FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Penicillin" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Penicillin
Penicillin core structure
Penicillin core structure

Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of Beta-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. “Penicillin” is also the informal name of a specific member of the penicillin group Penam Skeleton, which has the molecular formula R-C9H11N2O4S, where R is a variable side chain. Penicillin is a Japanese rock band formed in 1992. ... Penicillin core structure selfmade by cacycle File links The following pages link to this file: Penicillin Categories: GFDL images ... Penicillin core structure selfmade by cacycle File links The following pages link to this file: Penicillin Categories: GFDL images ... β-lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics which include penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and β-lactamase inhibitors; basically any antibiotic agent which contains a β-lactam nucleus in its molecular structure. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Penicillin nucleus. ... The term Side chain can have different meanings depending on the context: In chemistry and biochemistry a side chain is a part of a molecule attached to a core structure. ...

Contents

Discovery and history

The discovery of penicillin is attributed to Scottish scientist Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928 and the development of penicillin for use as a medicine is attributed to the Australian Nobel Laureate Howard Walter Florey. Penicillin Alexander Fleming was the first to suggest that the Penicillium mould must have an antibacterial substance, and the first to isolate the active substance which he named penicillin, but he was not the first to use its properties. ... Alexander Fleming Sir Alexander Fleming (August 6, 1881 - March 11, 1955) is famous as the discoverer of the antibiotic substance lysozyme and for isolating the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey of Adelaide and Marston, OM, FRS, (September 24, 1898 – February 21, 1968) was a pharmacologist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the extraction of penicillin. ...


However, several others had noted earlier the bacteriostatic effects of Penicillium: The first published reference appears to have been in 1875, when it was reported to the Royal Society in London by John Tyndall.[1] Ernest Duchesne documented it in his 1897 paper; however it was not accepted by the Institut Pasteur because of his young age. In March 2000, doctors at the San Juan de Dios Hospital in San Jose (Costa Rica) published manuscripts belonging to the Costa Rican scientist and medical doctor Clodomiro (Clorito) Picado Twight (1887–1944). The manuscripts explained Picado's experiences between 1915 and 1927 about the inhibitory actions of the fungi of genera Penic. Clorito Picado had reported his discovery to the Paris Academy of Sciences, yet did not patent it, even though his investigation had started years before Fleming's. For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... John Tyndall. ... Ernest Duchesne Ernest Duchesne (May 30, 1874 – April 12, 1912) was a French physician who noted that certain moulds kill bacteria. ... Biography Dr. Clodomiro Picado 1887-1944 Born in 1887, Costa Rican Scientist Dr. Clodomiro Picado Twight, also known as Clorito Picado, was known as a preeminent Latin American pioneer in toxicology. ...


