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Encyclopedia > Pelvic splanchnic nerves
Nerve: Pelvic splanchnic nerves
Latin nervi pelvici splanchnici
Dorlands/Elsevier r_02/12687960

Pelvic splanchnic nerves are splanchnic nerves that arise from sacral spinal nerves S2, S3, S4 to provide parasympathetic innervation to the hindgut. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... The splanchnic nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system. ... The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ... Hindgut is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal. ...


Structure

The pelvic splanchnic nerves arise as branches of spinal nerves S2-S4 (which are part of the sacral plexus). They travel to their side's corresponding inferior hypogastric plexus, located on the side of the rectum. The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... In human anatomy, the Sacral plexus refers to the nerve plexus emerging from the sacral vertebrae (S1-S4), and which provides nerves for the pelvis and lower limbs. ... The inferior hypogastric plexus (pelvic plexus in older texts) is a plexus of nerves that supplies the viscera of the pelvic cavity. ... The posterior aspect of the rectum exposed by removing the lower part of the sacrum and the coccyx. ...


From there, they contribute to the innervation of the pelvic and genital organs. The nerves regulate the emptying of the urinary bladder and the rectum as well as sexual functions like erection. The pelvis (pl. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... In the anatomy of mammals, the urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. ... The posterior aspect of the rectum exposed by removing the lower part of the sacrum and the coccyx. ... Look up Sex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Penile erection depends on a complex interaction of psychological, neural, vascular and endocrine factors. ...


They contain both preganglionic parasympathetic fibers as well as visceral afferent fibers. In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the CNS to the ganglion are known as preganglionic fibers. ...


The parasympathetic nervous system is referred to as the craniosacral outflow; the pelvic splanchnic nerves are the sacral component. They are in the same region as the sacral splanchnic nerves, which arise from the sympathetic trunk and provide sympathetic efferet fibers. It has been suggested that Parasympatholytic be merged into this article or section. ... The sympathetic trunk (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) is a bundle of nerve fibers that runs from the base of the skull to the coccyx. ...


Proximal to the splenic flexure of the transverse colon, the gastrointestinal tract is supplied its parasympathetic fibers by the vagus nerve. Distal to the splenic flexure, the pelvic splanchnic nerves take over. In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... The gastrointestinal tract or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal, (nourishment canal) or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ...


See also

External links

Autonomic nervous system

preganglionic fibers - postganglionic fibers eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... The State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, better known as SUNY Downstate Medical Center, is an academic medical center and is the only one of its kind in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


sympathetic nervous system: sympathetic trunks (white ramus communicans, gray ramus communicans) - collateral ganglia
cavernous plexus - cervical ganglia: (superior, middle, inferior) - splanchnic nerves: (thoracic, lumbar, sacral) - ganglion impar Grays FIG. 838– The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. ... The sympathetic trunk (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) is a bundle of nerve fibers that runs from the base of the skull to the coccyx. ... The thoracic, and the first and second lumbar nerves each contribute a branch, white ramus communicans to the adjoining sympathetic ganglion. ... Each spinal nerve receives a branch, gray ramus communicans, from the adjacent ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. ... Collateral Ganglia lie between the sympathetic chain and the organ of supply. ... The cavernous plexus is situated below and medial to that part of the internal carotid artery which is placed by the side of the sella turcica in the cavernous sinus, and is formed chiefly by the medial division of the internal carotid nerve. ... The superior cervical ganglion, the largest of the cervical ganglia, is placed opposite the second and third cervical vertebræ. It is of a reddish-gray color, and usually fusiform in shape; sometimes broad and flattened, and occasionally constricted at intervals; it is believed to be formed by the coalescence of... The middle cervical ganglion is the smallest of the three cervical ganglia, and is occasionally absent. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into cervical ganglia. ... The lumbar splanchnic nerves arise from the lumbar part of the sympathetic trunk and travel to an adjacent plexus near the aorta. ... The pelvic portion of each sympathetic trunk is situated in front of the sacrum, medial to the anterior sacral foramina. ...


internal carotid - cardiac The internal carotid plexus (carotid plexus) is situated on the lateral side of the internal carotid artery, and in the plexus there occasionally exists a small gangliform swelling, the carotid ganglion, on the under surface of the artery. ... The cardiac plexus is a plexus of nerves situated at the base of the heart that innervate the heart. ...


celiac: celiac ganglia - aorticorenal - renal - spermatic/ovarian - superior mesenteric - aortic plexus - inferior mesenteric - hepatic - splenic - gastric - pancreatic - suprarenal The solar plexus, also known as the celiac plexus or plexus cœliacus, is an autonomous cluster of nerve cells (see Plexus) in the human body behind the stomach and below the diaphragm near the celiac artery in the abdominal cavity. ... The Celiac Ganglia (semilunar ganglia) are two large irregularly shaped masses having the appearance of lymph glands and placed one on either side of the middle line in front of the crura of the diaphragm close to the suprarenal glands, that on the right side being placed behind the inferior... The upper part of each celiac ganglion is joined by the greater splanchnic nerve, while the lower part, which is segmented off and named the aorticorenal ganglion, receives the lesser splanchnic nerve and gives off the greater part of the renal plexus. ... In the female, the ovarian plexus arises from the renal plexus, and is distributed to the ovary, and fundus of the uterus. ... The abdominal aortic plexus (aortic plexus) is formed by branches derived, on either side, from the celiac plexus and ganglia, and receives filaments from some of the lumbar ganglia. ... The inferior mesenteric plexus is derived chiefly from the aortic plexus. ... The hepatic plexus, the largest offset from the celiac plexus, receives filaments from the left vagus and right phrenic nerves. ... The superior gastric plexus (gastric or coronary plexus) accompanies the left gastric artery along the lesser curvature of the stomach, and joins with branches from the left vagus. ... The pancreatic plexus is a division of the celiac plexus (coeliac plexus). ...


hypogastric: superior hypogastric - inferior hypogastric - vesical - prostatic - uterovaginal The inferior hypogastric plexus (pelvic plexus in older texts) is a plexus of nerves that supplies the viscera of the pelvic cavity. ...


parasympathetic nervous system: ciliary ganglion (short ciliary nerves) - pterygopalatine ganglion (nerve of pterygoid canal) - submandibular ganglion - otic ganglion - pelvic splanchnic It has been suggested that Parasympatholytic be merged into this article or section. ... The ciliary ganglion is small parasympathetic ganglion lying in the orbit between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle that is associated with the nasociliary nerve (a branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve). ... The branches of the ciliary ganglion are the short ciliary nerves. ... The sphenopalatine ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the spheno-maxillary fossa. ... The nerve of the pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve), formed by the junction of the great petrosal nerve and the deep petrosal nerve in the cartilaginous substance which fills the foramen lacerum, passes forward, through the pterygoid canal, with the corresponding artery, and is joined by a small ascending sphenoidal branch... The submandibular ganglion (or submaxillary ganglion in older texts) is of small size and is fusiform in shape. ... The Otic Ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chapter 13 (436 words)
The pelvic nerves pass to the lateral walls of the pelvic cavity and enter into the formation of the pelvic plexus with sympathetic fibers descending form the aortic plexus by way of the hypogastric nerves.
The parasympathetic fibers to the pudendal nerves are instrumental in producing erection of the penis and clitoris by releasing the sympathetic tonus of the smooth muscle of the cavernous trabeculae and the tortuous arteries to the erectile tissue (helicine arteries).
Sympathetic nerves are carried in the dorsal nerve of the penis and around the arteries to the genital organs, and their vasoconstrictive effect is responsible for the cessation of erection that accompanies orgasm in the male.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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