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A ballpoint pen
A ballpoint pen

A pen (Latin penna, feather) is a writing instrument used to apply ink to a surface, usually paper. There are several different types, including ballpoint, rollerball, fountain, and felt-tip. Historically, reed pens, quill pens, and dip pens were used. Pen can be: The pen, a writing tool. ... Common photo of a pen. ... Writing is the process of inscribing characters on a medium, with the intention of forming words and other larger language constructs. ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Ballpoint pen, disassembled (top) and complete (bottom) A ballpoint pen (also eponymously known in British English as a biro and pronounced bye-row in Britain but sometimes bee-row elsewhere), is a modern writing instrument. ... A gel-based rollerball pen. ... A fountain pen is a writing instrument, more specifically a pen, that contains a reservoir of water-based ink that is fed to a nib through a feed via a combination of gravity and capillary action. ... Categories: Stub | Writing instruments ... A quill pen is made from a flight feather (preferably a primary) of a large bird, most often a goose. ... Three dip pens, and six nibs. ...

Contents

Types

The main modern types can be categorized by the kind of writing tip:

  • A ballpoint pen dispenses a viscous oil-based ink by the rolling of a small hard sphere, usually 700–1200 µm and made of brass, steel or tungsten carbide.[1] The ink dries almost immediately on contact with paper. This type of pen is generally inexpensive and reliable. It has replaced the fountain pen as the most popular tool for everyday writing.
  • A rollerball pen dispenses a water-based liquid or gel ink through a ball tip similar to that of a ballpoint pen. The less-viscous ink is more-easily absorbed by paper than oil-based ink, and the pen moves more easily across a writing surface. The rollerball pen was initially designed to combine the convenience of a ballpoint pen with the smooth “wet ink” effect of a fountain pen.
    A letter written on paper with a rollerball pen, and the tip of that pen
    A letter written on paper with a rollerball pen, and the tip of that pen
  • A fountain pen uses water-based liquid ink delivered through a nib. The ink flows from a reservoir through a “feed” to the nib, then through the nib, due to capillary action and gravity. The nib has no moving parts and delivers ink through a thin slit to the writing surface. A fountain pen reservoir can be refillable or disposable, this disposable type being an ink cartridge. A pen with a refillable reservoir may have a mechanism, such as a piston, to draw ink from a bottle through the nib, or it may require refilling with an eyedropper. Refillable reservoirs are available for some pens designed to use disposable cartridges.
  • A felt-tip pen, or marker, has a porous tip of fibrous material. The smallest, finest-tipped markers are used for writing on paper. Medium-tip markers are often used by children for coloring. Larger markers are used for writing on other surfaces such as cardboard boxes and whiteboards. Markers with wide tips and bright but transparent ink, called highlighters, are used to mark existing text. Markers designed for children or for temporary writing (as with a whiteboard or overhead projector) typically use non-permanent inks. Large markers used to label shipping cases or other packages are usually permanent markers.
Reynolds pen used in India

These historic types of pens are no longer in common use: Ballpoint pen, disassembled (top) and complete (bottom) A ballpoint pen (also eponymously known in British English as a biro and pronounced bye-row in Britain but sometimes bee-row elsewhere), is a modern writing instrument. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... Brazen redirects here. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Monotungsten carbide, WC, or Ditungsten Carbide, W2C, is a chemical compound containing tungsten and carbon, similar to titanium carbide. ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... A fountain pen is a writing instrument, more specifically a pen, that contains a reservoir of water-based ink that is fed to a nib through a feed via a combination of gravity and capillary action. ... A gel-based rollerball pen. ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Ballpoint pen, disassembled (top) and complete (bottom) A ballpoint pen (also eponymously known in British English as a biro and pronounced bye-row in Britain but sometimes bee-row elsewhere), is a modern writing instrument. ... A fountain pen is a writing instrument, more specifically a pen, that contains a reservoir of water-based ink that is fed to a nib through a feed via a combination of gravity and capillary action. ... A fountain pen is a writing instrument, more specifically a pen, that contains a reservoir of water-based ink that is fed to a nib through a feed via a combination of gravity and capillary action. ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... A diagram of a typical pointed nib labeling the different parts. ... Capillary Flow Experiment to investigate capillary flows and phenomena onboard the International Space Station Capillary action, capillarity, capillary motion, or wicking is the ability of a substance to draw another substance into it. ... This article is about the laboratory instrument. ... Categories: Stub | Writing instruments ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... A small whiteboard with pen and eraser clipped to top A whiteboard (also called a dry-erase or dry-wipe board) is the name for any glossy surface, most commonly coloured white, where markings can be made. ... Highlighters A highlighter is a form of marker pen which is used to highlight sections of documents in a vivid colour, while leaving the content beneath the marking unobscured. ... A non-permanent marker is often used for making markings where permanence is not required or would be a drawback, as for example marking overhead transparencies or whiteboards. ... Sharpie brand permanent markers, one of the more popular models on the market. ... Gel pens Gel pens are gel inked ballpoint pens. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mixture. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... Biopolymers are a class of polymers produced by living organisms. ... Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide used as a food additive and rheology modifier. ... The natural gum tragacanth is the sap of several species of Middle Eastern legumes of the genus Astragalus, including , , and . ... A substance or object that is opaque is neither transparent nor translucent. ... Metallic paint, also called polychromatic or metal flake paint, is used on the majority of new automobiles sold. ... Glitter is the word used to describe an assortment of very small (roughly 1 mm²) pieces of paper, glass or plastic painted in metallic, neon and iridescent colors to reflect light in a sparkling spectrum. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 82 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (282 × 2048 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Reynolds branded ball-point pen. ...