Fleming recounted later that the date of his breakthrough was on the morning of Tuesday, September 28, 1928.[2] At his laboratory in the basement of St. Mary's Hospital in London (now part of Imperial College), Fleming noticed a halo of inhibition of bacterial growth around a contaminant blue-green mold Staphylococcus plate culture. Fleming concluded that the mold was releasing a substance that was inhibiting bacterial growth and lysing the bacteria. He grew a pure culture of the mold and discovered that it was a Penicillium mold, now known to be Penicillium notatum. Charles Thom, an American specialist working at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, was the acknowledged expert, and Fleming referred the matter to him. Fleming coined the term "penicillin" to describe the filtrate of a broth culture of the Penicillium mold. Even in these early stages, penicillin was found to be most effective against Gram-positive bacteria, and ineffective against Gram-negative organisms and fungi. He expressed initial optimism that penicillin would be a useful disinfectant, being highly potent with minimal toxicity compared to antiseptics of the day, but, in particular, noted its laboratory value in the isolation of "Bacillus influenzae" (now Haemophilus influenzae).[3] After further experiments, Fleming was convinced that penicillin could not last long enough in the human body to kill pathogenic bacteria, and stopped studying penicillin after 1931, but restarted some clinical trials in 1934 and continued to try to get someone to purify it until 1940.[4] is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Royal School of Mines Entrance Imperial College London is a college of the University of London which focuses on science and technology, and is located in South Kensington in London. ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... This article is about the biological definition of the word Lysis. ... Species Penicillium bilaiae Penicillium camemberti Penicillium candida Penicillium claviforme Penicillium crustosum Penicillium glaucum Penicillium marneffei Penicillium notatum Penicillium purpurogenum Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium stoloniferum Penicillium viridicatum Penicillium verrucosum Penicillium commune Penicillium is a genus of ascomyceteous fungi that includes: Penicillium bilaiae, which is an agricultural inoculant. ... Binomial name Penicillium notatum Westling Penicillium notatum is a synonym of Penicillium chrysogenum, which has taxonomic priority. ... In chemistry and common usage, a filter is device (usually a membrane or layer) that is designed to block certain objects or substances whilst letting others through. ... A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae (Lehmann & Neumann 1896) Winslow 1917 Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1930 Cecil George Paine, a pathologist at the Royal Infirmary in Sheffield, attempted to treat sycosis – eruptions in beard follicles – but was unsuccessful, probably because the drug did not get deep enough. Moving on to ophthalmia neonatorum – a gonococcal infection in babies – he achieved the first cure on 25 November 1930. He cured four patients (one adult, three babies) of eye infections, although a fifth patient was not so lucky.[5] Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1939, Australian scientist Howard Florey (later Baron Florey) and a team of researchers (Ernst Boris Chain, A. D. Gardner, Norman Heatley, M. Jennings, J. Orr-Ewing and G. Sanders) at the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford made significant progress in showing the in vivo bactericidal action of penicillin. Their attempts to treat humans failed due to insufficient volumes of penicillin (the first patient treated was Reserve Constable Albert Alexander), but they proved it harmless and effective on mice.[6] Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey of Adelaide and Marston, OM, FRS, (September 24, 1898 – February 21, 1968) was a pharmacologist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the extraction of penicillin. ... Sir Ernst Boris Chain (June 19, 1906 – August 12, 1979) was a German-born British biochemist, and a 1945 co-recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on penicillin. ... Arthur Duncan Gardner (1884 - 1977) was a member of the team of Oxford University scientists who developed penicillin and was Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford from 1948 to 1954. ... Norman George Heatley (January 10, 1911 – January 5, 2004) was a member of the team of Oxford University scientists who developed penicillin. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ... Reserve Constable Albert Alexander (c. ...


Some of the pioneering trials of penicillin took place at the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford. On March 14, 1942, John Bumstead and Orvan Hess became the first in the world to successfully treat a patient using penicillin.[7][8] The Radcliffe Infirmary is a hospital in central Oxford, England, named after John Radcliffe. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Orvan Walter Hess (born 1906-06-18, Baoba, Pa. ...


The challenge of mass-producing the drug had been daunting. On March 14, 1942 the first patient was successfully treated for streptococcal septicemia with U.S.-made penicillin. Half of the total supply produced at the time was used on that one patient. By June 1942 there was just enough U.S. penicillin available to treat ten patients.[9] A moldy cantaloupe in a Peoria, Illinois market in 1943 was found to contain the best and highest-quality penicillin after a world-wide search.[10] The discovery of the cantaloupe, and the results of fermentation research on corn-steep liquid at the Northern Regional Research Laboratory at Peoria, Illinois, allowed the USA to produce 2.3 million doses in time for the invasion of Normandy in the spring of 1944. is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Trinomial name Cucumis melo cantalupensis Cucumis melo reticulatus Naudin. ...

Penicillin was being mass-produced in 1944
Penicillin was being mass-produced in 1944

During World War II, penicillin made a major difference in the number of deaths and amputations caused by infected wounds among Allied forces, saving an estimated 12%–15% of lives.[citation needed] Availability was severely limited, however, by the difficulty of manufacturing large quantities of penicillin and by the rapid renal clearance of the drug, necessitating frequent dosing. Penicillins are actively secreted, and about 80% of a penicillin dose is cleared within three to four hours of administration. During those times, it became common procedure to collect the urine from patients being treated so that the penicillin could be isolated and reused.[11] Image File history File links PenicillinPSAedit. ... Image File history File links PenicillinPSAedit. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ...


