historical film drama made by Stanley Kramer productions and released by United Artists. ...


The Peninsular War saw the first use of "devices," or clasp bars, on medals. The Peninsular Medal was issued to soldiers in Wellington's army, with a clasp for each major battle in which they participated. When four were issued, a Peninsular Cross was given, with each arm inscribed with the battle's name. Subsequent clasps were then added to the ribbon. Wellington's Peninsular Cross, featuring a unique nine clasps, can be seen on his uniform in the basement at Apsley House. A medal is a small metal object, usually engraved with insignia, that is awarded to a person for athletic, military, scientific, academic or some other kind of achievement. ... Apsley House in 1829 by TH Shepherd. ...

João Carlos de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun, Duke and later Marquis of Saldanha (1790-1876), was a Portuguese army officer and statesman. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Glover, p. 45. Some accounts mark the Franco-Spanish invasion of Portugal as the beginning of the war.
  2. ^ Glover, p. 335. Denotes the date of the general armistice between France and the Sixth Coalition.
  3. ^ Churchill, p. 258. "Nothing like this universal uprising of a numerous, ancient race and nation, all animated by one thought, had been seen before...For the first time the forces unchained by the French Revolution, which Napoleon had disciplined and directed, met not kings or Old World hierarchies, but a whole population inspired by the religion and patriotism which...Spain was to teach to Europe."
  4. ^ Laquer, p. 350. Laquer notes that the war was "one of the first occasions when guerrilla warfare had been waged on a large scale in modern times."
  5. ^ Gates, p. 33-34. Gates notes that much of the Grande Armée "was rendered unavailable for operations against Wellington because innumerable Spanish contingents kept materialising all over the country. In 1810, for example, when Massena invaded Portugal, the Imperial forces in the Peninsula totalled a massive 325,000 men, but only about one quarter of these could be spared for the offensive—the rest were required to contain the Spanish insurgents and regulars. This was the greatest single contribution that the Spaniards were to make and, without it, Wellington could not have maintained himself on the continent for long—let alone emerge triumphant from the conflict."
  6. ^ Glover, p. 52. Glover notes that "the Spanish troops were no match for the French. They were ill-equipped and sketchily supplied. Their ranks were filled with untrained recruits. Their generals bickered among themselves. They lost heavily but their armies were not destroyed. Time and time again Spanish armies lost their artillery, their colours, their baggage. They suffered casualties on a scale that would have crippled a French or a British army. They never disintegrated. They would retire to some inaccessible fastness, reorganise themselves and reappear to plague the French as they had never been plagued before."
  7. ^ Chandler, The Art of Warfare on Land, p. 164.
  8. ^ Napoleon, Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène
  9. ^ Esdaille, p. 300
  10. ^ Chandler, p. 605
  11. ^ Gates, p. 35. For example, the Army's 26 cavalry regiments of 15,000 men possessed only 9,000 horses.
  12. ^ Chandler, p. 610
  13. ^ Esdaile, p. 302-303. Rebel groups sprung up on a local basis and were unaware of the resistance being prepared elsewhere in Spain. Esdaile asserts that the partisans were as committed to driving the ancien regime out of Spain as they were to fighting foreign armies, noting that the Patriots had no scruples about liquidating officials skeptical of their revolutionary program.
  14. ^ Churchill, p. 259
  15. ^ Gates, p. 12
  16. ^ Glover, p. 53
  17. ^ Chandler, p. 608. Chandler notes that Napoleon "never appreciated how independent the Spanish people were of their government; he misjudged the extent of their pride, of the tenacity of their religious faith, of their loyalty to Ferdinand. He anticipated that they would accept the change of regime without demur; instead he soon found himself with a war of truly national proportions on his hands."
  18. ^ Chandler, p. 611
  19. ^ Gates, p. 162
  20. ^ Chandler, p. 611
  21. ^ Gates, p. 181-182.
  22. ^ Chandler, p. 614
  23. ^ Gates, p. 61
  24. ^ Gates, p. 77
  25. ^ Chandler, p. 614.
  26. ^ Chandler, p. 616
  27. ^ Chandler, p. 617. "This was an historic occasion; news of it spread like wildfire throughout Spain and then all Europe. It was the first time since 1801 that a sizable French force had laid down its arms, and the legend of French invincibility underwent a severe shaking. Everywhere anti-French elements drew fresh inspiration from the tidings. The Pope published an open denunciation of Napoleon; Prussian patriots were heartened; and, most significantly of all, the Austrian war party began to secure the support of the Emperor Francis for a renewed challenge to the French Empire.
  28. ^ Chandler, p. 611
  29. ^ Chandler, p. 620
  30. ^ Chandler, p. 625. Chandler notes that "the particular interests of the provincial delegates made even the pretense of centralised government a travesty."
  31. ^ Chandler, p. 621. John Lawrence Tone has questioned this assessment of the Spanish juntas on the grounds that it relies too much on the accounts of British officers and elites; these sources being patently unfair to the revolutionaries, "whom they despised for being Jacobins, Catholics, and Spaniards, not necessarily in that order." Review
  32. ^ Esdaille, p. 304-305. Esdaille notes that the Junta of Seville declared itself the supreme government of Spain and tried to annex neighbouring juntas by force.
  33. ^ Gates, p. 487
  34. ^ Glover, p.55
  35. ^ Chandler, p. 631
  36. ^ Churchill, p. 262
  37. ^ Gates, p.114
  38. ^ Glover, p. 89
  39. ^ Gates, p. 128. Gates notes that the siege "was a demonstration the French army was never to forget and...it was to inspire Spaniards to maintain replica struggles that have few parallels in the history of war.
  40. ^ Gates, p. 127. The military garrison of 44,000 left 8,000 survivors, 1,500 of them ill.
  41. ^ Glover, p. 89. 10,000 of these were French.

