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Encyclopedia > Pelagic zone
fisheries
habitats
aquatic ecosystem
continental shelf
neritic zone
littoral zone
intertidal
pelagic zone
demersal zone
benthic zone
benthic life
coral reefs
estuaries
seamounts
fishing banks

fisheries science
fishing
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Scale diagram of the layers of the pelagic zone.
Scale diagram of the layers of the pelagic zone.

Any water in the sea, that is not close to the bottom of the sea, is in the pelagic zone. The word pelagic comes from the Greek πέλαγος or pélagos, which means open sea. A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Image File history File links Continental_shelf. ... A biome is a climatically and geographically defined area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... An estuary mouth and coastal waters, part of an aquatic ecosystem. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... The neritic zone spans from the low-tide line to the edge of the continental shelf in oceans. ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... Intertidal habitats occur on shorelines between the low and high tide lines. ... The demersal zone is the part of the sea or ocean comprising the water column that is near to (and is significantly affected by) the coast or the sea floor. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Seagrass growing off the coast of the Florida Keys. ... Part of a coral reef. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the waters surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (576x1686, 178 KB) The different parts of the Pelagic zone. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (576x1686, 178 KB) The different parts of the Pelagic zone. ...


It can be thought of in terms of an imaginary cylinder or water column that goes from the surface of the sea almost to the bottom, like the diagram on the left. Conditions change as you go deeper down the water column; the pressure increases and there is less light. Depending on the depth, scientists further subdivide the water column, rather like the earth's atmosphere is divided into different layers. A water column is a conceptual column of water from surface to bottom sediments. ... Air redirects here. ...

Contents

Description

The pelagic zone occupies 1,370,000,000 cubic kilometres (330,000,000 cubic miles) and has a vertical range up to 11,000 metres (36,000 feet). Fish that live in the pelagic zone are called pelagic fish. Pelagic life decreases with increasing depth. It is affected by light levels, pressure, temperature and salinity; by the supply of dissolved oxygen and nutrients; and by the submarine topography.


In deep water the pelagic zone is sometimes called the open-ocean zone, and can be contrasted with water that is near the coast or on the continental shelf. However in other contexts, coastal water that is not near the bottom is still said to be in the pelagic zone. For other uses, see Coast (disambiguation). ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ...


The pelagic zone can be contrasted with the benthic and demersal zones at the bottom of the sea. The benthic zone is the ecological region at the very bottom of the sea. It includes the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers. Marine organisms living in this zone, such as clams and crabs, are called benthos. The demersal zone is just above the benthic zone. It can be significantly affected by the seabed and the life that lives there. Fish that live in the demersal zone are called demersal fish. They are also called bottom feeders or groundfish. This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The demersal zone is the part of the sea or ocean comprising the water column that is near to (and is significantly affected by) the coast or the sea floor. ... For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ... Seagrass growing off the coast of the Florida Keys. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Groundfish are fish that live on, in, or near the bottom of the body of water they inhabit. ...


Depth and layers

Epipelagic (sunlit)

Main article: Photic zone

From the surface (MSL) down to around 200m (656 ft). The photic zone is the depth of the water, whether in a lake or an ocean, that is exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ...


The illuminated surface zone where there is enough light for photosynthesis. Due to this, plants and animals are largely concentrated in this zone. Here one will typically encounter fish such as tuna and numerous amounts of sharks, as well as dolphin fish and jellyfish. Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 The Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), also known as dolphin fish or dorado, are a species of surface-dwelling fish found in tropical and subtropical waters. ... For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ...


Mesopelagic (twilight)

Main article: Mesopelagic

From 200m down to around 1,000m (3,280 ft). The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i. ...


Although some light penetrates this deep, it is insufficient for photosynthesis. The name stems from Greek μέσον, middle. Animals such as swordfish, squids, wolffish, a few species of cuttlefish, and other semi-deepsea creatures live here. This article is about a type of fish. ... Suborders Myopsina Oegopsina Squids are the large, diverse group of marine mollusks, popular as food in cuisines as widely separated as the Japanese and the Italian. ... Binomial name Anarrhichas lupus Linnaeus, 1758 The Seawolf (Anarrhichas lupus), also known as the Sea Cat or Wolf-fish, is a marine fish, the largest of the family Anarhichadidae. ... Orders and Families †Vasseuriina †Vasseuriidae †Belosepiellidae Sepiina †Belosaepiidae Sepiadariidae Sepiidae Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida belonging to the Cephalopoda class (which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses). ...