  • A dip pen (or nib pen) consists of a metal nib with capillary channels, like that of a fountain pen, mounted on a handle or holder, often made of wood. A dip pen usually has no ink reservoir and must be repeatedly recharged with ink while drawing or writing. The dip pen has certain advantages over a fountain pen. It can use waterproof pigmented (particle-and-binder-based) inks, such as so-called India ink, drawing ink, or acrylic inks, which would destroy a fountain pen by clogging, as well as the traditional iron gall ink, which can cause corrosion in a fountain pen. Dip pens are now mainly used in illustration, calligraphy, and comics (notably manga).
  • A quill is a pen made from a flight feather of a large bird, most often a goose. Quills were used as instruments for writing with ink before the metal dip pen, the fountain pen, and eventually the ballpoint pen came into use. The shaft of the feather acts as an ink reservoir, and ink flows to the tip by capillary action. Quill pens were used in medieval times to write on parchment or paper. The quill eventually replaced the reed pen.
  • A reed pen is cut from a reed or bamboo, with a slit in a narrow tip. Its mechanism is essentially similar to that of a quill.

Three dip pens, and six nibs. ... A diagram of a typical pointed nib labeling the different parts. ... Capillary Flow Experiment to investigate capillary flows and phenomena onboard the International Space Station Capillary action, capillarity, capillary motion, or wicking is the ability of a substance to draw another substance into it. ... A fountain pen is a writing instrument, more specifically a pen, that contains a reservoir of water-based ink that is fed to a nib through a feed via a combination of gravity and capillary action. ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... Write redirects here. ... A fountain pen is a writing instrument, more specifically a pen, that contains a reservoir of water-based ink that is fed to a nib through a feed via a combination of gravity and capillary action. ... Indian ink (or India ink in American English) is a simple black ink once widely used for writing and printing. ... Oak galls and iron(II) sulfate, ingredients of iron gall ink Iron gall ink (sometimes iron gall nut ink) is a purple-black ink made from iron salts and tannin from vegetable sources. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Look up illustration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ... This article is about the comics created in Japan. ... A quill pen is made from a flight feather (preferably a primary) of a large bird, most often a goose. ... Red Kite (Milvus milvus) in flight, showing remiges and rectrices Flight feathers are the long, stiff, asymmetrically shaped, but symmetrically paired feathers on the wings or tail of a bird; those on the wings are called remiges (singular remex) while those on the tail are called rectrices (singular rectrix). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Geese redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... Capillary Flow Experiment to investigate capillary flows and phenomena onboard the International Space Station Capillary action, capillarity, capillary motion, or wicking is the ability of a substance to draw another substance into it. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Egyptian reed pens in the Louvre Reed pens or kalamoi (singular kalamos) are a type of writing implement with a long history. ... Egyptian reed pens in the Louvre Reed pens or kalamoi (singular kalamos) are a type of writing implement with a long history. ...