This was not a satisfactory solution, however; so researchers looked for a way to slow penicillin secretion. They hoped to find a molecule that could compete with penicillin for the organic acid transporter responsible for secretion such that the transporter would preferentially secrete the competitive inhibitor. The uricosuric agent probenecid proved to be suitable. When probenecid and penicillin are concomitantly administered, probenecid competitively inhibits the secretion of penicillin, increasing penicillin's concentration and prolonging its activity. The advent of mass-production techniques and semi-synthetic penicillins solved supply issues, and this use of probenecid declined.[11] Probenecid is still useful, however, for certain infections requiring particularly high concentrations of penicillins.[12] Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma. ... Probenecid is a uricosuric drug, primarily used in treating gout or hyperuricemia, that increases uric acid removal in the urine. ...


The chemical structure of penicillin was determined by Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin in the early 1940s. A team of Oxford research scientists led by Australian Howard Florey, Baron Florey and including Ernst Boris Chain and Norman Heatley discovered a method of mass-producing the drug. Chemist John Sheehan at MIT completed the first total synthesis of penicillin and some of its analogs in the early 1950s, but his methods were not efficient for mass production. Florey and Chain shared the 1945 Nobel prize in medicine with Fleming for this work, and, after WWII, Australia was the first country to make the drug available for civilian use. Penicillin has since become the most widely-used antibiotic to date, and is still used for many Gram-positive bacterial infections. Chemical structure refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. ... Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin, OM , FRS (12 May 1910 – 29 July 1994) was a British founder of protein crystallography. ... Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey of Adelaide and Marston, OM, FRS, (September 24, 1898 – February 21, 1968) was a pharmacologist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the extraction of penicillin. ... Sir Ernst Boris Chain (June 19, 1906 – August 12, 1979) was a German-born British biochemist, and a 1945 co-recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on penicillin. ... Norman George Heatley (January 10, 1911 – January 5, 2004) was a member of the team of Oxford University scientists who developed penicillin. ... John Sheehan (1844 – 12 June 1885) was a 19th century New Zealand politician. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ...


Developments from penicillin

The narrow range of treatable diseases or spectrum of activity of the penicillins, along with the poor activity of the orally-active phenoxymethylpenicillin, led to the search for derivatives of penicillin that could treat a wider range of infections.


The first major development was ampicillin, which offered a broader spectrum of activity than either of the original penicillins. Further development yielded beta-lactamase-resistant penicillins including flucloxacillin, dicloxacillin and methicillin. These were significant for their activity against beta-lactamase-producing bacteria species, but are ineffective against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains that subsequently emerged. Ampicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic that has been used extensively to treat bacterial infections since 1961. ... Beta-lactamase is an enzyme (EC 3. ... Flucloxacillin (INN) or floxacillin (USAN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Dicloxacillin (INN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Methicillin (USAN) or meticillin (INN, BAN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... MRSA redirects here. ...


The line of true penicillins was the antipseudomonal penicillins, such as ticarcillin and piperacillin, useful for their activity against Gram-negative bacteria. However, the usefulness of the beta-lactam ring was such that related antibiotics, including the mecillinams, the carbapenems and, most important, the cephalosporins, have this at the center of their structures. Ondred Abumbumer also made further discoveries towards penicillin.[13] Ticarcillin, almost invariably sold and used in combination with clavulanate as Timentin, is a Beta-lactam antibiotic similar to penicillin. ... Piperacillin is an extended spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the ureidopenicillin class. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ...


Mechanism of action

Main article: beta-lactam antibiotic

β-lactam antibiotics work by inhibiting the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall. The β-lactam moiety (functional group) of penicillin binds to the enzyme (DD-transpeptidase) that links the peptidoglycan molecules in bacteria, which weakens the cell wall of the bacterium (in other words, the antibiotic causes cytolysis or death due to osmotic pressure). In addition, the build-up of peptidoglycan precursors triggers the activation of bacterial cell wall hydrolases and autolysins, which further digest the bacteria's existing peptidoglycan. β-lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics which include penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and β-lactamase inhibitors; basically any antibiotic agent which contains a β-lactam nucleus in its molecular structure. ... Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of eubacteria. ... Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... A beta-lactam (β-lactam) or penam is a lactam with a heteroatomic ring structure, consisting of three carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... Human glyoxalase I. Two zinc ions that are needed for the enzyme to catalyze its reaction are shown as purple spheres, and an enzyme inhibitor called S-hexylglutathione is shown as a space-filling model, filling the two active sites. ... A transpeptidase (EC 3. ... Cytolysis is the lysis, or death, of cells due to the rupture of the cell membrane. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ...