Bathypelagic (dark)

Main article: Bathyal zone

From 1,000m down to around 4,000m (13,123 ft). The layers of the pelagic zone. ...


By this depth the ocean is almost entirely dark (with only the occasional thermoluminescence organism, such as lanternfish). There are no living plants, and most animals survive by consuming the snow of detritus falling from the zones above, or (like the marine hatchet fish) by preying upon others. Giant squid (as well as smaller squids & Dumbo octopuses ) live at this depth, and here they are hunted by deep-diving sperm whales. From Greek βαθύς (baths), deep. Luminescence is light not generated by high temperatures alone. ... Genera Benthosema Bolinichthys Centrobranchus Ceratoscopelus Diaphus Diogenichthys Electrona Gonichthys Gymnoscopelus Hintonia Hygophum Idiolychnus Krefftichthys Lampadena Lampanyctodes Lampanyctus Lampichthys Lepidophanes Lobianchia Loweina Metelectrona Myctophum Nannobrachium Notolychnus Notoscopelus Parvilux Protomyctophum Scopelopsis Stenobrachius Symbolophorus Taaningichthys Tarletonbeania Triphoturus Lanternfishes (or myctophids, from the Greek mykter, nose and ophis, serpent) are small, deep sea fish... In the deep ocean, marine snow is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column. ... Detritus may refer to: In geology, detritus is the name for loose fragments of rock that have been worn away by erosion. ... Genera  Argyropelecus  Polypipnus  Sternoptyx Marine hatchetfish are small, deep-sea bathypelagic fish of the family Sternoptychidae, together with bottlelights, pearlsides and constellationfish. ... This article is about the animal. ... Suborders Myopsina Oegopsina Squids are the large, diverse group of marine mollusks, popular as food in cuisines as widely separated as the Japanese and the Italian. ... Species 14, see text The octopuses of the genus Grimpoteuthis are sometimes nicknamed Dumbo octopuses from the ear-like fins protruding from the top of their heads (actually bodies), resembling the ears of Walt Disneys flying elephant. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Sperm whale range (in blue) The sperm whale (Physeter catodon) is the largest of all toothed whales, making them the Earths largest living carnivore and largest living toothed animal. ...


Abyssopelagic

Main article: Abyssal zone

From 4,000m down to above the ocean floor. Layers of the pelagic zone The abyssal zone is the pelagic zone that contains the very deep benthic communities near the bottom of oceans. ...


No light whatsoever penetrates to this depth. The name is derived from the Greek άβυσσος (ábyssos), abyss, meaning bottomless (a holdover from the times when the deep ocean was believed to be bottomless). An abyss (Greek: a-, privative, bussos, bottom) is a bottomless depth; hence any deep place. ...


Hadopelagic

Main article: Hadal zone

The deep water in ocean trenches. The Hadal Zone is the deepest part of the Earth. ...


The name is derived from the Greek Άιδης (Haidēs), Hades, the classical Greek underworld. This zone is mostly unknown and very few species are known to live here (in the open areas). However, many organisms live in hydrothermal vents in this and other zones. Some define the hadopelagic as waters below 6,000m (19,685 ft), whether in a trench or not. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... Hydrothermal vents are fissures in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ...


The bathypelagic, abyssopelagic, and hadopelagic zones are very similar in character, and some marine biologists elide them into a single zone or consider the latter two to be the same. Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ...


See also

The photic zone is the depth of the water, whether in a lake or an ocean, that is exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur. ... The aphotic zone is the depth of the ocean that is not exposed to sunlight. ... The neritic zone spans from the low-tide line to the edge of the continental shelf in oceans. ...

