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Encyclopedia > Penguin
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Penguins
Fossil range: Paleocene-Recent
Chinstrap Penguin, Pygoscelis antarctica
Chinstrap Penguin, Pygoscelis antarctica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Sphenisciformes
Sharpe, 1891
Family: Spheniscidae
Bonaparte, 1831
Modern genera
Some penguins are curious.
Some penguins are curious.

Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere. The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65 Ma to 56 Ma (million years ago). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x666, 145 KB) Chinstrap Penguin, Manchot à jugulaire (Pygoscelis antarctica) photo from US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - www. ... Binomial name Pygoscelis antarctica (Forster, 1781) The Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) is a species of penguin which is found in the South Sandwich Islands, Antarctica, the South Orkneys, South Shetland, South Georgia, Bouvet Island, Balleny and Peter I Island. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Animalia redirects here. ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Richard Bowdler Sharpe (November 22, 1847 - December 25, 1909) was an English zoologist. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte (May 24, 1803 _ July 29, 1857) was a French naturalist and ornithologist. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species Aptenodytes patagonicus Aptenodytes forsteri Aptenodytes ridgeni (fossil) The genus Aptenodytes (from the Greek for flightless diver) contains two extant species of penguins collectively known as the great penguins. King Penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus Emperor Penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri Ridgens Penguin (Aptenodytes ridgeni) is an extinct species known from fossil bones. ... Species Eudyptes chrysocome Eudyptes chrysolophus Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Eudyptes robustus Eudyptes schlegeli Eudyptes sclateri The genus Eudyptes (good diver) contains seven species of penguins collectively known as The Crested Penguins. Classification ORDER SPHENISCIFORMES Family Spheniscidae Rockhopper Penguin, Eudyptes chrysocome Fiordland Penguin, Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Snares Penguin, Eudyptes robustus Royal Penguin, Eudyptes schlegeli... Species Eudyptula minor Eudyptula albosignata The genus Eudyptula (good little diver) contains two species of penguin. ... Species Megadyptes antipodes The genus Megadyptes (large diver) contains one species of penguin. ... Factors that affect hatching asynchrony in the chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) Ana de León, Guillermo Soave, Vanina Ferretti, Juan Moreno A1 Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales-CSIC, J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain A2 Instituto Antártico Argentino, Cerrito 1248, 1010 Buenos Aires... Species Spheniscus demersus Spheniscus predemersus (fossil) Spheniscus mendiculus Spheniscus humboldti Spheniscus magellanicus The genus Spheniscus (wedge-shaped) contains four living species of penguins collectively known as the banded penguins, due to their similar coloration. ... This article is about penguin birds. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1417x1063, 161 KB) Roux December, 2006 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1417x1063, 161 KB) Roux December, 2006 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is 1) a rank or 2) a taxon in that rank. ... Animal environments are classified as either aquatic (water), terrestrial (land), or amphibious (water and land). ... Flightless birds evolved from flying ancestors; there are about forty species in existence today. ... The Southern Hemisphere is the half of a planets surface (or celestial sphere) that is south of the equator (the word hemisphere literally means half ball). On Earth it contains five continents (Antarctica, Australia, most of South America, parts of Africa and Asia) as well as four oceans (South...


The number of penguin species has been and still is a matter of debate. Depending on which authority is followed, biodiversity varies between 17 and 20 living species, all in the subfamily Spheniscinae. Some sources consider the White-flippered Penguin a separate Eudyptula species, while others treat it as a subspecies of the Little Penguin (e.g. Williams, 1995; Davis & Renner, 2003); the actual situation seems to be more complicated (Banks et al. 2002). Similarly, it is still unclear whether the Royal Penguin is merely a color morph of the Macaroni penguin. Also possibly eligible to be treated as a separate species is the Northern population of Rockhopper penguins (Davis & Renner, 2003). Although all penguin species are native to the southern hemisphere, they are not, contrary to popular belief, found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin actually live so far south. Three[verification needed] species live in the temperate zone; one lives as far north as the Galápagos Islands (the Galápagos Penguin). In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... ... Binomial name Eudyptula albosignata Finsch, 1874 The White-flippered Penguin (Eudyptula albosignata) is the smallest species of penguin, found in New Zealand. ... Species Eudyptula minor Eudyptula albosignata The genus Eudyptula (good little diver) contains two species of penguin. ... Korora redirects here. ... Binomial name Eudyptes schlegeli Finsch, 1876 The Royal Penguin (Eudyptes schlegeli) inhabits the waters surrounding Antarctica. ... Binomial name Eudyptes chrysolophus (Brandt, 1837) The Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) is a species of penguin closely related to the Rockhopper Penguin. ... Binomial name Eudyptes chrysocome Forster,, 1781 The Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) is a species of penguin closely related to the Macaroni Penguin. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Orthographic projection centred over the Galápagos The Galápagos Islands (Spanish names: Archipiélago de Colón or Islas Galápagos, from galápago, saddle- after the shells of saddlebacked Galápagos tortoises) are an archipelago made up of 13 main volcanic islands, 6 smaller islands, and 107 rocks... Binomial name Spheniscus mendiculus Sundevall, 1871 The Galápagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) is a penguin endemic to the Galápagos Islands. ...