Gram-positive bacteria are called protoplasts when they lose their cell wall. Gram-negative bacteria do not lose their cell wall completely and are called spheroplasts after treatment with penicillin. Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Protoplast, from the ancient Greek πρώτον (first) + verb πλάθω or πλάττω (to mould: deriv. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... A spheroplast is a gram-negative bacterium from which the cell wall has been almost completely removed as by the action of penicillin. ...


Penicillin shows a synergistic effect with aminoglycosides, since the inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis allows aminoglycosides to penetrate the bacterial cell wall more easily, allowing its disruption of bacterial protein synthesis within the cell. This results in a lowered MBC for susceptible organisms. Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration(MBC) is the lowest concentration of antibiotic required to kill an organism. ...


Variants in clinical use

The term “penicillin” is often used in the generic sense to refer to one of the narrow-spectrum penicillins, in particular, benzylpenicillin. Penicillin nucleus Penicillin refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ...

Penicillin G
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-Thia-1-azabicyclo(3.2.0)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-6-((phenylacetyl)amino)- (2S-(2α,5α,6β))-
Identifiers
CAS number 61-33-6
ATC code  ?
PubChem  ?
Chemical data
Formula C16H18N2O4S 
Mol. mass 334.4 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism  ?
Half life  ?
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

? Chemical structure of Penicillin-G, containing a Beta-lactam ring (highlighted blue). ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status
Routes parenteral

Benzylpenicillin, commonly known as penicillin G, is the gold standard penicillin. Penicillin G is typically given by a parenteral route of administration (not orally) because it is unstable in the hydrochloric acid of the stomach. Because the drug is given parenterally, higher tissue concentrations of penicillin G can be achieved than is possible with phenoxymethylpenicillin. These higher concentrations translate to increased antibacterial activity. The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... In medicine, a gold standard test is the diagnostic test that is regarded as definitive in determining whether an individual has a disease process. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ...


Specific indications for benzylpenicillin include:[12]

Phenoxymethylpenicillin, commonly known as penicillin V, is the orally-active form of penicillin. It is less active than benzylpenicillin, however, and is appropriate only in conditions where high tissue concentrations are not required. Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ... The clap redirects here. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Aspiration pneumonia is a specific form of lung infection (pneumonia) that develops when oral or gastric contents (including food, saliva, or nasal secretions) enter the bronchial tree. ... For the death metal band, see Abscess (band). ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ...


Specific indications for phenoxymethylpenicillin include:[12]

Penicillin V is the first choice in the treatment of odontogenic infections. Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Streptococcus pyogenes is a spherical gram-positive bacteria that grows in long chains [1] and is the cause of Group A streptococcal infections. ... Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. ... Pharyngitis (IPA: ) is, in most cases, a painful inflammation of the pharynx, and is colloquially referred to as a sore throat. ... This article is about the organ. ... Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... Metronidazole (INN) (pronounced ) is a nitroimidazole anti-infective drug used mainly in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms, particularly anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. ...


Procaine benzylpenicillin (rINN), also known as procaine penicillin, is a combination of benzylpenicillin with the local anaesthetic agent procaine. Following deep intramuscular injection, it is slowly absorbed into the circulation and hydrolysed to benzylpenicillin — thus it is used where prolonged low concentrations of benzylpenicillin are required. An International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as designated by the World Health Organization. ... A local anesthetic is a drug that reversibly inhibits the propagation of signals along nerves. ... Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. ... Intramuscular injection is an injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ...


This combination is aimed at reducing the pain and discomfort associated with a large intramuscular injection of penicillin. It is widely used in veterinary settings. Intramuscular injection is an injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ...