External links

  • The Deep Sea pages at Oceanlink
  • University of Haifa's pages on deep sea oceanography
A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... Mariculture is the cultivation of marine organisms for food, either in their natural environment or in seawater in ponds or raceways. ... An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the waters surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... A demonstration aquaculture facility Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture. ... Fish stocks are subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters (growth, recruitment, mortality and fishing mortality) are the only significant factors in determining population dynamics, while extrinsic factors (immigration and emigration) are considered to be insignificant. ... In aquaculture, the broodstock is a group of sexually mature individuals of a cultured species that is kept separate for breeding purposes. ... A freshwater prawn farm is an aquaculture business designed to raise and produce freshwater prawn or shrimp1 for human consumption. ... Krill fishery is the commercial fishery of krill, small shrimp-like marine animals that live in the oceans world-wide. ... Because of their large size, rapid growth, and palatability, a number of tilapiine cichlids are at the focus of major aquaculture efforts, specifically various species of Oreochromis, Sarotherodon, and Tilapia colloquially known as tilapias. ... A hatchery is a facility where eggs are hatched under artifical conditions, especially those of fish or poultry. ... The U.S. Farm-Raised Catfish Industry began in the early 1960s in Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas. ... Tailwater refers to a type of trout fishery. ... Hirudiculture is the culture, or farming, of leeches in both natural and artificial environments. ... Harvesting of kelp (Saccharina latissima, previously known as Laminaria saccharina) cultivated in proximity to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at Charlie Cove, Bay of Fundy, Canada. ... Sea louse is the designation of ectoparasitic copepods Lepeoptheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus both parasitic on salmonids ... The National Fish Hatchery System was established by the U.S. Congress in 1871 through the creation of a U.S. Commissioner for Fish and Fisheries. ... Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHHN) is a viral disease of penaeid shrimp that causes mass mortality (up to 90%) among the Western Blue Shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris) and severe deformations in the Pacific White Shrimp (). It occurs in Pacific farmed and wild shrimp, but not in wild shrimp on the... The Yellowhead disease (YHD) is a viral infection of shrimp, in particular of the Giant Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon), one of the two major species of farmed shrimp. ... White spot syndrome (WSS) is a viral infection of penaeid shrimp. ... Taura syndrome is one of the more devastating diseases affecting the shrimp farming industry worldwide. ... Fisheries management is today often referred to as a governmental system of management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which is put in place by a system of monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). ... Fisheries management is today often referred to as a governmental system of management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which is put in place by a system of monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). ... The WorldFish Center (originally International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management or ICLARM) is an international research center specializing in fisheries and related aquatic resources. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... An estuary mouth and coastal waters, part of an aquatic ecosystem. ... A water column is a conceptual column of water from surface to bottom sediments. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... In the deep ocean, marine snow is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column. ... Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... Population ecology is a major subfield of ecology—one that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment. ... Population dynamics is the study of marginal and long-term changes in the numbers, individual weights and age composition of individuals in one or several populations, and biological and environmental processes influencing those changes. ... Often referred to by the acronym VPA, is a modelling technique commonly used in fisheries science for reconstructing historical fish numbers at age using information on death of individuals each year. ... Trophic cascades occur when predators in a food chain suppress the abundance of their prey, thereby releasing the next lower trophic level from predation (or herbivory if the intermediate trophic level is an herbivore). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Population dynamics. ... Functional ecology is the branch of ecology that focuses on the roles, or functions, that species play in the community or ecosystem in which they occur. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere Oceanography (from the greek words Ωκεανός meaning Ocean and γράφω meaning to write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... The Sea Around Us Project is devoted to studying the impact of fisheries on the worlds marine ecosystems. ... Earthtrust is a non-governmental organization (NGO) dedicated to wildlife protection. ... The FRV Scotia Fisheries Research Services (FRS) is an Executive Agency of the Scottish Executive, part of the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department. ... The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was established in 1902 by eight northern European nations. ... The National Fisheries Research and Development Institute or NFRDI, is a scientific body operated by the South Korean government, under the authority of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. ... The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was established in 1902 by eight northern European nations. ... The Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science(CEFAS) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government department the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... An estuary mouth and coastal waters, part of an aquatic ecosystem. