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Encyclopedia > Pelvic surface of sacrum
Pelvic surface of sacrum
Sacrum, pelvic surface.
Latin facies pelvica ossis sacri
Gray's subject #24 106
Dorlands/Elsevier f_01/12352396

The pelvic surface of sacrum is concave from above downward, and slightly so from side to side. File links The following pages link to this file: Sacrum Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 2 Categories: Public domain images ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ...


Its middle part is crossed by four transverse ridges, the positions of which correspond with the original planes of separation between the five segments of the bone.


The portions of bone intervening between the ridges are the bodies of the sacral vertebrae. Sacrum, pelvic surface The sacrum (os sacrum) is a large, triangular bone at the base of the vertebral column and at the upper and back part of the pelvic cavity, where it is inserted like a wedge between the two hip bones. ...


The body of the first segment is of large size, and in form resembles that of a lumbar vertebra; the succeeding ones diminish from above downward, are flattened from before backward, and curved so as to accommodate themselves to the form of the sacrum, being concave in front, convex behind. A typical lumbar vertebra The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column, and can be distinguished by the absence of a foramen (hole) in the transverse process, and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body. ...


At the ends of the ridges are seen the anterior sacral foramina, four in number on either side, somewhat rounded in form, diminishing in size from above downward, and directed lateralward and forward; they give exit to the anterior divisions of the sacral nerves and entrance to the lateral sacral arteries. At the ends of the transverse ridges of the pelvic surface of the sacrum are seen the anterior sacral foramina (or pelvic sacral foramina), four in number on either side, somewhat rounded in form, diminishing in size from above downward, and directed lateralward and forward; they give exit to the... The Sacral Nerves—The posterior divisions of the sacral nerves (rami posteriores) are small, and diminish in size from above downward; they emerge, except the last, through the posterior sacral foramina. ... The lateral sacral arteries arise from the posterior division of the hypogastric; there are usually two, a superior and an inferior. ...


Lateral to these foramina are the lateral parts of the sacrum, each consisting of five separate segments at an early period of life; in the adult, these are blended with the bodies and with each other.


Each lateral part is traversed by four broad, shallow grooves, which lodge the anterior divisions of the sacral nerves, and are separated by prominent ridges of bone which give origin to the Piriformis muscle. The piriformis (from Latin piriformis = pear shaped) is a muscle in the gluteal region of the lower limb. ...


If a sagittal section be made through the center of the sacrum, the bodies are seen to be united at their circumferences by bone, wide intervals being left centrally, which, in the fresh state, are filled by the intervertebral fibrocartilages.


In some bones this union is more complete between the lower than the upper segments.


External links

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... The State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, better known as SUNY Downstate Medical Center, is an academic medical center and is the only one of its kind in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...



Spine edit

general structures: body of vertebra, vertebral arch (pedicle, lamina, vertebral notch), foramina (vertebral, intervertebral), processes (transverse, articular, spinous) The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... The body is the largest part of a vertebra, and is more or less cylindrical in shape. ... The pedicles are two short, thick processes, which project backward, one on either side, from the upper part of the body, at the junction of its posterior and lateral surfaces. ... The laminæ are two broad plates directed backward and medialward from the pedicles. ... When the vertebrae are articulated with each other the bodies form a strong pillar for the support of the head and trunk, and the vertebral foramina constitute a canal for the protection of the medulla spinalis (spinal cord), while between every pair of vertebræ are two apertures, the intervertebral foramina... The articular processes of a vertebra, two superior and two inferior, spring from the junctions of the pedicles and laminæ. The superior project upward, and their articular surfaces are directed more or less backward; the inferior project downward, and their surfaces look more or less forward. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ...


cervical vertebrae: C1 (anterior arch, posterior arch, lateral mass), C2 (dens), C7, posterior tubercle, foramen transversarium A cervical vertebra Cervical vertebrae (Vertebrae cervicales) are the smallest of the true vertebrae, and can be readily distinguished from those of the thoracic or lumbar regions by the presence of a foramen (hole) in each transverse process. ... First cervical vertebra, or Atlas In anatomy, the Atlas (C1) is the topmost (first) cervical vertebra of the spine. ... The anterior arch of the atlas forms about one-fifth of the ring of the atlas: its anterior surface is convex, and presents at its center the anterior tubercle for the attachment of the Longus colli muscles; posteriorly it is concave, and marked by a smooth, oval or circular facet... The lateral masses are the most bulky and solid parts of the atlas, in order to support the weight of the head. ... In anatomy, the second cervical vertebra (C2) of the spine is named the axis or epistropheus. ... The dens or odontoid process of the axis exhibits a slight constriction or neck, where it joins the body. ... The transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae are each pierced by the foramen transversarium, which, in the upper six vertebræ, gives passage to the vertebral artery and vein and a plexus of sympathetic nerves. ...


thoracic vertebrae: costal facets (superior, inferior, transverse) A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... The inferior costal facet (or inferior costal fovea) is a site where a rib forms a joint with the bottom of a vertebra. ...


lumbar vertebrae: accessory process, mammillary process Categories: Anatomy stubs | Anatomy ... Of the tubercles noticed in connection with the transverse processes of the lower thoracic vertebrae, the inferior is situated at the back part of the base of the transverse process, and is called the accessory process. ... Of the three tubercles noticed in connection with the transverse processes of the lower thoracic vertebrae, the superior one is connected in the lumbar region with the back part of the superior articular process, and is named the mammillary process. ...


sacrum/coccyx: pelvic surface (anterior sacral foramina, dorsal surface (posterior sacral foramina, median sacral crest, medial sacral crest, lateral sacral crest), lateral surface, base, sacral hiatus This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... The coccyx is formed of four fused vertebrae. ... At the ends of the transverse ridges of the pelvic surface of the sacrum are seen the anterior sacral foramina (or pelvic sacral foramina), four in number on either side, somewhat rounded in form, diminishing in size from above downward, and directed lateralward and forward; they give exit to the... The dorsal surface of sacrum is convex and narrower than the pelvic. ... In the middle line of the dorsal surface of the sacrum, it displays a crest, the median sacral crest, surmounted by three or four tubercles, the rudimentary spinous processes of the upper three or four sacral vertebrae. ... On the lateral aspect of the sacral groove is a linear series of tubercles produced by the fusion of the articular processes which together form the indistinct medial sacral crest (intermediate sacral crest, sacral articular crest). ... On the lateral side of the posterior sacral foramina is a series of tubercles, which represent the transverse processes of the sacral vertebrae, and form the lateral sacral crest. ... The lateral surface of sacrum is broad above, but narrowed into a thin edge below. ... The base of the sacrum, which is broad and expanded, is directed upward and forward. ...


 
 

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