The largest living species is the Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): adults average about 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) tall and weigh 35 kg (75 lb) or more. The smallest penguin species is the Little Blue Penguin (also known as the Fairy Penguin or the Blue Penguin), which stands around 40 cm tall (16 in) and weighs 1 kg (2.2 lb). Generally larger penguins retain heat better, and thus inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are found in temperate or even tropical climates (see also Bergmann's Rule). Some prehistoric species attained enormous sizes, becoming as high or as heavy as an adult human; see below for more. Binomial name Aptenodytes forsteri Gray, 1844 The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species. ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... Korora redirects here. ... The large size of a polar bear allows it to radiate less heat in a cold climate. ... Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ...


Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid, and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. They spend half of their life on land and half in the oceans. Families Euphausiidae Euphausia Dana, 1852 Meganyctiphanes Holt and W. M. Tattersall, 1905 Nematobrachion Calman, 1905 Nematoscelis G. O. Sars, 1883 Nyctiphanes G. O. Sars, 1883 Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910 Stylocheiron G. O. Sars, 1883 Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911 Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851 Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831 Bentheuphausiidae Bentheuphausia amblyops Krill are shrimp-like marine... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Suborders Myopsina Oegopsina Squid are a large, diverse group of marine cephalopods. ... Marine biology is the study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems. ...


Penguins seem to have no fear of humans and have approached groups of explorers without hesitation. This is probably on account of there being no land predators in Antarctica or the nearby offshore islands that prey on or attack penguins. Instead, penguins are at risk at sea from predators such as the leopard seal. Prey can refer to: Look up Prey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A prey animal eaten by a predator in an act called predation. ... Binomial name Hydrurga leptonyx (Blainville, 1820) The Leopard Seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) is one of the true seals belonging to the family Phocidae. ...


A new study by MIT released in January of 2007, found that 80% of penguins were left handed. The findings concluded that penguins use their dominant flipper for everything from building nests to moving other penguins out of the way.

Contents

Anatomy

Penguins are superbly adapted to an aquatic life. Their wings have become flippers, useless for flight in the air. In the water, however, penguins are astonishingly agile. Within the smooth plumage a layer of air is preserved, ensuring buoyancy. The air layer also helps insulate the birds in cold waters. On land, penguins use their tails and wings to maintain balance for their upright stance. WING ESPN 1410 is an commercial AM radio station in Dayton, Ohio operating with 5,000 watts at 1410 kHz with studios, offices and transmitter located on David Road in Kettering. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... A scorpion tail A tail is the section at the rear end of an animals body, the term particularly referring to such a section which forms a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso. ...


All penguins are countershaded - that is, they have a white underside and a dark (mostly black) upperside. This is for camouflage. A predator looking up from below (such as an orca or a leopard seal) has difficulty distinguishing between a white penguin belly and the reflective water surface. The dark plumage on their backs camouflages them from above. Countershading employed by the great white shark. ... An infant Cuttlefish blends into the surrounding sand substrate. ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... Binomial name Hydrurga leptonyx (Blainville, 1820) The Leopard Seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) is one of the true seals belonging to the family Phocidae. ...


Diving penguins reach 6 to 12 km/h (3.7 to 7.5 mph), though there are reports of velocities of 27 km/h (17 mph) (which are more realistic in the case of startled flight). The small penguins do not usually dive deep; they catch their prey near the surface in dives that normally last only one or two minutes. Larger penguins can dive deep in case of need. Dives of the large Emperor Penguin have been recorded which reach a depth of 565 m (1870 ft) and last up to 22 minutes. Binomial name Aptenodytes forsteri Gray, 1844 The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species. ...


Penguins either waddle on their feet or slide on their bellies across the snow, a movement called "tobogganing", which allows them to conserve energy and move relatively fast at the same time.


Penguins have an excellent sense of hearing. Their eyes are adapted for underwater vision, and are their primary means of locating prey and avoiding predators; in air, conversely, they are nearsighted. Their sense of smell has not been researched so far. Hearing, is one of the traditional five senses and refers to the ability to detect sound. ... A human eye. ... Normal vision for a achromatopsic colour-blind person. ...


They are able to drink salt water safely because their supraorbital gland filters excess salt from the bloodstream. [1][2][3] The salt is excreted in a concentrated fluid from the nasal passages. Location of the supraorbital ridge on a human skull Magellanic penguin The Supraorbital Gland is a type of lateral nasal salt gland found in some species of marine birds, specifically penguins, which converts saltwater to fresh water. ...


Mating habits

Some penguins mate for life, others for just one season. They generally raise a small brood, and the parents cooperate in caring for the clutch and for the young. During the cold season on the other hand the mates separate for several months to protect the egg. The male stays with the egg and keeps it warm, and the female goes out to sea and finds food so that when it comes home, the baby will have food to eat. Once the female comes back, they switch. When mothers lose a chick, they sometimes attempt to "steal" another mother's chick, usually unsuccessfully as other females in the vicinity assist the defending mother in keeping her chick. As the young grow, they assemble in large groups called crèches in some species, such as Emperor Penguins. A baby chicken Look up chick in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Crèche in zoology refers to care of anothers offspring, for instance in a colony. ... Binomial name Aptenodytes forsteri Gray, 1844 The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species. ...


