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Encyclopedia > Pencil
This article is about the handwriting instrument. For other uses, see Pencil (disambiguation).
Two HB Pencils
Two HB Pencils
Coloured pencils.
Coloured pencils.
Two "woodless" graphite pencils in plastic sheaths, two charcoal pencils in wooden sheaths and two charcoal pencils in a paper sheath that is unwrapped as the pencil is used.
Two "woodless" graphite pencils in plastic sheaths, two charcoal pencils in wooden sheaths and two charcoal pencils in a paper sheath that is unwrapped as the pencil is used.
Pencil sketch of Indian singer Jagjit Singh
Pencil sketch of Indian singer Jagjit Singh

A pencil is a writing instrument or drawing instrument consisting of a thin stick of pigment (usually graphite, but can also be colored pigment or charcoal) and clay, usually encased in a thin wood cylinder though paper and plastic sheaths are also used. Pencils are distinct from pens, which use a liquid marking material. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Look up pencil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 310 pixelsFull resolution (1254 × 486 pixel, file size: 142 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) image of 2 HB Pencils I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 310 pixelsFull resolution (1254 × 486 pixel, file size: 142 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) image of 2 HB Pencils I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 789 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1080 × 821 pixel, file size: 172 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 789 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1080 × 821 pixel, file size: 172 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2104 × 2676 pixel, file size: 453 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a pencil sketch done by me in Dec2004. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2104 × 2676 pixel, file size: 453 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a pencil sketch done by me in Dec2004. ... Writing is the process of inscribing characters on a medium, with the intention of forming words and other larger language constructs. ... Drawing is a visual art which makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pen (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

The archetypal pencil may have been the ancient Roman stylus, which was a thin metal stick, often made of lead and used for scratching on papyrus, a form of early paper. The word pencil comes from the Latin word pencillus which means "little tail." Archetype is defined as the first original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Discovery of graphite deposit

Some time prior to 1565 (some sources say as early as 1500), an enormous deposit of graphite was discovered at the site of Seathwaite Fell near Borrowdale, Cumbria, England. The locals found that it was very useful for marking sheep. This particular deposit of graphite was extremely pure and solid, and it could easily be sawn into sticks. This was and remains the only deposit of graphite ever found in this solid form. Chemistry was in its infancy and the substance was thought to be a form of lead. Consequently, it was called plumbago (Latin for "lead ore")[1][2]. The black core of pencils is still sometimes referred to as "lead," even though it never contained the element lead. For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... Seathwaite Fell is an area of the Lake District in Cumbria, England. ... Borrowdale is the name of two valleys in the English Lake District. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ...


The value of graphite was soon realized to be enormous, mainly because it could be used to line the moulds for cannon balls, and the mines were taken over by the Crown and guarded. Graphite had to be smuggled out for use in pencils. Because graphite is soft, it requires some form of case. Graphite sticks were at first wrapped in string or in sheepskin for stability. The news of the usefulness of these early pencils spread far and wide, attracting the attentions of artists all over the "known world." For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ...


Although deposits of graphite had been found in other parts of the world, they were not of the same purity and quality as the Borrowdale find, and had to be crushed to remove the impurities, leaving only graphite powder. England continued to enjoy a monopoly on the production of pencils until a method of reconstituting the graphite powder was found. The distinctively square English pencils continued to be made with sticks cut from natural graphite into the 1860s. Today, the town of Keswick, near the original findings of block graphite, has a pencil museum. The first attempt to manufacture graphite sticks from powdered graphite was in Nuremberg, Germany, in 1662. It used a mixture of graphite, sulphur, and antimony. Though usable, they were inferior to the English pencils. A monopoly (from the Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service, in other words a firm that has no competitors in its industry. ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... The Moot Hall in the centre of Keswick. ... The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... “Nürnberg” redirects here. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ...


