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Encyclopedia > Pelican
Pelican
Pink-backed Pelican (Pelecanus rufescens).
Pink-backed Pelican (Pelecanus rufescens).
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Pelecaniformes
Family: Pelecanidae
Rafinesque, 1815
Genus: Pelecanus
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

A pelican is any of several very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak belonging to the bird family Pelecanidae. A pelican is a bird of the family Pelecanidae. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (533 × 800 pixel, file size: 150 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pelecanus rufescens (Pink-backed Pelican) San Diego Wild Animal Park Canon EOS 5D, Canon EF 400mm f/2. ... Binomial name Pelecanus rufescens Gmelin,, 1789 The Pink-backed Pelican (Pelecanus rufescens) is a member of the pelican family of birds. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Families Fregatidae Pelecanidae Sulidae Phalacrocoracidae Anhingidae Phaethontidae For prehistoric families, see article text. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Binomial name Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis †) is the smallest (42-54) member of the pelican family. ... Binomial name Pelecanus thagus Molina, 1782 The Peruvian Pelican (Pelecanus thagus) is a member of the pelican family. ... Binomial name Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin, 1789 The American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) is a very large (50–70) white bird with black wing tips and an enormous orange bill. ... Binomial name Pelecanus onocrotalus Linnaeus, 1758 The White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus) is a member of the pelican family. ... Binomial name Pelecanus crispus Bruch, 1832 The Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus) is a member of the pelican family. ... Binomial name Pelecanus rufescens Gmelin, 1789 The Pink-backed Pelican (Pelecanus rufescens) is a member of the pelican family of birds. ... Binomial name Pelecanus philippensis Gmelin, 1789 The Spot-billed Pelican (Pelecanus philippensis) is a member of the pelican family. ... Binomial name Pelecanus conspicillatus Temminck, 1824 The Australian Pelican or Goolayyalibee (Pelecanus conspicillatus) is an unmistakable large water bird, widespread on the inland and coastal waters of Australia and New Guinea, also in Fiji, parts of Indonesia and as a vagrant to New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ...


Along with the darters, cormorants, gannets, boobies, frigatebirds, and tropicbirds, pelicans make up the order Pelecaniformes. Like other birds in that group, pelicans have all four toes webbed (they are totipalmate). Modern pelicans are found on all continents, except Antarctica. Birds of inland and coastal waters, they are absent from polar regions, the deep ocean, oceanic islands, and inland South America. Species The darters or snake-birds are birds in the family Anhingidae. ... For other uses, see Cormorant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gannet (disambiguation) Species Morus bassanus Morus capensis Morus serrator Synonyms Moris Gannets are seabirds in the family Sulidae, closely related to the boobies. ... Species Sula nebouxii Sula variegata Sula dactylatra Sula granti Sula sula Sula leucogaster For fossil species, see text The boobies are part of the family Sulidae, a group of seabirds closely related to gannets. ... Species Fregata magnificens Fregata aquila Fregata andrewsi Fregata minor Fregata ariel There are five species in the family Fregatidae, the frigatebirds. ... Species 3, see text 0mgg t1z R @ll liez Tropicbirds are a group of three closely related pelagic cows of tropical oceans: The Red-Billed Tropicbird, the Red-Tailed Tropicbird, and the White-Tailed Tropicbird. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

Contents

Appearance and behavior

Pelicans are large birds with enormous, pouched bills and long wings. The smallest of the pelican is the Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), small individuals of which can be as little as 2.75 kg (6 lbs), 106 cm (42 in) and have a wingspan of 1.83 m (6 ft). The largest pelican species is believed to be the Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus), at up to 15 kg (33 lbs), 183 cm (72 in) and a maximum wingspan of nearly 3.5 m (11.5 ft). Binomial name Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) is the smallest of the eight species of pelican, although it is a large bird in nearly every other regard. ... Binomial name Pelecanus crispus Bruch, 1832 The Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus) is a member of the pelican family. ...