Homosexual Behaviour

In early February 2004 the New York Times reported a male pair of Chinstrap penguins in the Central Park Zoo in New York City were partnered, and when given an egg which needed incubation, successfully hatched it. Other penguins in New York have also been reported to be forming same-sex pairs.[4] 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Binomial name Pygoscelis antarctica (Forster, 1781) The Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) is a species of penguin which is found in the South Sandwich Islands, Antarctica, the South Orkneys, South Shetland, South Georgia, Bouvet Island, Balleny and Peter I Island. ... The Central Park Zoo is located in Central Park in New York City. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City...


This was the basis for the children's picture book And Tango Makes Three. The couple about whom the book was based, Roy and Silo, would see further interesting developments in their relationship when in September 2005, Silo left Roy for a female penguin. A picture book is a popular form of illustrated literature—more precisely, a book with pictures in it—popularized in the 20th century Western world. ... And Tango Makes Three cover And Tango Makes Three (Simon & Schuster Childrens Publishing, April 26 2005 ISBN 0-689-87845-1) is a childrens book, based on the true story of Roy and Silo, two penguins from a New York zoo who are a couple. ... Wendell and Cass, another male-male couple at the New York Zoo Cover of the childrens book, And Tango Makes Three Roy and Silo are a penguin couple at the New York Aquarium. ...


Zoos in Japan and Germany have also documented male penguin couples.[5] The couples have been shown to build nests together and use a stone to replace an egg in the nest. Researchers at Rikkyo University in Tokyo found twenty such pairs at sixteen major aquariums and zoos in Japan. Bremerhaven Zoo in Germany attempted to break up the male couples by importing female penguins from Sweden and separating the male couples; they were unsuccessful. The zoo director stated the relationships were too strong between the older couples. Rikkyo University (St. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Systematics and evolution

Systematics

Updated after Marples (1962), Acosta Hospitaleche (2004), and Ksepka et al. (2006). See the gallery for images of most living species. Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ...


ORDER SPHENISCIFORMES

  • Basal and unresolved taxa
    • Waimanu - basal (Middle-Late Eocene)
    • Sphenisciformes gen. et sp. indet. CADIC P 21 (Leticia Middle Eocene of Punta Torcida, Argentina: Clarke et al. 2003)
  • Family Spheniscidae
    • Subfamily Palaeeudyptinae - Giant penguins (fossil)
      • Crossvallia (Cross Valley Late Paleocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica) - tentatively assigned to this subfamily
      • Anthropornis (Middle Eocene ?- Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
      • Archaeospheniscus (Middle/Late Eocene - Late Oligocene)
      • Delphinornis (Middle/Late Eocene ?- Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica) - tentatively assigned to this subfamily
      • Marambiornis (Late Eocene -? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica) - tentatively assigned to this subfamily
      • Mesetaornis (Late Eocene -? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica) - tentatively assigned to this subfamily
      • Palaeeudyptes (Middle/Late Eocene - Late Oligocene)
      • Pachydyptes (Late Eocene)
      • Platydyptes (Late Oligocene of New Zealand)
      • Anthropodyptes (Middle Miocene) - tentatively assigned to this subfamily
    • Subfamily Paraptenodytinae - Patagonian stout-legged penguins (fossil)
      • Arthrodytes (San Julian Late Eocene/Early Oligocene - Patagonia Early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
      • Paraptenodytes (Early - Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
    • Subfamily Palaeospheniscinae - Patagonian slender-legged penguins (fossil)
      • Eretiscus (Patagonia Early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
      • Palaeospheniscus (Early? - Late Miocene/Early Pliocene) - includes Chubutodyptes
    • Subfamily Spheniscinae - Modern penguins
    • Not assigned to a subfamily (all fossil)
      • Tonniornis (Late Eocene -? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
      • Wimanornis (Late Eocene -? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
      • Duntroonornis (Late Oligocene of Otago, New Zealand)
      • Korora (Late Oligocene of S Canterbury, New Zealand)
      • Spheniscidae gen. et sp. indet (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of Hakataramea, New Zealand)
      • Pseudaptenodytes (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
      • Marplesornis (Pliocene)
      • Dege - possibly Spheniscinae
      • Nucleornis - possibly Spheniscinae