History

Ancient Egyptians had developed writing on papyrus scrolls when scribes used thin reed brushes or reed pens from the Juncus Maritimus or sea rush [2]. In his book A History of Writing, Steven Roger Fischer suggests that on the basis of finds at Saqqara, the reed pen might well have been used for writing on parchment as long ago as the First Dynasty or about 3000 BC. Reed pens continued to be used until the Middle Ages although they were slowly replaced by quills from about the seventh century. The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... Egyptian reed pens in the Louvre Reed pens or kalamoi (singular kalamos) are a type of writing implement with a long history. ... Saqqara Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid (). It is located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo and covers an area of around 7 km by 1. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The quill pen was used in Qumran, Judea to write some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and then introduced into Europe by around 700 AD. It was used in 1787 to write and sign the Constitution of the United States of America. The Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in 1947 on the northwest bank of the Dead Sea date back to around 100 BC. At that time they were written in Hebrew dialects with bird feathers or quills. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europeans had difficultly in obtaining reeds and began to use quills. There is a specific reference to quills in the writings of St. Isidore of Seville in the 7th century[3]. Quill pens were used until the nineteenth century. The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Saint Isidore of Seville (Spanish: or ) (c. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... A quill pen is made from a flight feather (preferably a primary) of a large bird, most often a goose. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A bronze nibs was found in the ruins of Pompei showing that metal nibs were used in the year 79[4]. There is also a reference in Samuel Pepys' diary for August 1663. A metal pen point was patented in 1803 but the patent was not commercially exploited. John Mitchell of Birmingham started to massproduce pens with metal nibs in 1822[5]. During the 19th century metal nibs replaced quill pens. By 1850 the quality of steel nibs had improved and dip pens with metal nibs came into generalized use. A diagram of a typical pointed nib labeling the different parts. ... For the Roman ruins, see Pompeii Pompei is a city in the province of Naples (Campania, Italy). ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the British city. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Three dip pens, and six nibs. ...

Waterman pen and fountain pens made for Air France’s Concorde
Waterman pen and fountain pens made for Air France’s Concorde

The earliest historical record of a reservoir pen dates back to the 10th century. In 953, Ma'ād al-Mu'izz, the caliph of Egypt, demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes, and was provided with a pen which held ink in a reservoir and delivered it to the nib via gravity and capillary action. In his Deliciae Physico-Mathematicae (1636), German inventor Daniel Schwenter described a pen made from two quills. One quill served as a reservoir for ink inside the other quill. The ink was sealed inside the quill with cork. Ink was squeezed through a small hole to the writing point. Maad al-Muizz Li-Deenillah (* 932, † 975) was the fourth Fatimid Caliph and reigned from 953 to 975 in Ifriqiya and, after its conquest by him, Egypt. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... A diagram showing the various angles of cut of a cone required to produce a parabola, hyperbola, and ellipse. ... A quill pen is made from a flight feather (preferably a primary) of a large bird, most often a goose. ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cork. ...

M. Klein and Henry W. Wynne received US patent #68445 in 1867 for an ink chamber and delivery system in the handle of the fountain pen.
M. Klein and Henry W. Wynne received US patent #68445 in 1867 for an ink chamber and delivery system in the handle of the fountain pen.

Quill pens began being replaced with steel dip pens in the first years of the 1800s. In Newhall Street John Mitchell pioneered mass production of steel pens. The first fountain pens making use of all these key ingredients appeared in the 1850s. While a student in Paris, Romanian Petrache Poenaru invented the fountain pen; an invention which the French Government patented in May 1827. Starting in the 1850s there was a steadily accelerating stream of fountain pen patents and pens in production. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... A quill pen is made from a flight feather (preferably a primary) of a large bird, most often a goose. ... Newhall Street is a street located in Birmingham, England. ... The name John Mitchell can refer to several different people. ... Petrache Poenaru (1799-1875) was a famous Romanian inventor of the Enlightenment era. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...


The first patent on a ballpoint pen was issued on October 30, 1888, to John J Loud[6]. In 1938, László Bíró, a Hungarian newspaper editor, with the help of his brother George, a chemist, began to work on designing new types of pens including one with a tiny ball in its tip that was free to turn in a socket. As the pen moved along the paper, the ball rotated, picking up ink from the ink cartridge and leaving it on the paper. is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bírós invention Birome László József Bíró (Hungarian: Bíró László József; Spanish:Ladislao Biro[1]) (September 29, 1899 – November 24, 1985) is the inventor of the modern ballpoint pen. ... For other uses, see Ball (disambiguation). ...


Bíró filed a British patent on June 15, 1938. In 1940 the Bíró brothers and a friend, Juan Jorge Meyne, moved to Argentina fleeing Nazi Germany and on June 10, filed another patent, and formed Bíró Pens of Argentina. By the summer of 1943 the first commercial models were available[7]. Erasable ballpoint pens were introduced by Papermate in 1979 when the Erasermate was put on the market.[8] Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Papermate, a division of Newell Rubbermaid is a company that makes stationery. ... Erasermate is a pen product introduced by the Papermate division of the Gillette Company in 1979. ...