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ... Seafood Watch is a program designed to raise consumer awareness about the importance of buying seafood from sustainable sources. ... Sustainable seafood is seafood from either fished or farmed sources that can maintain or increase production in the future without jeopardizing the ecosystems from which it was acquired. ... Unsustainable fishing methods are ways of catching wild fish that are not considered sustainable in the long term. ... Unsustainable fishing methods are ways of catching wild fish that are not considered sustainable in the long term. ... A fish aggregating (or aggregation) device (FAD) is a man-made object used to attract ocean going pelagic fish such as marlin, tuna and mahi-mahi (dolphin fish). ... A fishing light attractor is an underwater light that can be used to attract fish of many species, including baitfish, and larger fish. ... Cyanide fishing is an illegal form of fishing common in South East Asia, which usually uses the chemical compound sodium cyanide - a close relation of potassium cyanide. ... Blast fishing or dynamite fishing describes the practice of using dynamite, homemade bombs or other explosives to stun or kill schools of fish for easy collection. ... A Flosser is an angler who uses the method of flossing to catch fish mainly from the Salmon species. ... Drift nets are nets used in oceans. ... Ghost nets are fishing nets that have been lost by fishermen. ... The Celtic Explorer, a research vessel engaged in bottom trawling Bottom trawling (known in the scientific community as Benthic trawling) is a fishing method which involves towing trawl nets along the sea floor, as opposed to pelagic trawling, where a net is towed higher in the water column. ... A piscicide is a substance which is poisonous to fish. ... ... A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing vessels. ... A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing vessels. ... EconMult is a general fleet model to be used in fisheries modelling. ... EconSimp is a bioeconomic management model of the Barents Sea fisheries. ... Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS), in the context of fisheries, is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations as a broadening of traditional enforcing national rules over fishing, to the support of the hroader problem of fisheries management[1]. Internationally, the basis of law for... Individual fishing quotas (popularly abbreviated to IFQ) are a means by which many governments have tried to regulate fishing. ... Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS), in the context of fisheries, is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations as a broadening of traditional enforcing national rules over fishing, to the support of the hroader problem of fisheries management[1]. Internationally, the basis of law for... Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) are used in commercial fishing to allow environmental and fisheries regulatory organizations to monitor, minimally, the position, time at a position, and course and speed of fishing vessels. ... In fisheries science, by-catch refers to species caught in a fishery intended to target another species, as well as reproductively-immature juveniles of the target species. ... Cetacean bycatch is the technical term for the incidental capture of non-target cetacean species by fisheries. ... Exclusive Economic Zone of the EU, with 25 million km² it is the largest in the world[1] The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union. ... Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. ... The term Marine Protected Area is often used as an umbrella term covering a wide range of marine areas with some level of restriction to protect living, non-living, cultural, and/or historic resources. ... Marine reserve is an area of the sea which has legal protection against fishing or development. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... Founded in 1973 by fishermen, the National Coalition for Marine Conservation (NCMC) is the USAs oldest public advocacy group dedicated exclusively to conserving ocean fish and their environment. ... The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) is an intergovernmental organisation responsible for the management and conservation of tunas and tuna-like species in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas. ... The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an independent non-profit organization that aims to promote sustainable fishery practices. ... The Pacific Whiting Conservation Cooperative (PWCC) is a harvest and research cooperative formed by four companies that participate in the catcher/processor sector of the Pacific whiting (aka hake, Merluccius productus) fishery -- Alaska Ocean Seafoods, American Seafoods, Glacier Fish Co. ... opened for signature - 29 April 1958 entered into force - 20 March 1966 objective - to solve through international cooperation the problems involved in the conservation of living resources of the high seas, considering that because of the development of modern technology some of these resources are in danger of being overexploited... Walther Herwig (February 25, 1838 - December 16, 1912) was a Prussian administrative lawyer, and the founder of the German fisheries science. ... Dr. Daniel Pauly is a Professor and Director of the Fisheries Centre. ... Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria - June 12, 1972, New York, USA) was a biologist who was a founder of general systems theory--which he literally translated from the mathematization of Nicolai Hartmanns Ontology as stated by himself in his seminal work-- .An Austrian citizen, he... A turtle excluder device. ... Nymphaea alba, a species of water lily. ... Fishing from a Pier Fishing is both the recreation and sport of catching fish (for food or as a trophy), and the commercial fishing industry of catching or harvesting seafood (either fish or other aquatic life-forms, such as shellfish). ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pelagic - Palaeos (455 words)
The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i.e., all of the sea other than that near the coast or the sea floor.
In contrast, the demersal zone comprises the water that is near to (and is significantly affected by) the coast or the sea floor.
The bathypelagic, abyssopelagic, and hadopelagic zones are very similar in character, and some marine biologists elide them into a single zone or consider the latter two to be the same.
Pelagic zone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (426 words)
The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i.e.
In contrast, the demersal zone comprises the water that is near to (and thus is significantly affected by) the coast or the sea floor.
The bathypelagic, abyssopelagic, and hadopelagic zones are very similar in character, and some marine biologists elide them into a single zone or consider the latter two to be the same.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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