Taxonomy: Clarke et al. (2003) and Ksepka et al. (2006) apply the phylogenetic taxon Spheniscidae to what here is referred to as Spheniscinae. Furthermore, they restrict the phylogenetic taxon Sphenisciformes to flightless taxa, and establish (Clarke et al. 2003) the phylogenetic taxon Pansphenisciformes as equivalent to the Linnean taxon Sphenisciformes, i.e., including any flying basal "proto-penguins" to be discovered eventually. Given that neither the relationships of the penguin subfamilies to each other nor the placement of the penguins in the avian phylogeny is presently resolved, this seems spurious and in any case is confusing; the established Linnean system is thus followed here. In phylogenetics, basal members of a group are subgroups that diverged very early from the others. ... Species Waimanu (waterbird) was a genus of early penguin which lived soon after the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event, lending support to the theory that the radiation of modern birds took place before the extinction of the dinosaurs, not after as others had proposed. ... Genera Palaeeudyptes Archaeospheniscus Anthropornis Pachydyptes Platydyptes and see article text Synonyms Anthropornithidae Simpson, 1946 The New Zealand Giant Penguins, Palaeeudyptinae, are an extinct subfamily of penguins. ... Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... Binomial name Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Wiman, 1905 Nordenskjoelds Giant Penguin, Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, was a penguin species that lived 45-37 million years ago, during the Eocene and the very early part of the Oligocene. ... Species Archaeospheniscus lowei (type) Archaeospheniscus lopdelli Archaeospheniscus wimani Synonyms Notodyptes Marples, 1953 Archaeospheniscus is an extinct genus of large penguins. ... Species Palaeeudyptes antarcticus (type) Palaeeudyptes gunnari Palaeeudyptes marplesi Palaeeudyptes klekowskii Synonyms Eosphaeniscus Wiman, 1905 Palaeeudyptes is an extinct genus of large penguins, currently containing four accepted species. ... Pachydyptes is an extinct genus of penguin. ... Binomial name Anthropodyptes gilli Anthropodyptes is a poorly known monotypic genus of extinct penguin. ... Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... Species Paraptenodytes antarcticus (type) Paraptenodytes robustus Paraptenodytes brodkorbi (disputed) Synonyms Metancylornis Ameghino, 1905 Isotremornis Ameghino, 1905 Treleudytes Ameghino, 1905 Paraptenodytes is an extinct genus of penguins which contains two or three species sized between a Magellanic Penguin and a small Emperor Penguin (). They are known from fossil bones of a... Species Palaeospheniscus patagonicus (type) Palaeospheniscus wimani (disputed) Palaeospheniscus gracilis (disputed) Palaeospheniscus bergi Palaeospheniscus biloculatus Synonyms Neculus Ameghino, 1905 Paraspheniscus Ameghino, 1905 Perispheniscus Ameghino, 1905 Pseudospheniscus Ameghino, 1905 Chubutodyptes Simpson, 1970 (disputed) Palaeospheniscus is an extinct genus of penguins which contains three species at present. ... Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... Species Palaeospheniscus patagonicus (type) Palaeospheniscus bergi Palaeospheniscus gracilis (disputed) Palaeospheniscus wimani (disputed) Synonyms Paraspheniscus Ameghino, 1905 Perispheniscus Ameghino, 1905 Pseudospheniscus Ameghino, 1905 Palaeospheniscus is an extinct genus of penguins which contains three or four species at present. ... Species Aptenodytes patagonicus Aptenodytes forsteri Aptenodytes ridgeni (fossil) The genus Aptenodytes (from the Greek for flightless diver) contains two extant species of penguins collectively known as the great penguins. King Penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus Emperor Penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri Ridgens Penguin (Aptenodytes ridgeni) is an extinct species known from fossil bones. ... Factors that affect hatching asynchrony in the chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) Ana de León, Guillermo Soave, Vanina Ferretti, Juan Moreno A1 Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales-CSIC, J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain A2 Instituto Antártico Argentino, Cerrito 1248, 1010 Buenos Aires... Species Eudyptula minor Eudyptula albosignata The genus Eudyptula (good little diver) contains two species of penguin. ... Species Spheniscus demersus Spheniscus predemersus (fossil) Spheniscus mendiculus Spheniscus humboldti Spheniscus magellanicus The genus Spheniscus (wedge-shaped) contains four living species of penguins collectively known as the banded penguins, due to their similar coloration. ... Species Megadyptes antipodes The genus Megadyptes (large diver) contains one species of penguin. ... Species Eudyptes chrysocome Eudyptes chrysolophus Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Eudyptes robustus Eudyptes schlegeli Eudyptes sclateri The genus Eudyptes (good diver) contains seven species of penguins collectively known as The Crested Penguins. Classification ORDER SPHENISCIFORMES Family Spheniscidae Rockhopper Penguin, Eudyptes chrysocome Fiordland Penguin, Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Snares Penguin, Eudyptes robustus Royal Penguin, Eudyptes schlegeli... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... Species Pseudaptenodytes macraei (type) Pseudaptenodytes minor (disputed) The extinct penguin genus Pseudaptenodytes contains the type species ; smaller bones have been assigned to , although it is not certain whether they are really from a different species or simply of younger individuals; both taxa are known by an insufficient selection of bones. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... Linnaean taxonomy classifies living things into a hierarchy, originally starting with kingdoms. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ...


Evolution

The evolutionary history of penguins is by now fairly well researched and represents a showcase of evolutionary biogeography; though as penguin bones of any one species vary much in size and few good specimens are known, the alpha taxonomy of many prehistoric forms still leaves much to be desired. A number of seminal articles dealing with penguin prehistory has been published since 2005 (Bertelli & Giannini 2005, Baker et al. 2006, Ksepka et al. 2006, Slack et al. 2006), and at least the evolution of the living genera can be considered resolved by now. This article is about evolution in biology. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