Modern marker pens
Modern marker pens

In the 1960s the fibre, or felt-tipped pen was invented by Yukio Horie of the Tokyo Stationery Company, Japan[9]. Papermate's Flair was among the first felt-tip pens to hit the U.S. market in the 1960s, and it has been the leader ever since. Marker pens and highlighters, both similar to felt pens, have become popular in recent years. Image File history File linksMetadata Marker1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Marker1. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... A felt-tipped pen or felt tip is categorized by the kind of ink it contains. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... A Selection of Felt-Tip-Pens. ... Highlighters A highlighter is a form of marker pen which is used to highlight sections of documents in a vivid colour, while leaving the content beneath the marking unobscured. ...


Rollerball pens were introduced in the early 1980s. They make use of a mobile ball and liquid ink to produce a smoother line. Technological advances achieved during the late 1980s and early 1990s have improved the roller ball's overall performance. A porous point pen contains a point that is made of some porous material such as felt or ceramic. A high quality drafting pen will usually have a ceramic tip, since this wears well and does not broaden when pressure is applied while writing. A gel-based rollerball pen. ... The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ... The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... A porous point pen contains a point that is made of some porous material such as felt or ceramic. ...


Manufacturers

United States

Statistics on writing instruments (including pencils) from WIMA (the U.S. Writing Instrument Manufacturers Association) show that in 2005, retractable ball point pens were by far the most popular in the United States (26%), followed by standard ball points (14%). Other categories represented very small fractions (3% or less)[10]. There is however also a thriving industry in luxury pens, often fountain pens, sometimes priced at $1000 or more.[11]


Bibliography

  • Fischer, Steven R., A History of Writing, London: Reaktion, 2001, 352 p., ISBN 1861891016

See also

Counterfeit pens are pens containing an iodine-based ink. ... Gel pens Gel pens are gel inked ballpoint pens. ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... Pen and ink refers to a technique of drawing or writing, in which colored (this includes black) ink is applied to paper using a pen or other stylus. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... -1... Space Pen The Space Pen, marketed by Fisher Space Pen Co. ... A technical pen is a specialized instrument used by an engineer or draftsman (British: draughtsman) to make lines of constant width for architectural, engineering or technical drawings. ...

External links

  • Writing Instrument Manufacturers Association

Footnotes

  1. ^ How does a ballpoint pen work?. Engineering. HowStuffWorks (1998–2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-16.
  2. ^ Egyptian reed pen Retrieved 16 March 2007.
  3. ^ The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville, Cambridge Catalogue Retrieved 11 March 2007.
  4. ^ Arnold Wagner - Dip Pens. Retrieved 11 March 2007.
  5. ^ More about the pen trade from The Birmingham Jewellery Quarter site. Retrieved 11 March 2007.
  6. ^ GB Patent No. 15630, 30 October 1888
  7. ^ The Ballpoint Pen, Quido Magazin. Retrieved March 11 2007.
  8. ^ Papermate official site.
  9. ^ History of Pens & Writing Instruments], About Inventors site. Retrieved 11 March 2007.
  10. ^ WIMA website. Retrieved 12 March 2007.
  11. ^ Low-tech luxury Gift or accessory, jewelry designers see business in luxe writing tools, Fort Wayne Journal Gazette, 12 March 2007.
Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pen - LoveToKnow 1911 (1113 words)
Steel pens made and sold in London by a certain Wise in 1803 were in the form of a tube or barrel, the edges of which met to form the slit, while the sides were cut away as in the case of an ordinary quill.
Pens of the second class, which have the further advantage of being portable, are heard of under the name of "fountain inkhorns" or "fountain pens" so far back as the beginning of the 18th century, but it was not till a hundred years later that inventors applied themselves seriously to their construction.
In modern fountain pens a feed bar conveys, by capillary action, a fresh supply of ink to replace that which has been left on the paper in the act of writing, means being also provided by which air can pass into the reservoir and fill the space left empty by the outflowing ink.
pen - definition from dictionary.die.net (241 words)
Drawing, or Ruling, pen, a pen for ruling lines having a pair of blades between which the ink is contained.
Pen and ink, or pen-and-ink, executed or done with a pen and ink; as, a pen and ink sketch.
Penning.] To write; to compose and commit to paper; to indite; to compose; as, to pen a sonnet.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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