Pelicans have two primary ways of feeding:

  • Group fishing: used by white pelicans all over the world. They will form a line to chase schools of small fish into shallow water, and then simply scoop them up. Large fish are caught with the bill-tip, then tossed up in the air to be caught and slid into the gullet head first.
  • Plunge-diving: used almost exclusively by the American Brown Pelican, and rarely by white pelicans like the Peruvian Pelican or the Australian Pelican.

Occasionally, pelicans will consume animals other than fish. In one documented case, a pelican swallowed a live pigeon,[1] and reports of similar incidents have surfaced. In fact, Pelicans are fairly opportunistic predators, and while fish forms the bulk of their diet due to being the most common food source where Pelicans nest, they will quite readily eat any other food that is available to them.[2] Binomial name Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) is the smallest of the eight species of pelican, although it is a large bird in nearly every other regard. ... Binomial name Pelecanus thagus Molina, 1782 The Peruvian Pelican (Pelecanus thagus) is a member of the pelican family. ... Binomial name Pelecanus conspicillatus Temminck, 1824 The Australian Pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus) is an unmistakable large water bird, widespread on the inland and coastal waters of Australia and New Guinea, also in Fiji, parts of Indonesia and as a vagrant to New Zealand. ... Pigeon redirects here. ...


Pelicans are gregarious and nest colonially, the male bringing the material, the female heaping it up to form a simple structure. Pairs are monogamous for a single season but the pair bond extends only to the nesting area; mates are independent away from the nest.


Species

From the fossil record,[3] it is known that pelicans have been around for over 40 million years, the earliest fossil Pelecanus being found in early Miocene deposits in France. Prehistoric genera have been named Protopelicanus and Miopelecanus. The supposed Miocene pelican Liptornis from Argentina is a nomen dubium, being based on hitherto indeterminable fragments. For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... In scientific classification, a nomen dubium (Latin for doubtful name, plural nomina dubia) is a scientific name that is valid but of unknown or doubtful application: that is, it may be impossible to determine whether a specimen belongs to that group or not. ...


A number of fossil species are also known from the extant genus Pelecanus: For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ...

  • Pelecanus alieus (Late Pliocene of Idaho, USA)
  • Pelecanus cadimurka
  • Pelecanus cauleyi
  • Pelecanus gracilis
  • Pelecanus halieus
  • Pelecanus intermedius
  • Pelecanus odessanus
  • Pelecanus schreiberi
  • Pelecanus sivalensis
  • Pelecanus tirarensis

Symbolism and Culture

A pelican in her piety
A pelican in her piety
A pelican vulning itself
A pelican vulning itself
Moche Pelican. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.
Moche Pelican. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.

The pelican is particularly attentive to her young, to the point of providing her own blood when no other food is available. As a result, the pelican was used as a symbol of the Passion of Jesus and of the Eucharist in the Middle Ages. It became a symbol in bestiaries for self-sacrifice, and was used in heraldry ("a pelican in her piety" or "a pelican vulning (wounding) herself"). A legend of this is that the pelican used to kill its young and then resurrect them with its blood, this being analogous to the sacrifice of Jesus. Thus the symbol of the Irish Blood Transfusion Service (IBTS) is a pelican, and for most of its existence the headquarters of the service was located at Pelican House in Dublin, Ireland. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1628x1553, 470 KB) Summary Taken by Mike Young at Saint Marks Church Gillingham Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1628x1553, 470 KB) Summary Taken by Mike Young at Saint Marks Church Gillingham Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links USA_Massachusetts_Amherst_Pelican. ... Image File history File links USA_Massachusetts_Amherst_Pelican. ... Image File history File links IBTS_Pelican. ... Image File history File links IBTS_Pelican. ... Logo of IBTS The Irish Blood Transfusion Service (IBTS) was established in the Republic of Ireland as the Blood Transfusion Service Board (BTSB) by the Blood Transfusion Service Board (Establishment) Order, 1965, it took its current name in April 2000 by Statutory Instrument issued by the Minister for Heath and... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Larco Museum Lima, Peru The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A bestiary is a medieval book that has short descriptions of various real or imaginary animals, birds and even rocks. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Logo of IBTS The Irish Blood Transfusion Service (IBTS) was established in the Republic of Ireland as the Blood Transfusion Service Board (BTSB) by the Blood Transfusion Service Board (Establishment) Order, 1965, it took its current name in April 2000 by Statutory Instrument issued by the Minister for Heath and...