According to the comprehensive review of the available evidence by Ksepka et al. (2006), the basal penguins lived around the time of the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event somewhere in the general area of (southern) New Zealand and Byrd Land, Antarctica. Due to plate tectonics, these areas were at that time less than 1500 kilometers apart rather than the 4000 km of today. The last common ancestor of penguins and their sister clade can be roughly dated to the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary, around 70-68 mya (Baker et al. 2006, Slack et al. 2006)[6] What can be said as certainly as possible in the absence of direct (i.e., fossil) evidence is that by the end of the Cretaceous, the penguin lineage must have been evolutionarily well distinct, though much less so morphologically; it is fairly likely that they were not yet flightless at that time, as flightless birds have generally low resilience to the breakdown of trophic webs which follows the initial phase of mass extinctions (see also Flightless Cormorant). In phylogenetics, basal members of a group are subgroups that diverged very early from the others. ... Badlands near Drumheller, Alberta where erosion has exposed the KT boundary. ... Map of Antarctica Marie Byrd Land is the portion of Antarctica lying east of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea and south of the Pacific Ocean, extending eastward approximately to a line between the head of the Ross Ice Shelf and Eights Coast. ... Bridge across the Álfagjá rift valley in southwest Iceland, the boundary of the Eurasian and North American continental tectonic plates. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... Last universal ancestor (LUA), the hypothetical latest living organism from which all currently living organisms descend. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... The Campanian is a stage on the geologic time scale occuring from 83. ... The Maastrichtian is the last age of the Cretaceous period, and therefore of the Mesozoic era. ... The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Morphology is the following: In linguistics, morphology is the study of the structure of word forms. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species in a biotic community. ... Binomial name Nannopterum harrisi (Rothschild, 1898) The Flightless Cormorant, Nannopterum harrisi, is a cormorant native to the Galapagos Islands. ...


The oldest fossils
The oldest known fossil penguin species is Waimanu manneringi, which lived in the early Paleocene epoch of New Zealand, or about 62 mya (Slack et al. 2006). While they were not as well adapted to aquatic life as modern penguins, Waimanu were generally loon-like birds but already flightless, with short wings adapted for deep diving. They swam on the surface using mainly their feet, but the wings were - as opposed to most other diving birds living and extinct - already adapting to underwater locomotion. Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65 Ma to 56 Ma (million years ago). ... In astronomy, geology, and paleontology, mya is an acronym for million years ago and is used as a unit of time to denote length of time before the present. ... Species Waimanu (waterbird) was a genus of early penguin which lived soon after the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event, lending support to the theory that the radiation of modern birds took place before the extinction of the dinosaurs, not after as others had proposed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


An unnamed fossil from Argentina proves that by the Bartonian (Middle Eocene), some 39-38 mya[7], primitive penguins had spread to South America and were in the process of expanding into Atlantic waters (Clarke et al. 2003). In the geologic timescale, the Bartonian is the age of the Eocene epoch of the Paleogene period of the Cenozoic era of the Fanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 40 million 400 thousand and 37 million 200 thousand years ago, approximatedly. ... The Eocene epoch (55. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ...


"Palaeeudyptines"
During the Late Eocene and the Early Oligocene (40-30 mya), some lineages of gigantic penguins existed. Nordenskjoeld's Giant Penguin was the tallest, growing nearly 1.80 meters (6 feet) tall. The New Zealand Giant Penguin was probably the heaviest, weighing 80 kg or more. Both were found on New Zealand, the former also in the Antarctic farther eastwards. The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... Binomial name Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Wiman, 1905 Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, or Nordenskjoelds Giant Penguin, was a penguin species that lived 45–37 million years ago, during the Late Eocene and the earliest part of the Oligocene. ... Binomial name Pachydyptes ponderosus Oliver, 1930 Synonyms Palaeeudyptes antarcticus Hector, 1873 (partim) Pachydyptes ponderosa Lowe, 1939 (lapsus) Anthropornis ponderosus Lowe, 1939 Anthropornis ponderosa Lowe, 1939 (lapsus) Anthropornis nordenskjoldi Lowe, 1939 (partim) Pachydyptes is an extinct genus of penguin. ...


Traditionally, most extinct species of penguins, giant or small, had been placed in the paraphyletic subfamily called Palaeeudyptinae. More recently, with new taxa being discovered and placed in the phylogeny if possible, it is becoming accepted that there were at least 2 major extinct lineages. One or two closely related ones occurred in Patagonia, and at least one other - which is or includes the paleeeudyptines as recognized today - occurred on most Antarctic and subantarctic coasts. Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... ... Genera Palaeeudyptes Archaeospheniscus Anthropornis Pachydyptes Platydyptes and see article text Synonyms Anthropornithidae Simpson, 1946 The New Zealand Giant Penguins, Palaeeudyptinae, are an extinct subfamily of penguins. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... In orange the area most commonly defined as Patagonia. ... Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ...


But size plasticity seems to have been great at this initial stage of penguin radiation: on Seymour Island, Antarctica, for example, around ten known species of penguins ranging from medium to huge size apparently coexisted some 35 mya during the Priabonian (Late Eocene) (Jadwiszczak 2006). It is not even known whether the gigantic palaeeudyptines constitute a monophyletic lineage, or whether gigantism was evolved independently in a much restricted Palaeeudyptinae and the Anthropornithinae - were they considered valid -, or whether there was a wide size range present in the Palaeeudyptinae as delimited as usually done these days (i.e., including Anthropornis) (Ksepka et al. 2006). Adaptive radiation describes the rapid speciation of a single or a few species to fill many ecological niches. ... For North Seymour Island in the Galápagos Islands group, see: North Seymour Island. ... The Priabonian (also known as Jacksonian or Runangan) is the final stage of the Eocene Epoch. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ...