Wood holders added

It was the Italians who first thought of wooden holders. An Italian couple in particular, named Simonio and Lyndiana Bernacotti, were believed to be the ones to create the first blueprints for the modern carpentry pencil for the purpose of marking their carpentry pieces; however, their version was instead a flat, oval, more compact type of pencil. They did this at first by hollowing out a stick of juniper wood. Shortly thereafter, a superior technique was discovered: two wooden halves were carved, a graphite stick inserted, and the two halves then glued together—essentially the same method in use to this day. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ...


English and German pencils were not available to the French during the Napoleonic wars. It took the efforts of an officer in Napoleon's army to change this. In 1795 Nicholas Jacques Conté discovered a method of mixing powdered graphite with clay and forming the mixture into rods that were then fired in a kiln. By varying the ratio of graphite to clay, the hardness of the graphite rod could also be varied. This method of manufacture which had been earlier discovered by the Austrian Joseph Hardtmuth of Koh-I-Noor in 1790 remains in present use. Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Nicolas-Jacques Conté (1755-1805) was a French painter. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ... Koh-I-Noor Hardtmuth a. ...


American colonists imported pencils from Europe until after the American Revolution. Benjamin Franklin advertised pencils for sale in his Pennsylvania Gazette in 1729, and George Washington used a three-inch pencil when he surveyed the Ohio Territory in 1762. It is said that William Munroe, a cabinetmaker in Concord, Massachusetts, made the first American wood pencils in 1812. This was not the only pencil-making in Concord. According to Henry Petroski, transcendentalist philosopher Henry David Thoreau discovered how to make a good pencil out of inferior graphite using clay as the binder; this invention was prompted by his father's pencil factory in Concord, which employed graphite found in New Hampshire in 1821 by Charles Dunbar. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1635 Incorporated 1635 Government  - Type Open town meeting Area  - Town  25. ... Henry Petroski (born 1942) is an American civil engineering professor at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, where he specializes in failure analysis. ... Transcendentalism was the name of a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture and philosophy which emerged in New England in the early- to mid-nineteenth century. ... Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau[1]) was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, and philosopher who is best known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ...


Munroe's method of making pencils was painstakingly slow, and in the neighboring town of Acton, a pencil mill owner named Ebenezer Wood set out to automate the process at his own pencil mill located at Nashoba Brook along the old Davis Road. He used the first circular saw in pencil production. He constructed the first hexagon- and octagon-shaped pencil cases that we have today. Ebenezer did not patent his invention and shared his techniques with whoever asked. One of those was Eberhard Faber of New York, who became the leader in pencil production. Acton MA is home to Joe Hart. ... Eberhard Faber GmbH was founded in 1922 in Neumarkt, near Nuremberg, Germany, as a pencil factory. ...


Joseph Dixon, an inventor and entrepreneur involved with the Tantiusques granite mine in Sturbridge, Massachusetts, developed a means to mass produce pencils. By 1870, The Joseph Dixon Crucible Company was the world’s largest dealer and consumer of graphite and later became the contemporary Dixon Ticonderoga pencil and art supplies company.[3][4] This article is about the founder of a pencil company. ... Tantiusques (tan-tas-qua) is now a 57-acre park in Sturbridge, Massachusetts. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Sturbridge is a town located in Worcester County, Massachusetts. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the founder of a pencil company. ... Dixon Ticonderoga #2 Soft Pencil with the distinctive green and yellow ferrule The Dixon Ticonderoga is a high-quality pencil model distributed by the Dixon Ticonderoga Company, which was originally located in downtown Jersey City, New Jersey. ...


Manufacture

Pencil manufacturing. The top sequence shows the old method that required pieces of graphite to be cut to size; the lower sequence is the new, current method using rods of graphite and clay.
Pencil manufacturing. The top sequence shows the old method that required pieces of graphite to be cut to size; the lower sequence is the new, current method using rods of graphite and clay.