For example, the emblems of both Corpus Christi College, Cambridge and Corpus Christi College, Oxford are pelicans, showing its use as a medieval Christian symbol {'Corpus Christi' - 'body of Christ'}. College name The College of Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary in Cambridge Motto There is a toast, Floreat antiqua domus (Latin: May the old house flourish), from which the college’s nickname, ‘Old House’, is derived Founders The Guild of Corpus Christi The Guild of the Blessed Virgin... College name Corpus Christi College Named after Corpus Christi, Body of Christ Established 1517 Sister College Corpus Christi College President Sir Tim Lankester JCR President Binyamin Even Undergraduates 239 Graduates 126 Homepage Corpus Christi College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ...


The symbol is used today on the Louisiana state flag and Louisiana state seal, as the Brown pelican is the Louisiana state bird. Likewise, the pelican is featured prominently on the seal of Louisiana State University and St. Paul's School (Concord, New Hampshire). A pelican logo is also used by the Portuguese bank Montepio Geral.[1] Categories: Stub | U.S. state flags | Louisiana ... The Louisiana State Seal was adopted as the official state seal of Louisiana in 1902. ... Binomial name Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) is the smallest of the eight species of pelican, although it is a large bird in nearly every other regard. ... For other uses, see LSU. Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, generally known as Louisiana State University or LSU, is a public, coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System. ... St. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Montepio Geral is a Portuguese banking company. ...


The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped nature.[4] They placed emphasis on animals and often depicted pelicans in their art. [5] The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ...




References

  1. ^ "Pelican swallows pigeon in park", BBC News, 25 October 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-25. 
  2. ^ "Pelican's pigeon meal not so rare", BBC News, 30 October 2006. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. 
  3. ^ EvoWiki: Pelecaniformes.
  4. ^ Benson, Elizabeth, The Mochica: A Culture of Peru. New York, NY: Praeger Press. 1972
  5. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.

BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Larco Museum Lima, Peru The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ...

Gallery

Poem

The famous limerick about pelicans: "A wonderful bird is the pelican. His bill will hold more than his belican. He can take in his beak, Food enough for a week, But I'm damned if I can see how the helican." was written by Dixon Lanier Merritt in 1910. [2] Dixon Lanier Merritt (1879 - 1972) was a poet and humorist. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


External links

  • The Symbolism of the Pelican article in the Arlington Catholic Herald.
  • Pelican videos on the Internet Bird Collection
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pelecanus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Australian Pelican (1065 words)
There are seven species of pelicans in the world, all of which are similar in shape and, with one exception, are primarily white in colour.
Pelicans mainly eat fish, but they are opportunistic feeders and eat a variety of aquatic animals including crustaceans, tadpoles and turtles.
Pelicans are not capable of sustained flapping flight, but can remain in the air for 24 hours, covering hundreds of kilometres.
Pelican - MSN Encarta (365 words)
Pelican, common name for the species of a genus of large birds having a long, large, flattened bill, the upper mandible terminated by a strong hook that curves over the tip of the lower one.
Pelicans are widely distributed over most warm regions, frequenting the shores of seas, lakes, and rivers, and feeding chiefly on fish.
The brown pelican is classified as Pelecanus occidentalis, the Peruvian pelican as Pelecanus occidentalis thagus, the American white pelican as Pelecanus erythorhynchos, and the Australian pelican as Pelecanus conspicillatus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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