In any case, the gigantic penguins had disappeared by the end of the Paleogene, around 25 mya. Interestingly, their decline and disappearance coincides with the spread of the Squalodontoidea and other primitive, fish-eating toothed whales, which certainly competed with them for food, and were ultimately more successful (Baker et al. 2006). A new lineage, the Paraptenodytinae which includes smaller but decidedly stout-legged forms, had already arisen in southernmost South America by that time. The early Neogene saw the emergence of yet another morphotype in the same area, the similarly-sized but more gracile Palaeospheniscinae, as well as the radiation which gave rise to the penguin biodiversity of our time. Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ... Families See text. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... Species Palaeospheniscus patagonicus (type) Palaeospheniscus wimani (disputed) Palaeospheniscus gracilis (disputed) Palaeospheniscus bergi Palaeospheniscus biloculatus Synonyms Neculus Ameghino, 1905 Paraspheniscus Ameghino, 1905 Perispheniscus Ameghino, 1905 Pseudospheniscus Ameghino, 1905 Chubutodyptes Simpson, 1970 (disputed) Palaeospheniscus is an extinct genus of penguins which contains three species at present. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


Origin and systematics of modern penguins
Modern penguins consititute two undisputed clades and another two more basal genera with more ambiguous relationships (Bertelli & Giannini 2005). The origin of the Spheniscinae lies probably in the latest Paleogene, and geographically it must have been much the same as the general area in which the order evolved: the oceans between the Australia-New Zealand region and the Antarctic (Baker et al. 2006). Presumedly diverging from other penguins around 40 mya (Baker et al. 2006), it seems that the Spheniscinae were for quite some time limited to their ancestral area, as the well-researched deposits of the Antarctic Peninsula and Patagonia have not yielded Paleogene fossils of the subfamily. Also, the earliest spheniscine lineages are those with the most southern distribution. A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Antarctic Peninsula map Booth Island and Mount Scott flank the narrow Lemaire Channel on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula. ... In orange the area most commonly defined as Patagonia. ...


The genus Aptenodytes appears to be the basalmost divergence among living penguins; they have bright yellow-orange neck, breast, and bill patches, incubate by placing their eggs on their feet, and when they hatch, they are almost naked. This genus has a distribution centered on the Antarctic coasts and barely extends to some subantarctic islands today.


Pygoscelis contains species with a fairly simple black-and-white head pattern; their distribution is intermediate, centered on Antarctic coasts but extending somewhat northwards from there. In external morphology, these apparently still resemble the common ancestor of the Spheniscinae, as Aptenodytes' autapomorphies are in most cases fairly pronounced adaptations related to that genus' extreme habitat conditions. As the former genus, it seems to have diverged during the Bartonian[8], but the range expansion and radiation which lead to the present-day diversity probably did not occur until much later, around the Burdigalian stage of the Early Miocene, roughly 20-15 mya (Baker et al. 2006). Morphology is the following: In linguistics, morphology is the study of the structure of word forms. ... An autapomorphy in cladistics is a derived trait that is unique to a given taxon. ... The eye is an adaptation. ... Look up habitat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the geologic timescale, the Burdigalian is the age of the Miocene epoch of the Neogene period of the Cenozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that is between 20. ... The Miocene epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23 to 5. ...


The genera Spheniscus and Eudyptula contain species with a mostly subantarctic distribution centered on South America; some, however, range quite far northwards. They all lack carotenoid coloration, and the former genus has a conspicuous banded head pattern; they are unique among living penguins in nesting in burrows. This group probably radiated eastwards with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current out of the ancestral range of modern penguins throughout the Chattian (Late Oligocene), starting approximately 28 mya (Baker et al. 2006). While the two genera separated during this time, the present-day diversity is the result of a Pliocene radiation, taking place some 4-2 mya (Baker et al. 2006). In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a grouping in the classification of living organisms having one or more related and morphologically similar species. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Carotenoids are organic pigments that are naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria. ... The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is an ocean current that flows from west to east around Antarctica. ... The Chattian (also known as Chickasawhayan) is the second and final of two stages of the Oligocene Epoch. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ...


The Megadyptes - Eudyptes clade occurs at similar latitudes (though not as far north as the Galapagos Penguin), has its highest diversity in the New Zealand region, and represent a westward dispersal. They are characterized by hairy yellow ornamental head feathers; their bills are at least partly red. These two genera diverged apparently in the Middle Miocene (Langhian, roughly 15-14 mya), but again, the living species of Eudyptes are the product of a later radiation, stretching from about the late Tortonian (Late Miocene, 8 mya) to the end of the Pliocene (Baker et al. 2006). Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... Binomial name Spheniscus mendiculus Sundevall, 1871 The Galápagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) is a penguin endemic to the Galapagos Islands. ... Millions of Years Categories: Graphical timelines | Geology stubs ... Millions of Years Categories: Graphical timelines | Geology stubs ...


It is most interesting to note that the geographical and temporal pattern or spheniscine evolution corresponds closely to two episodes of global cooling documented in the paleoclimatic record (Baker et al. 2006). The emergence of the subantarctic lineage at the end of the Bartonian corresponds with the onset of the slow period of cooling that eventually led to the ice ages some 35 million years later. With habitat on the Antarctic coasts declining, by the Priabonian more hospitable conditions for most penguins existed in the subantarctic regions rather than in Antarctica itself. Notably, the cold Antarctic Circumpolar Current also started as a continuous circumpolar flow only around 30 mya, on the one hand forcing the Antarctic cooling, and on the other enabling the eastward expansion of Spheniscus to South America and eventually beyond (Baker et al. 2006). Global cooling is a theory positing an overall cooling of the Earth and perhaps the commencement of glaciation. ... Paleoclimatology is the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of the Earth. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


Later, an interspersed period of slight warming was ended by the Middle Miocene Climate Transition, a sharp drop in global average temperature from 14 to 12 mya, and similar abrupt cooling events followed at 8 mya and 4 mya; by the end of the Tortonian, the Antarctic ice sheet was already much like today in volume and extent. The emergence of most of today's subantarctic penguin species almost certainly was caused by this sequence of Neogene climate shifts. The Miocene epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... A satellite composite image of Antarctica The Antarctic ice sheet is the largest single mass of ice on Earth. ...