Modern pencils are made industrially by mixing finely ground graphite and clay powders, adding water, forming long spaghetti-like strings, and firing them in a kiln(thermally insulated chambers). The resulting strings are dipped in oil or molten wax, which seeps into the tiny holes of the material, resulting in smoother writing. A juniper or incense-cedar plank with several long parallel grooves is cut to make something called a slat, and the graphite/clay strings are inserted into the grooves. Another grooved plank is glued on top, and the whole thing is then cut into individual pencils, which are then varnished or painted. Image File history File links Pencil_manufacture. ... Image File history File links Pencil_manufacture. ... For other uses, see Spaghetti (disambiguation). ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Species Calocedrus decurrens Conservation status: Secure Calocedrus formosana Conservation status: Vulnerable Calocedrus macrolepis Conservation status: Vulnerable The Incense-cedars, Calocedrus, are a genus of two to three species of coniferous trees in the cypress family Cupressaceae. ...


Grading & classification

Two HB Pencils

Many pencils across the world and almost all in Europe are graded on the European system using a continuüm from "H" (for hardness) to "B" (for blackness), as well as "F" (for fine point). The standard writing pencil is graded HB. According to Petrosky this system might have been developed in the early 1900s by Brookman (an English pencil maker) which used "B" for black and "H" for hard; a pencil's grade was described by a sequence or successive Hs or Bs such as BB and BBB for successively softer leads, and HH and HHH for successively harder ones.[5]. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


Today a set of pencils ranging from a very hard, light-marking pencil to a very soft, black-marking pencil usually ranges from hardest to softest as follows.


Koh-i-noor offers twenty grades from 10H to 8B for its 1500 series[6]; Derwent produces twenty grades from 9B to 9H for its Graphic pencils [7] and Staedtler produces sixteen from 8B to 6H for its Mars Lumograph pencils.[8] The main market for such wide range of grades are artists who are interested in creating a full range of tones from light gray to black; while engineers prefer harder pencils which allow for a greater control in the shape of the lead. This is reflected in the way pencils are packaged and marketed. For example, for its Graphic pencils Derwent offers three packages of 12 pencils each: Technical (with hard grades from B to 9H), Sketching (with soft grades 9B to H), and Designer (with medium grades 6B to 4H). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 697 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1130 × 972 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Pencils graded using this system are used to measure the hardness and resistance of varnishes and paints. The resistance of a coating (also known as its pencil hardness) is determined as the grade of the hardest pencil that does not mark the coating when pressed firmly against it at a 45 degree angle.[9][10]


Another common method uses numbers to designated the grade of a pencil. It was originally created by Conté and adopted in the United States by Thoreau in the 19th century[11]. The following table shows approximate equivalences between the different systems [12]:

Tone U.S. World
#1 = B
#2 = HB
#2½ * = F
#3 = H
#4 = 2H

* Also seen as 2-4/8, 2.5, 2-5/10, due to patent issues[citations needed]. Although widely accepted, not all manufacturers follow it; for example, Faber-Castell uses a different equivalence table in its Grip 2001 pencils: 1=2B, 2=B, 2.5=HB, 3=H, 4=2H.



The various graphite pencil grades are achieved by altering the proportion of graphite to clay: the more clay the harder the pencil[13][14][15]. Two pencils of the same grade but different manufactures will not necessarily make a mark of identical tone nor have the same hardness[16].


Even though the known natural deposits of pure graphite are tapped out, it is still possible to write the way Englishmen did centuries ago, without clay or wax additives that leave oily stains on paper. Chemical supply companies commonly sell 99.995% pure graphite rods in 3 mm and 6 mm diameters.[citations needed]


Color of pencils

Two pencils.
Two pencils.