Specific indications for procaine penicillin include:[12]

  • Syphilis
    • It should be noted that in the United States, Bicillin C-R (a injectable suspension which 1.2 million units of benzathine penicillin & 1.2 million units of procaine penicillin per 4 mL) is not recommended for treating syphilis, since it contains only half the recommended dose of benzathine penicillin. Medication errors have been made due to the confusion between Bicillin L-A & Bicillin C-R.[14] As a result, changes in product packaging have been made; specifically, the statement "Not for the Treatment of Syphilis" has been added in red text to both the Bicillin CR and Billin CR 900/300 syringe labels.[15]
  • Respiratory tract infections where compliance with oral treatment is unlikely
  • Cellulitis, erysipelas

Procaine penicillin is also used as an adjunct in the treatment of anthrax. Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ...


Benzathine benzylpenicillin (rINN), also known as benzathine penicillin, is slowly absorbed into the circulation, after intramuscular injection, and hydrolysed to benzylpenicillin in vivo. It is the drug-of-choice when prolonged low concentrations of benzylpenicillin are required and appropriate, allowing prolonged antibiotic action over 2–4 weeks after a single IM dose. It is marketed by Wyeth under the trade name Bicillin L-A. Specific indications for benzathine penicillin include:[12] Penicillin nucleus Penicillin refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... An International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as designated by the World Health Organization. ... Intramuscular injection is an injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ...

Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ...

Adverse effects

Common adverse drug reactions (≥1% of patients) associated with use of the penicillins include diarrhea, hypersensitivity, nausea, rash, neurotoxicity urticaria, and/or superinfection (including candidiasis). Infrequent adverse effects (0.1–1% of patients) include fever, vomiting, erythema, dermatitis, angioedema, seizures (especially in epileptics), and/or pseudomembranous colitis.[12] An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) or adverse drug event (abbreviated ADE) is an expression that describes the unwanted, negative consequences associated with the use of given medications. ... Erythema is redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion. ... Angioedema (BE: angiooedema), also known by its eponym Quinckes edema, is the rapid swelling (edema) of the skin, mucosa and submucosal tissues. ...


Pain and inflammation at the injection site is also common for parenterally-administered benzathine benzylpenicillin, benzylpenicillin, and, to a lesser extent, procaine benzylpenicillin. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ...


Although penicillin is still the most commonly-reported allergy, less than 20% of all patients that believe that they have a penicillin allergy are truly allergic to penicillin;[16] nevertheless, penicillin is still the most common cause of severe allergic drug reactions.


Allergic reactions to any β-lactam antibiotic may occur in up to 10% of patients receiving that agent.[17] Anaphylaxis will occur in approximately 0.01% of patients.[12] It has previously been accepted that there was up to a 10% cross-sensitivity between penicillin-derivatives, cephalosporins, and carbapenems, due to the sharing of the β-lactam ring.[18][19] However recent assessments have shown no increased risk for cross-allergy for 2nd generation or later cephalosporins.[20][21] Recent papers have shown that major feature in determining immunological reactions is the similarity of the side chain of first generation cephalosporins to penicillins, rather than the β-lactam structure that they share.[22] Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. ...


Production

The production of penicillin is an area that requires scientists and engineers to work together to achieve the most efficient way of producing large amounts of penicillin.


Penicillin is a secondary metabolite of fungus Penicillium, which means the fungus will not produce the antibiotics while it is growing, but will produce penicillin when it feels threatened. There are also other factors that inhibit penicillin production. One of these factors is the synthesis pathway of penicillin:


α-ketoglutarate + AcCoA -> homocitrate -> L-α-aminoadipic acid -> L-Lysine + β-lactam


It turns out that the by-product L-Lysine will inhibit the production of homocitrate, so the presence of exogenous lysine should be avoided in the penicillin production.


The penicillium cells are grown using a technique called fed-batch culture; this way the cells are constantly subject to stress and will produce plenty of penicillin. The carbon sources that are available are also important: Glucose will inhibit penicillin, whereas lactose does not. The pH level, nitrogen level, Lysine level, Phosphate level, and oxygen availability of the batches must be controlled automatically. A fed-batch is a biotechnological batchprocess which is based on feeding of a growth limiting nutrient substrate to a culture. ...