Relationship to other bird orders
Penguin ancestry beyond Waimanu remains unknown and not well resolved by molecular or morphological analyses. The latter tend to be confounded by the strong adative autapomorphies of the Sphenisciformes; a sometimes perceived fairly close relationship between penguins and grebes is almost certainly an error based on both groups' strong diving adaptations, which are homoplasies. On the other hand, different DNA sequence datasets do not agree in detail with each other either. Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine...


What seems clear is that penguins belong to a clade of Neoaves (living birds except paleognaths and fowl) which comprises of what is sometimes called "higher waterbirds" to distinguish them from the more ancient waterfowl. This group contains such birds as storks, rails, and the seabirds, with the possible exception of the Charadriiformes (Fain & Houde 2004). Orders †Lithornithiformes Tinamiformes (tinamou) Struthioniformes (ostrich, kiwi, etc. ... A fowl is a bird of any kind, although some types of birds use the word specifically in their names (for example, Guineafowl and Peafowl). ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... Genera See text. ... Genera Sarothrura Himantornis Canirallus Coturnicops Micropygia Rallina Anurolimnas Laterallus Nesoclopeus Gallirallus Rallus Lewinia Dryolimnas Crex Rougetius Aramidopsis Atlantisia Aramides Amaurolimnas Gymnocrex Amaurornis Porzana Aenigmatolimnas Cyanolimnas Neocrex Pardirallus Eulabeornis Habroptila Megacrex Gallicrex Porphyrio Gallinula Fulica The family Rallidae is a large group of small to medium-sized birds which includes the... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ...


Inside this group, penguin relationships are far less clear. Depending on the analysis and dataset, a close relationship to Ciconiiformes (e.g. Slack et al. 2006) or to Procellariiformes (Baker et al. 2006) has been suggested. Some (e.g. Mayr 2005) think the penguin-like plotopterids (usually considered relatives of anhingas and cormorants) may actually be a sister group of the penguins, and that penguins may have ultimately shared a common ancestor with the Pelecaniformes and consequently would have to be included in that order, or that the plotopterids were not as close to other pelecaniforms as generally assumed, which would necessitate splitting the traditional Pelecaniformes in three. Families Ardeidae Cochlearidae Balaenicipitidae Scopidae Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Genera Plotopterium Copepteryx Tonsala Phocavis The Plotopteridae were an family of flightless seabirds from the order Pelecaniformes. ... Binomial name Anhinga anhinga (Linnaeus, 1766) For the bird genus called Anhinga (Darters), see Anhinga The Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga), sometimes called Snakebird, Darter, or American Darter, is a water bird of the warmer parts of North America and South America. ... For other uses, see Cormorant (disambiguation). ... Families Pelecanidae Sulidae Phalacrocoracidae Fregatidae Anhingidae Phaethontidae The Pelecaniformes are an order of medium-sized and large waterbirds found worldwide. ...


Name

Penguin is thought by some to derive from the Welsh words pen (head) and gwyn (white), applied to the Great Auk, which had a conspicuous white patch between the bill and the eye (although its head was black), or from an island off Newfoundland known as "White Head" due to a large white rock. This may be, however, a false etymology created by Dr. John Dee in his book on Prince Madoc of Wales, supposedly one of the discoverers of America. By this Dee hoped to cement Queen Elizabeth I's claim, as a Tudor, to the New World. Penguins live nowhere near Newfoundland, nor do they generally have white heads, but they do look remarkably like Great Auks in general shape. Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Binomial name Pinguinus impennis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis) is an extinct bird. ... This article is about the legendary Welsh prince. ... Elizabeth I Queen of England and Ireland Queen of France, nominal title Elizabeth I (September 7, 1533–March 24, 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from November 17, 1558 until her death. ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh: Tudur) was a series of five monarchs of Welsh origin who ruled England and Ireland from 1485 until 1603. ...


According to another theory, the original name was pen-wing, with reference to the rudimentary wings of both Great Auks and penguins. A third theory is that penguin comes from the Latin pinguis (fat). This has added credibility because in two other Germanic languages, Dutch 'pinguïn' and German, 'Pinguin' both have the 'i' vowel too. While it has been replaced by an 'e' in the English spelling, it can still be heard. By simply looking at the word's pronunciation and comparing that to the Dutch and German words, one could assume a common Latin root - after the first Germanic sound shift (500-200 BC) that makes a PIE 'p' into a 'f'. However, a Welsh 'i' is often sound-shifted to an 'e' in the English language, so a Welsh origin cannot be dismissed. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Grimms law (also known as the [First] Germanic Sound Shift; German: Erste Deutsche (Germanische) Lautverschiebung) was the first non-trivial systematic sound change ever to be discovered; its formulation was a turning-point in the development of linguistics, enabling the introduction of rigorous methodology in historical linguistic research. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ...