The majority of pencils made in the United States are painted yellow[17]. According to Henry Petroski[18], this tradition began in 1890 when the L. & C. Hardtmuth Company of Austria-Hungary introduced their Koh-I-Noor brand, named after the famous diamond. It was intended to be the world's best and most expensive pencil, and at a time when most pencils were either painted in dark colors or not at all, the Koh-I-Noor was yellow. As well as simply being distinctive, the color may have been inspired by the Austro-Hungarian flag; it was also suggestive of the Orient, at a time when the best-quality graphite came from Siberia. Other companies then copied the yellow color so that their pencils would be associated with this high-quality brand, and chose brand names with explicit Oriental references, such as Mikado (renamed Mirado[19][20]) and Mongol[21][22]. a couple of simple pencils, taken by Joy This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... a couple of simple pencils, taken by Joy This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A yellow Tulip. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Koh-I-Noor Hardtmuth a. ... This article is about the diamond. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Orient is a term traditionally used in Western culture to refer to the Middle East (Southwest Asia and Egypt), South Asia and East Asia. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ...


Not all countries use yellow pencils, however; German pencils, for example, are often green, based on the trademark colors of Faber-Castell, a major German stationery company. Pencils are commonly round, hexagonal or sometimes triangular in section. For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... Faber-Castell logo Faber-Castell erasers Faber-Castell is a German manufacturer of writing instruments, art supplies and slide rules, founded in 1761 in Nuremberg by Kaspar Faber. ... A regular hexagon A hexagon (also known as sexagon) is a polygon with six edges and six vertices. ... A triangle. ...


Types of Pencils

According to the material used to make them

  • Graphite pencils
  • Charcoal pencils
  • Crayon pencils
  • Grease pencils. They write on virtually any surface (including glass, metal and photographs).
  • Watercolor pencils

According to their use

  • Carpenter's pencils. These are pencils that have two main properties: their shape prevents them from rolling, and their lead is strong [23]. The oldest surviving pencil is a German carpenter's pencil dating from the 17th Century and now in the Faber-Castell collection[24][25].
  • Copying pencils are graphite pencils with an added dye that creates an indelible mark. They were invented in the late 1800s for press copying and as a practical substitute to fountain pens. Their markings are often visually indistinguishable from those of standard graphite pencils, but when moistened their markings dissolve into a colored ink, which is then pressed into another piece of paper.[26][27][28] There were used until the early 1900s when ball pens slowly replaced them.
  • Col-erase. There are color pencils that can be easily erased. Their main use is in sketching, where the objective is to create an outline using the same color that other media (such as wax pencils, or watercolor paints) would fill[29] or when the objective is to scan the color sketch[30]. Some animators prefer col-erase to graphite pencils because they don't smudge as easily, and the different colors allow for better separation of objects in the sketch[31]. Copy-editors find them useful too, as their markings stand out more than graphite but can be erased[32]. Col-erase is a trademark owned by Sanford (owner of Primacolor and Berol)[33] and for this reason other companies use the "erasable color pencil" moniker (e.g. Dixon Erasable Colored Pencils[34]).
  • Non-reproducing pencils make marks that are not reproduced by photocopiers[35] (Sanford's Copy-not or Staedtler's Mars Non-photo) or by whiteprint copiers (Stedtlers Mars Non print). They are commonly known as copy-not.
  • Stenographer's pencil, also known as steno pencil. These pencils are expected to be very reliable, and their lead is break proof. Sometimes steno pencils are sharpened at both ends[36].
  • Golf pencil

Press is a general term having a number of related meanings stemming from the original definition of pressing as the physical action of applying force: Things relating to Metalworking: Machine press, a machine that shapes material by the application of pressure; Flypress, a machine that cuts material by pressing with... Whiteprint is the commercial terminology to describe document reproduction using the diazo chemical process. ...

According to their shape

  • Triangular
  • Hexagonal
  • Round

Other types

  • The Quadrachromic Pencil is a slightly enlarged pencil with four colors equally partitioned on the tip. The use of each color while drawing is accomplished by rotating the pencil between the fingers.
  • Penny pencil

Miscellaneous

Graphite is not poisonous

Pencil lead for mechanical pencils are often sold in packages that weigh more than the graphite stored inside.
Pencil lead for mechanical pencils are often sold in packages that weigh more than the graphite stored inside.