The Sixth Coalition (1812-1814) was a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and a number of German States against Napoleonic France. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ... Ancien R gime means Old Regime or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties, and secondarily to any regime which shares the formers defining features: a feudal system under the control...

References

  • Chandler, David G. The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. ISBN 0-02-523660-1
  • Gates, David. The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War. Da Capo Press 2001. ISBN 0-306-81083-2
  • Glover, Michael. The Peninsular War 1807-1814. Penguin Books 2003. ISBN 0-141-39041-7
  • Henriques, Mendo. Salamanca. Lisbon, 2002. ISBN 972-8563-80-9
  • Napier, William. The War in the Peninsula (6 vols), London: John Murray (Vol 1), and private (Vols 2-6), 1828-40.
  • Oman, Charles. The History of the Peninsular War (7 vols), Oxford, 1903-30.
  • Sunderland, Mark. The Fatal Hill: The Allied Campaign under Beresford in Southern Spain in 1811. Thompson Publishing, London 2002. *ISBN 0-9522930-7-2 (Long Review)
  • Urban, Mark. Rifles: Six years with Wellington's legendary sharpshooters Pub Faber & Faber, 2003. *ISBN 0-571-21681-1
  • Urban, Mark. The Man who Broke Napoleon's Codes. Faber and Faber Ltd, London 2001. ISBN 0-571-20513-5,

Sir William Francis Patrick Napier (December 7, 1785 - February 12, 1860), British soldier and military historian, third son of Colonel George Napier (1751-1804) was born at Celbridge, near Dublin. ... Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman (January 12, 1860 - June 23, 1946) was a notable British military historian of the early 20th century. ...

Further reading

  • Esdaile, Charles J. Fighting Napoleon Yale University Press, 2004, ISBN 0300101120.
  • Esdaile, Charles J. The Peninsular War: A New History Allen Lane, 2002, ISBN 0140273700.
  • Esdaile, Charles J. The Spanish Army in the Peninsular War Manchester University Press, 1988, ISBN 0719025389.
  • Fletcher, Ian Peninsular War; Aspects of the Struggle for the Iberian Peninsula Spellmount Publishers, 2003, ISBN 1873376820.
  • Goya, Francisco The Disasters of War Dover Publications, 1967, ISBN 0486218724.
  • Griffith, Paddy A History of the Peninsular War: Modern Studies of the War in Spain and Portugal, 1808-14 v. 9 Greenhill Books, 1999, ISBN 185367348X.
  • Lovett, Gabriel H. Napoleon and the Birth of Modern Spain New York UP, 1965, ISBN 0814702678.

External links


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MST Publishing specialises in reproducing in small numbers, extremely rare books concerned with the British army during the Peninsular War, 1808-1814.
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This important war, the conduct and result of which greatly enhanced the prestige of British arms, had for its main object the freedom of the Peninsula of Spain and Portugal from the domination of Napoleon; and hence it deri'ves its name, though it terminated upon the soil of France.
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