Penguins in popular culture

Tux the Linux mascot
Tux the Linux mascot

Penguins are popular around the world, primarily for their unusually upright, waddling pace and (compared to other birds) lack of fear of humans. Their striking black and white plumage is often likened to a tuxedo suit and generates humorous remarks about the bird being "well dressed". Perhaps in reaction to this cutesy stereotype, fictional penguins are occasionally presented as grouchy or even sinister. Penguins have also been the subject of many books and documentary films. Image File history File links Tux. ... Image File history File links Tux. ... The concepts behind Tux, the Linux mascot, were developed in email exchanges on a public mailing list. ... Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system family that uses the Linux kernel. ... Penguins are popular around the world primarily [1] for their unusually upright, waddling pace and (compared to other birds) lack of fear towards humans. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Gallery of living species

References

  • Acosta Hospitaleche, Carolina (2004): Los pingüinos (Aves, Sphenisciformes) fósiles de Patagonia. Sistemática, biogeografía y evolución. Doctoral thesis, Department of Natural Sciences and Museum, Universidad Nacional de La Plata. La Plata, Argentina. [in Spanish] PDF fulltext
  • Baker, Allan J.; Pereira, Sergio Luiz; Haddrath, Oliver P. & Edge, Kerri-Anne (2006): Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling. Proc. R. Soc. B 273: 11-17. DOI:10.1098/rspb.2005.3260 PDF fulltext
  • Banks, Jonathan C.; Mitchell, Anthony D.; Waas, Joseph R. & Paterson, Adrian M. (2002): An unexpected pattern of molecular divergence within the blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) complex. Notornis 49(1): 29–38. PDF fulltext
  • Bertelli, Sara & Giannini, Norberto P. (2005): A phylogeny of extant penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) combining morphology and mitochondrial sequences. Cladistics 21(3): 209–239. DOI:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2005.00065.x (HTML abstract)
  • Clarke, Julia A.; Olivero, Eduardo B. & Puerta, Pablo (2003): Description of the earliest fossil penguin from South America and first Paleogene vertebrate locality of Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina. American Museum novitates 3423: 1-18. PDF fulltext
  • Davis; Lloyd S. & Renner; M. (1995). Penguins . London: T & A D Poyser. ISBN 0-7136-6550-5
  • Fain, Matthew G. & Houde, Peter (2004): Parallel radiations in the primary clades of birds. Evolution 58(11): 2558-2573. DOI:10.1554/04-235 PDF fulltext
  • Jadwiszczak, Piotr (2006): Eocene penguins of Seymour Island, Antarctica: taxonomy. Polish Polar Research 27(1), 3–62. PDF fulltext
  • Ksepka, Daniel T., Bertelli, Sara & Giannini, Norberto P. (2006): The phylogeny of the living and fossil Sphenisciformes (penguins). Cladistics 22(5): 412–441. DOI:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2006.00116.x (HTML abstract)
  • Marples, B. J. (1962): Observations on the history of penguins. In: Leeper, G. W. (ed.), The evolution of living organisms. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press: 408-416.
  • Mayr, G. (2005): Tertiary plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae) and a novel hypothesis on the phylogenetic relationships of penguins (Spheniscidae). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 43(1): 61-71. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0469.2004.00291.x PDF fulltext
  • Slack, Kerryn E.; Jones, Craig M.; Ando, Tatsuro; Harrison G. L. "Abby"; Fordyce R. Ewan; Arnason, Ulfur & Penny, David (2006): Early Penguin Fossils, plus Mitochondrial Genomes, Calibrate Avian Evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23(6): 1144-1155. DOI:10.1093/molbev/msj124 PDF fulltext Supplementary Material
  • Williams; Tony D. (1995). The Penguins - Spheniscidae . Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854667-X

Cover of Proceedings of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society of London. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Evolution, the International Journal of Organic Evolution, is a bimonthly scientific journal that publishes significant new results of empirical or theoretical investigations concerning facts, processes, mechanics, or concepts of evolutionary phenomena and events. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Animal Fact Sheets. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  2. ^ Humboldt Penguin :: Saint Louis Zoo. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  3. ^ African Penguins and Penguins of the World. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  4. ^ Columbia News Service: June 10, 2002: They're in love. They're gay. They're penguins... And they're not alone.. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  5. ^ 365gay.com: Gay Penguins Resist 'Aversion Therapy'. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  6. ^ The exact divergence dates according to Baker et al. (2006) mentioned in this section are not as precisely resolved as it appears to be due to uncertainities of the molecular clock used.
  7. ^ Contra Baker et al. (2006).
  8. ^ In fact, it is fairly likely that during the Bartonian, there was a near-synchronous split between the ancestors of Aptenodytes, Pygoscelis, and the common ancestor of all remaining genera (Baker et al. 2006).

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... The molecular clock (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)) is a technique in genetics, which researchers use to date when two species diverged. ...

External links

  • penguinpage.net - Weblog covering ongoing research in NZ penguins
  • Penguin information on 70South
  • Gentoo penguin webcam from the Antarctic
  • Information about penguins at pinguins.info
  • PBS Nature: The World of Penguins
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System
  • Seaworld Penguin Information
  • Penguin Weblog
  • Pictures Penguins
  • Penguin Videos on the Internet Bird Collection
  • Penguin World


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