Pencils are students' primary writing instruments. Due to this common usage, the pencil is a common cause of minor puncture injuries in young children. The tip of the lead may leave a grey mark inside the skin for years. This led to the old wives' tale that the lead bits could be passed through the blood vessels into the brain, causing mental retardation in those with such a wound. But of course, pencil "lead" is graphite (carbon) and not the chemical element lead. Residual graphite from a pencil stick does not seem to be poisonous, and graphite is generally harmless if consumed.[37] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1080 × 810 pixel, file size: 172 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1080 × 810 pixel, file size: 172 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An old wives tale is a wisdom much like an urban legend, supposedly passed down by old wives to a younger generation. ... Mental retardation is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ...


First pencil with an attached eraser

Drawing of pencil with an attached eraser from its patent application.

On March 30, 1858, Hymen Lipman received the first patent for attaching an eraser to the end of a pencil[38]. In 1862 Lipman sold his patent to Joseph Reckendorfer for $100,000, who went to sue Faber for infringement[39]. In 1875 the Supreme Court of the United States ruled against Reckendorfer declaring the patent invalid [40]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... On March 30, 1858 Hymen L. Lipman patented a pencil with an attached eraser (U.S. Patent 19783). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eraser (disambiguation). ...


Mechanical Pencils

There are also mechanical pencils, which use mechanical methods to push lead through a hole at the end. The erasers are also removable (and thus replaceable), and usually cover a place to store replacement leads. Mechanical pencils are popular for their longevity and the fact that they never need sharpening. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Lead types are based on thickness. Common sizes are 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.1, and 1.6 millimetres. The 2.0 mm size is commonly used in designing, artwork, and engineering, but is not commonly used outside these fields due to its high cost. This largest size usually cannot be sharpened in pencil sharpeners: a variety of devices are used, mostly abrasive. A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Pencils in space

An urban legend in circulation since the 1970s (and told on a 2002 episode of The West Wing) tells of NASA spending large sums of money, typically in the millions of dollars, to develop an instrument that would write in space (a space pen). The typical punch line is that either someone supposedly should have sent NASA a pencil, or that the Soviets used pencils. An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... “The West Wing” redirects here. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Space Pen The Space Pen, marketed by Fisher Space Pen Co. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ...


While considered humorous, the story is not true.[41] In fact, graphite pencils were used on all Mercury and Gemini space flights, and were replaced by pressurized "space pens" (independently developed without NASA funding) after the Apollo 1 fire. Pencils are, in fact, still used in space, for example aboard the International Space Station. Space Pen The Space Pen, marketed by Fisher Space Pen Co. ... Apollo 1 is the official name given to the Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) spacecraft, destroyed by fire during a training exercise on January 27, 1967, at Pad 34 (Launch Complex 34 at Cape Canaveral - then known as Cape Kennedy) atop a Saturn IB rocket. ... “ISS” redirects here. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pencils

