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Encyclopedia > Pelecaniformes
Pelecaniformes
Blue-footed Booby
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Pelecaniformes
Sharpe, 1891
Families

For prehistoric families, see article text. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 500 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1000 pixel, file size: 626 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pelecaniformes Blue-footed Booby ... Binomial name Sula nebouxii Milne-Edwards, 1882 The Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii) is a bird in the Sulidae family which comprises ten species of long-winged seabirds. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... Richard Bowdler Sharpe (November 22, 1847 - December 25, 1909) was an English zoologist. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Species There are five species in the order Fregatatidae, the frigatebirds. ... Species Pelecanus occidentalis Pelecanus thagus Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Pelecanus onocrotalis Pelecanus crispus Pelecanus rufescens Pelecanus philippensis Pelecanus conspicillatus A pelican is any of several very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak belonging to the bird family Pelecanidae. ... Genera Morus Sula Papasula The bird family Sulidae comprises the gannets and boobies. ... Genera Nannopterum Phalacrocorax Leucocarbo The Phalacrocoracidae family of birds is represented by over thirty species of cormorants and shags. ... For the genus of fish also known as darters see Etheostoma Species Anhinga anhinga Anhinga melanogaster Anhinga rufa Anhinga novaehollandiae Australian Darter on the Murray River, South Australia Darters are cormorant-like water birds with very long necks and long, straight beaks. ... Species The three tropicbirds are closely related seabirds of tropical oceans. ...

The Pelecaniformes are an order of medium-sized and large waterbirds found worldwide. They are distinguished from other birds by the possession of feet with all four toes webbed (totipalmate). Most have a bare throat patch (gular patch). There are some 50-60 living species, depending on which families are placed in this group. In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... “Aves” redirects here. ...


They feed on fish, squid or similar marine life. Nesting is colonial, although birds are monogamous, and the young are born helpless — in contrast, for example, to many waders. Families Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Burhinidae Chionididae Pluvianellidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Charadriidae Dunlin (Calidris alpina). ...


Systematics and evolution

Sibley and Ahlquist's landmark DNA-DNA hybridisation studies (See: Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy) led to them placing the families traditionally contained within the Pelecaniformes together with the grebes, cormorants, ibises and spoonbills, New World vultures, storks, penguins, albatrosses, petrels, and loons together as a sub-group within a greatly expanded order Ciconiiformes, a radical move which by now has been all but rejected: their "Ciconiiformes" merely assembled all early advanced land- and seabirds for which their research technique delivered insufficient phylogenetic resolution. Charles Sibley (August 7, 1917 - April 12, 1998) was an American ornithologist and molecular biologist. ... DNA-DNA hybridization is a method in genetics to measure the degree of genetic similarity between DNA sequences. ... The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy is a radical bird taxonomy based on DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. ... Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... For other uses, see Cormorant (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Threskionithinae Plateinae The family Threskiornithidae includes about 30 species of large terrestrial and wading birds, falling into two subfamilies, the ibises and the spoonbills. ... Genera Cathartes Coragyps Gymnogyps Sarcorhamphus The New World vulture family Cathartidae contains seven species found in North and South America. ... Genera See text. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... Genera Diomedea Thalassarche Phoebastria Phoebetria Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). ... The petrels are seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes. ... Global distribution of Gaviidae (breeding and winter ranges combined) Species Gavia stellata Gavia arctica Gavia pacifica Gavia immer Gavia adamsii The Loons (N.Am. ... Families Ardeidae Cochlearidae (the Boat-billed Heron) Balaenicipitidae (the Shoebill) Scopidae (the Hammerkop) Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Cathartidae Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. ...


Recent research strongly suggests that the similarities between the Pelecaniformes as traditionally defined are the result of convergent evolution rather than common descent, and that the group is paraphyletic (Mayr, 2003). All families in the traditional or revised Pelecaniformes except the Phalacrocoracidae have only a few handfuls of species at most, but many were more numerous in the early Neogene. Fossil genera and species are discussed in the respective family or genus accounts; two little-known prehistoric pelecaniforms, however, cannot be classified accurately enough to assign them to a family. They are "Sula" ronzoni from Early Oligocene rocks at Ronzon (France), which was initially believed to be a sea-duck and possibly is an ancestral pelecaniform, and a Pleistocene fossil from Australia apparently related to darters and described as ?Anhinga laticeps. In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... † For other related ducks, see also: Merginae Mergus is a genus of ducks in the seaduck subfamily Merginae. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ...


The "pelecaniform" lineages appear to have originated around the end of the Cretaceous. Monophyletic or not, they appear to belong to a close-knit group of "higher waterbirds" which also includes groups such as penguins and Procellariiformes. It is interesting to note that there are quite a lot of fossil bones from around the Cretaceous-Paleocene boundary which cannot be firmly placed with any of these orders and rather combine traits of several of them. This is of course only to be expected, if the theory that most if not all of these "higher waterbird" lineages originated around that time is correct. Of those apparently basal taxa, the following show some similarities to the traditional Pelecaniformes: The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Artists impression of a major impact event. ... In phylogenetics, basal members of a group diverged earlier than a subgroup of others (or vice versa). ... A taxon (plural taxa) is an element of a taxonomy, e. ...

  • Lonchodytes (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous of Wyoming, USA)
  • Torotix (Late Cretaceous)
  • Tytthostonyx (Late Cretaceous/Early Palaeocene)
  • Cladornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
  • Liptornis - a nomen dubium

Binomial name Torotix is a Late Cretaceous genus of aquatic bird. ... Tytthostonyx was a primitive seabird from the late Cretaceous. ... In scientific classification, a nomen dubium (Latin for doubtful name, plural nomina dubia) is a scientific name that is valid but of unknown or doubtful application: that is, it may be impossible to determine whether a specimen belongs to that group or not. ...