Other area of biotechnology such as directed evolution can also be applied to mutate the strains into producing a much larger number of penicillin. These directed-evolution techniques include error-prone PCR, DNA shuffling, ITCHY, and strand over-lap PCR. Directed evolution is a method used in protein engineering to harness the power of Darwinian selection to evolve proteins with desirable properties not found in nature. ...


Penicillin production emerged as an industry as a direct result of World War II. During the time of war, there was an abundance of jobs available on the homefront. A War Production Board was made to monitor job distribution and production.[23] Penicillin production was a huge surplus during the time of the war especially with all the available jobs and the industry prospered. In July, 1943, the War Production Board had set up a plan to distribute mass stock of penicillin to troops fighting in Europe. At the time of this plan, 425 million units were being produced. As a direct result of the war and the War Production Board, by June 1945, over 646 billion units were being produced.[24]


See also

  • β-Lactam antibiotic

β-lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics which include penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and β-lactamase inhibitors; basically any antibiotic agent which contains a β-lactam nucleus in its molecular structure. ...

References

  1. ^ Phil. Trans., 1876, 166, pp27-74. Referred to at: Discoveries of anti-bacterial effects of penicillium moulds before Fleming
  2. ^ Kendall F. Haven, Marvels of Science (Libraries Unlimited, 1994) p182
  3. ^ Fleming A. (1929). "On the antibacterial action of cultures of a penicillium, with special reference to their use in the isolation of B. influenzæ.". Br J Exp Pathol 10 (31): 226–36. 
  4. ^ Brown, Kevin. (2004). Penicillin Man: Alexander Fleming and the Antibiotic Revolution.. Stroud: Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-3152-3. 
  5. ^ Wainwright, M & Swan, HT (1986). "C.G. Paine And The Earliest Surviving Clinical Records Of Penicillin Therapy". Medical History 30 (1): 42–56. PMID 3511336. 
  6. ^ Drews, Jürgen (March 2000). "Drug Discovery: A Historical Perspective". Science 287 (5460): 1960–1964. doi:10.1126/science.287.5460.1960. PMID 10720314. 
  7. ^ Saxon, W.. "Anne Miller, 90, first patient who was saved by penicillin", The New York Times, June 9, 1999. 
  8. ^ Krauss K, editor (1999). Yale-New Haven Hospital Annual Report (PDF). Yale-New Haven Hospital.
  9. ^ John S. Mailer, Jr., and Barbara Mason. Penicillin : Medicine's Wartime Wonder Drug and Its Production at Peoria, Illinois. lib.niu.edu. Retrieved on 2008-02-11.
  10. ^ Mary Bellis. The History of Penicillin. Inventors. About.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-30.
  11. ^ a b Silverthorn, DU. (2004). Human physiology: an integrated approach.. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Pearson Education. ISBN 0-8053-5957-5. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g (2006) in Rossi S, editor: Australian Medicines Handbook. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook. ISBN 0-9757919-2-3. 
  13. ^ James, PharmD, Christopher W.; Cheryle Gurk-Turner, RPh (January 2001). "Cross-reactivity of beta-lactam antibiotics". Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings 14 (1): 106–107. Dallas, Texas: Baylor University Medical Center. PMID 16369597. Retrieved on [[November 17, 2007]]. 
  14. ^ "Inadvertent use of Bicillin C-R to treat syphilis infection--Los Angeles, California, 1999-2004" (2005). MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54 (9): 217–9. PMID 15758893. 
  15. ^ United States Food & Drug Administration. "FDA Strengthens Labels of Two Specific Types of Antibiotics to Ensure Proper Use." Published December 1, 2004. Last accessed June 18, 2007.
  16. ^ Salkind AR, Cuddy PG, Foxworth JW (2001). "Is this patient allergic to penicillin? An evidence-based analysis of the likelihood of penicillin allergy". JAMA 285 (19): 2498–2505. doi:10.1001/jama.285.19.2498. PMID 11368703. 
  17. ^ Solensky R (2003). "Hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics". Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology 24 (3): 201–20. doi:10.1385/CRIAI:24:3:201. PMID 12721392. 
  18. ^ Dash CH (1975). "Penicillin allergy and the cephalosporins". J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 1 (3 Suppl): 107–18. PMID 1201975. 
  19. ^ Gruchalla RS, Pirmohamed M (2006). "Clinical practice. Antibiotic allergy". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (6): 601–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp043986. PMID 16467547. 
  20. ^ Pichichero ME (2006). "Cephalosporins can be prescribed safely for penicillin-allergic patients" (PDF). The Journal of family practice 55 (2): 106–12. PMID 16451776. 
  21. ^ Pichichero ME (2007). "Use of selected cephalosporins in penicillin-allergic patients: a paradigm shift". Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 57 (3 Suppl): 13S–18S. doi:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2006.12.004. PMID 17349459. 
  22. ^ Antunez C, Blanca-Lopez N, Torres MJ, et al (2006). "Immediate allergic reactions to cephalosporins: evaluation of cross-reactivity with a panel of penicillins and cephalosporins". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117 (2): 404–10. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.10.032. PMID 16461141. 
  23. ^ "Start of World War II." Legacy Publishers. 2 Apr. 2008 http://history.howstuffworks.com/world-war-ii/start-world-war-2.htm
  24. ^ Parascandola, John. The History of Antibiotics: a Symposium. Publication No. 5, 1980.