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

  1. ^ Definition of Plumbago. Answers.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  2. ^ Definition of Plumbago. Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  3. ^ Dixon Ticonderoga Company
  4. ^ Tantiusques Graphite Mine
  5. ^ Petrosky 1990, page 157
  6. ^ http://www.koh-i-noor.cz/main/main.php?pageid=3211&lang=4&=&filter=&cat=24&position=30 Koh-i-noor Catalog: Graphite Pencis
  7. ^ http://www.pencils.co.uk/products/derwent.aspx?sid=3&p=1 Derwent Graphic, retrieved Aug 21, 2007
  8. ^ http://www.staedtler.com/Mars_Lumograph_gb.Staedtler?ActiveID=2213 Staedtler Mars Lumograph Pencils, retrieved Aug 21, 2007
  9. ^ This testing method is approved by the ISO as standard ISO 15184:1998 Paints and varnishes -- Determination of film hardness by pencil test http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_tc_browse.htm?commid=47996. See http://www.pra-world.com/technical/testingphysicalhardness.htm for a description of the test. Unfortunately the hardness of pencils are not standardized. For this reason the standard specifies various brands of pencils that are to be used in this test.
  10. ^ Simmons, Mac, "The Pencil Hardness Test", Woodwork, April 2000, p76, available at http://www.pencilpages.com/articles/simmons.htm, retrieved Sept. 13, 2007
  11. ^ Petrosky claims that Conté used integer numbers that started at 1, with higher numbers indicating softer leads, while Thoreau used higher numbers to designate harder leads (Petrosky, 1990, page 157). It is believed that Thoreau developed independently his method of mixing clay and graphite, and his use of numbers to designate grades is evidence that he was at least aware of Conté methods and tried to reverse engineer them. Thoreau offered pencils graduated from 1 to 4 in the middle 1800s (Petrosky, 1990, page 119), see also "Thoreau's Pencils". John H. Lienhard. The Engines of Our Ingenuity. NPR. KUHF-FM Houston. 1989. No. 339. Transcript.
  12. ^ Petrosky, 1990, page 230)
  13. ^ http://www.staedtler.com/upload/graphite_video_eng_16461.mpg "Staedtler Pencil", video, retrieved Aug 21, 2007.
  14. ^ Petrosky, 1990)
  15. ^ http://www.pencils.co.uk/heritage.aspx?id=6&sid=1 Derwent Manufacturing Process, retrieved Aug 21, 2007
  16. ^ Petrosky claims that pencil grades vary "depending upon the manufacturer, when the penils are made, and the source of graphite and clay. One analyst found that graphitic carbon content, for example, to vary from about 30 to about 65 in a variety of different pencils bearing the same designation." Petrosky, 1990, page 229
  17. ^ 75% of the 2.8 billion pencils made in the United States are painted yellow (Steve Ritter "Pencils & Pencil Lead", Chemical & Engineering News, Volume 79, Number 42 page 35, Oct 15, 2001 http://pubs.acs.org/cen/whatstuff/stuff/7942sci4.html).
  18. ^ Petrosky, 1990, pages 162-163
  19. ^ Eagle Pencil Company applied for the trademark Mirado in 1947 (US Trademark 71515261). It is common belief that this was an attempt to disassociate the pencil brand from Japan, as one of the meanings of Mikado is emperor of Japan. Petrosky (Petrosky, 1990) states that Eagle Pencil Company changed the name after the Attack_on_Pearl_Harbor.
  20. ^ Mikado/Mirado pencils were originally made by Eagle Pencil Company--today Berol--but it can also be found today under the trademark Papermate and Sanford as Sanford owns Berol and the trademark Papermate http://www.brandnamepencils.com/brands/eagle/mikado174.shtml Mirado Pencil
  21. ^ http://www.pencilpages.com/gallery/eberhard-faber/mongol.htm Eberhard Faber Pencil Gallery.
  22. ^ Originally made by Eberhard Faber the Mongol trademark is now owned by Sanford http://timberlines.blogspot.com/2005/08/mongolized.html Timberlines Blog "Mongolized" Aug 31, 2005, retrieved Aug 23, 2007
  23. ^ http://www.pencilpages.com/articles/carpentr.htm Doug Martin, 2000, "Carpenter's Pencils", retrieved Aug 23, 2007