List of Pelecaniformes families

  • Fregatidae: frigatebirds. A group of five closely related large birds with black and white plumage, very long wings, and parasitical hunting habits. Red throat patches are inflated in display.
  • Pelecanidae: pelicans. Very large birds with throat pouches in which they catch and store fish while hunting.
  • Pelagornithidae: pseudotooth birds. A family of gigantic seabirds that looked similar to albatrosses, but had a large bill with tooth-like projections that enabled them to pick up slippery prey like fish or squids more easily.
  • Sulidae: gannets and boobies. Medium to large species which hunt by diving from the air into the sea (plunge diving). Long wings and bills, often coloured feet.
  • Phalacrocoracidae: cormorants and shags. Medium to large with hooked bills and usually black or similar dark plumage. Plumage is not fully waterproof.
  • Anhingidae: darters. Another small closely related group of four species, with long bills, snake-like necks and the ability to swim with their body submerged. Plumage is not fully waterproof.
  • Protoplotidae: an extinct family which apparently is derived from the same ancestor as the anhingas, but is very badly known.

The following families are traditionally placed into the Pelecaniformes, but probably do not belong there: Species There are five species in the order Fregatatidae, the frigatebirds. ... Species Pelecanus occidentalis Pelecanus thagus Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Pelecanus onocrotalis Pelecanus crispus Pelecanus rufescens Pelecanus philippensis Pelecanus conspicillatus A pelican is any of several very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak belonging to the bird family Pelecanidae. ... Genera Osteodontornis The Pelagornithidae or pseudo-tooth birds were a family of large seabirds from the order Pelecaniformes, which were common worldwide from the Eocene (or possibly Paleocene) up to the Miocene. ... Genera Diomedea Thalassarche Phoebastria Phoebetria Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). ... Suborders †Plesioteuthididae (incertae sedis) Myopsina Oegopsina Squid are a large, diverse group of marine cephalopods. ... Genera Morus Sula Papasula The bird family Sulidae comprises the gannets and boobies. ... Genera Nannopterum Phalacrocorax Leucocarbo The Phalacrocoracidae family of birds is represented by over thirty species of cormorants and shags. ... For the genus of fish also known as darters see Etheostoma Species Anhinga anhinga Anhinga melanogaster Anhinga rufa Anhinga novaehollandiae Australian Darter on the Murray River, South Australia Darters are cormorant-like water birds with very long necks and long, straight beaks. ...

  • Plotopteridae: plotopterids or diving-"boobies". An extinct group of penguin-like seabirds. Possibly link penguins and pelecaniforms, in which case they would possibly have to be placed in a distinct order.
  • Phaethontidae: tropicbirds. Medium-sized birds, adapted to a matrine lifestyle similar to frigatebirds. Adults have long central tail feathers and no gular patch. Apparently closer to Procellariiformes (Mayr, 2003; Bourdon et al., 2005) and might form a separate order, together with the
  • Prophaethontidae: a little-known prehistoric family closely allied to the tropicbirds.

The shoebill and the hammerkop, which make up the monotypic families (Balaenicipitidae and Scopidae, respectively) usually placed with the traditional Ciconiiformes, may be very distinct pelecaniform lineages instead. Genera Plotopterium Copepteryx Tonsala Phocavis The Plotopteridae were an family of flightless seabirds from the order Pelecaniformes. ... Species The three tropicbirds are closely related seabirds of tropical oceans. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Binomial name Balaeniceps rex Gould, 1850 The Shoebill, Balaeniceps rex also known as Whalehead is a very large bird related to the storks. ... Binomial name Scopus umbretta Gmelin, 1789 The Hamerkop (Scopus umbretta) is a medium sized (56cm) bird with a long shaggy crest. ... Monotypic is an adjective, that refers to a taxonomic group with only one type: in botany it means that a taxon has only one species; Ginkgo is a monotypic genus, while Ginkgoaceae is a monotypic family. ...


References

  • Bourdon, Estelle; Bouya, Baâdi & Iarochene, Mohamed (2005): Earliest African neornithine bird: A new species of Prophaethontidae (Aves) from the Paleocene of Morocco. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 25(1): 157-170. DOI: 10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0157:EANBAN]2.0.CO;2 HTML abstract
  • Mayr, Gerald (2003): The phylogenetic affinities of the Shoebill (Balaeniceps rex). Journal für Ornithologie 144(2): 157-175. [English with German abstract] HTML abstract

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pelecaniformes (279 words)
Gular fluttering in birds is the equivalent of panting in mammals and these poor birds, often sitting on a nest in the hot sun, are trying to shed excess heat.
An additional characteristic of pelecaniformes cannot be seen in living birds, but is very obvious in the many skeletal remains littering the colonies.
pelecaniformes, however, are primarily gliders and do not flap frequently.
Pelecaniformes - EvoWiki (2207 words)
Pelecaniformes represents one of the most spectacular orders of living birds, bracketing a vast array of aquatic piscivorous forms united by the shared presence of a totipalmate foot and a distensible gular pouch between the mandibular rami (albeit reduced in the tropicbirds).
Mivart (1878) in an analysis of postcranial characters upheld the holophyly of the Pelecaniformes, as did Shufeldt upon the basis of osteology (1883a, 1888b, 1894a, 1902a).
Saiff (1978) and Sibley and Ahlquist (1990) argued that Balaeniceps rex was the closet relative of the Pelecanidae.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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