Discoveries of anti-bacterial effects of penicillium moulds before Fleming Penicillin, isolated and named by Alexander Fleming Alexander Fleming, although he discovered and identified the mould independently of the previous researchers, was not the first to discover the antibacterial properties of the Penicillium mould. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Medicines Handbook or AMH is a medical reference text commonly used in practice by health professionals (particularly general practitioners and pharmacists) in Australia. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... β-lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics which include penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and β-lactamase inhibitors; basically any antibiotic agent which contains a β-lactam nucleus in its molecular structure. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Amoxicillin (INN) or amoxycillin (former BAN) is a moderate-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... Ampicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic that has been used extensively to treat bacterial infections since 1961. ... Azlocillin, similar to mezlocillin and piperacillin, is an acylampicillin with an extended spectrum of activity and greater in vitro potency than the carboxy penicillins. ... Carbenicillin is an antibiotic chemically similar to ampicillin. ... Cloxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic in the same class as penicillin. ... Dicloxacillin (INN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Flucloxacillin (INN) or floxacillin (USAN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Mezlocillin is a penicillin antibiotic. ... Nafcillin sodium is an beta-lactam antibiotic related to penicillin. ... Piperacillin is an extended spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the ureidopenicillin class. ... Pivampicillin is a pivaloyloxymethylester of ampicillin. ... Ticarcillin, almost invariably sold and used in combination with clavulanate as Timentin, is a Beta-lactam antibiotic similar to penicillin. ... Clavulanic acid Sulbactam Tazobactam A beta-lactamase inhibitor is a drug given in conjunction with a beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Sulbactam is a molecule which is given in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics to overcome beta-lactamase, an enzyme produced by bacteria that destroys the antibiotics. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Clavulanic acid is often combined with amoxicillin (to form co-amoxiclav) to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, including infections of the ears, lungs, sinus, skin, and urinary tract. ... Ampicillin/sulbactam is a combination of the common penicillin-derived antibiotic ampicillin and sulbactam, an inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase. ... Sultamicillin is an oral form of the antibiotic combination ampicillin/sulbactam. ... Co-amoxiclav is the British Approved Name, in the British Pharmacopoeia, for the combination antibiotic containing amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
How Penicillin Kills Bacteria (206 words)
Penicillin kills bacteria by interfering with the ability to synthesize cell wall.
In this sequence, Escherichia coli were incubated in penicillin for 30 minutes.
To learn more about how penicillin works be sure to check out " What the Heck is Penicillin" at Jack's "Bugs in the News".
Penicillin - Fleming's mold (847 words)
The accidental discovery of penicillin in the twentieth century may be one of the greatest milestones in medical history.
Penicillin in World War II Trials of the drug on humans were so successful that great quantities of penicillin were used to treat infections suffered by wounded and ill soldiers during World War II (1939-1945).
Because the discovery and uevelopment of penicillin is rightly regarded as one of the greatest achievements in medical history, many of the scientists who worked on it have been highly honored.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m