  24. ^ http://www.faber-castell.com.au/docs/default-news.asp?id=19463&domid=1010&sp=E&addlastid=&m1=14248&m2=16959&m3=19364&m4=19463 "History Pencils & Historic Packaging" Faber Castell Australia, retrieved Aug 23, 2007
  25. ^ http://www.pencilpages.com/gallery/oldest.htm "Oldest Known Pencil in Existence", retrieved Aug 23, 2007.
  26. ^ http://aic.stanford.edu/sg/bpg/annual/v17/bp17-05.html The Copying Pencil: Composition, History, and Conservation Implications by Liz Dube
  27. ^ http://blog.awm.gov.au/lambert/?p=95 The Magic of Purple Pencil, retrieved Aug 23, 2007
  28. ^ http://pencils.smoky.ca/2006/03/l-c-hardmuth-koh-i-noor-kopierstift-1561 L. & C. Hardmuth Koh-I-Noor Kopierstift 1561, retrieved Aug 23, 2007
  29. ^ http://www.mccannas.com/sketch/supply.htm Art Supplies
  30. ^ http://www.digitalartsonline.co.uk/tutorials/index.cfm?FeatureID=1625 Sketch to Paint in Photoshop
  31. ^ http://smacktalk.smackjeeves.com/03-paperpencilserasers/ Tools of the Trade Papers Pencils and Erases
  32. ^ http://www.pencilrevolution.com/2005/10/writing-in-color/ See comment "As a professional copy-editor..."
  33. ^ http://www.prismacolor.com/sanford/consumer/prismacolor/product/subCategory.jhtml;jsessionid=NDUCWJF4CAK4MCQHUBSCHPQKA4QHQJCK?subCat=SNPRCat130010 Prismacolor Col-Erase Erasable Colored Pencils
  34. ^ https://www.dixonusa.com/index.cfm/fuseaction=shop.product/prdIndex=60 Dixon Erasable Colored Pencils
  35. ^ http://www.epinions.com/content_285308063364 Sanford Col-Erase Copy Not Pencils--You Can't Copy This Baby!
  36. ^ http://pencils.smoky.ca/2006/06/reporter-pencils Paper and Pencil Blog "Reporter Pencils" retrieved Aug 23, 2007.
  37. ^ Graphite - Identification, toxicity, use, water pollution potential, ecological toxicity and regulatory information
  38. ^ http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?patentnumber=19783 US Patent 19783 Combination of Lead-Pencil and Eraser by L. Lipman
  39. ^ Petroski, Henry (1990). The Pencil: A History of Design and Circumstance. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-57422-2; ISBN 0-679-73415-5, page 171
  40. ^ http://supreme.justia.com/us/92/347/case.html Reckendorfer v. Faber 92 U.S. 347 (1875)
  41. ^ The Write Stuff, Snopes. January 16, 2007.
  • Petroski, Henry (1990). The Pencil: A History of Design and Circumstance. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-57422-2; ISBN 0-679-73415-5.
  • Petroski, Henry. "H. D. Thoreau, Engineer." American Heritage of Invention and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 8-16.
  • Acton Convservation Commission, Early American Pencils. [1]

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO has many meanings: Iso is the stem of the Latin transliteration of the Greek word ίσος (ísos, meaning equal). The iso- prefix in English derives from this and means equality or similarity. ... The Engines of Our Ingenuity is a radio program that is regularly broadcast on National Public Radio. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Mikado is: (jap. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Berol is a British company that manufactures pencils and other stationery items. ... Papermate, a division of Newell Rubbermaid is a company that makes stationery. ... Sanford is the name of several places in the United States of America: Sanford, Florida Sanford, Maine Sanford, Michigan Sanford, New York Sanford, North Carolina Sanford is also a company that manufactures the Sharpie marker. ... Eberhard Faber GmbH was founded in 1922 in Neumarkt, near Nuremberg, Germany, as a pencil factory. ...


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COMMENTARY     

Gramj
6th January 2011
Thanks for all the detailed information! I remember when I was younger, my parents were worried about possible lead toxicity after I was punctured by a pencil lead. The introduction of graphite pencils is a great alternative to potentially harmful substances. http://www.thedeepwaterproject.com

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