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Encyclopedia > Peneus River

In Greek mythology, Peneus (Πηνειός) was a river god, one of the three-thousand Oceanids, a child of Oceanus and Tethys.


Apollo chased the nymph Daphne, daughter of Ladon, who had scorned him. His infatuation was caused by an arrow from Eros, who was jealous because Apollo had made fun of his archery skills. Eros also claimed to be irritated by Apollo's singing. Daphne prayed to the river god Peneus to help her and he changed her into a laurel tree, which became sacred to Apollo.


Peneus River (modern Greek: Πηνειός/Piniós, known for most of the 1000s as Salambria) is named after this god. It flows from the Pindus mountains and empties into the Aegean Sea northeast of Tempe. The Meteora region and the cities Trikala and Larissa lie along the river Piniós. In the 1960s, a freeway connecting Athens and Thessaloníke runs into much of the Tempe valley. The total length is 216 km and it begins in the north at the Pindus ranges east of Metsovo.


Pineios is named after the Thessalian Pineios.


Another Peneus River (probably not named after this god) flows from the mountain Erymanthus (Olonos) and empties into a bay SW of Gastouni connecting the Ionian Sea. The river flows through the southern half of the Elia plain. The river passes through:

In ancient times, the river passed into where is now east of Staphidokampos, the Andravida Military Airport, Lechaina, and the former wetlands where is now drained for agricultural purposes near Aghios Panteleimonas. (name ?)


In the 1960s, The government began building an earth-shaped dam named the Peneus Dam (Φράγμα Πηνειού Fragma Pineiou), modern transliteration: Pineios, Pinios to supply water for Northern and much of Elia. This has flooded a couple of roads including from Gastouni to Simopoulo, and from Borsi to Simopoulo which is now accessible over the earth dam. The direction is almost directly form north to south. The water is not safe for drinking, because it contain some contaminants. It dams up the Peneus River. Its dam is made out of earth and it is considered the highest dam in Elia, but not the Peloponnese. The dam is located to the east. The population is around 200. The floodway has cut off two roads relocated. The floodway length is nearly 1 km. Roads were remapped and bypasses Kentro. It contains the Prefecture's (then the Peloponnese's) longest suspended bridge which is suspended with concrete and is made out of concrete with no lighting, and Hills surround this earth-built dam. Distance from Gastouni is 16 km, and Amaliada is nearly 20 km NE. The length of the road over the dam is nearly 2 km with a water control tower in the middle. The central part of this river Kentro mainly comes from that part of the Peneus. The river is little dry but much of its tributaries during dry summers are dry.


External links

  • Mythology:
    • http://www.pantheon.org/articles/p/peneus.html
    • http://www.forumromanum.org/mythology/peneus.html
  • Peneus (Ilia):
    • http://lyk-varth.ilei.sch.gr/logo1.html
  • Peneus (Thessaly)
    • The Chemical position of the Peneus (Thessaly) (http://www.earthscape.org/r2/eng/EnvironGeo04_v3802_99.pdf)
    • http://agoraclass.fltr.ucl.ac.be/concordances/ovideI/precise.cfm?txt=Peneos
    • http://www.minenv.gr/pinios_river.html
    • 2005%20RAFTING%20PINEIOS/2005%20RAFTING%20PINEIOS.HTM Rafting in the Peneus (http://www.hrt.org.gr/YS/ACTIONS/)
    • http://viso.ei.jrc.it/wfd_prb/info/PRB_Pinios_Greece.PDF

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