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Encyclopedia > Peerage
This article is part of the series
Peerage
Hereditary Peer
Life Peer
Representative Peer
Privilege of Peerage
History of the Peerage

The British Peerage is a system of titles of nobility in the United Kingdom, part of the British honours system. The term is used both collectively to refer to the entire body of titles, and individually to refer to a specific title. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-06-08, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ... In the United Kingdom, representative peers were individuals elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to represent them in the British House of Lords. ... The Privilege of Peerage is the body of special privileges belonging to members of the British Peerage. ... The Peerage is a system of nobility unique to the United Kingdom. ... Look up Peerage (disambiguation) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (In the context of property law, title refers to ownership or documents of ownership; see title (property). ... // Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals personal bravery, achievement or service to the United Kingdom. ...


All British honours, including peerage dignities, spring from the Sovereign, who is considered the fount of honour. The Sovereign, as "the fountain and source of all dignities cannot hold a dignity from himself" (opinion of the House of Lords in the Buckhurst Peerage Case), cannot belong to the Peerage. If neither the Sovereign nor a peer, an individual is a commoner. Members of a peer's family who are not themselves peers (including such members of the Royal Family) are also commoners; the British system thus differs fundamentally from continental European ones, where entire families, rather than individuals, were ennobled. Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Members of the British royal family A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. ... A commoner, in British law, is someone who is neither the Sovereign nor a noble. ...

Contents

Divisions of the Peerage

Divisions of the Peerage
  Peerage of England
  Peerage of Scotland
  Peerage of Ireland
  Peerage of Great Britain
  Peerage of the United Kingdom

The various parts of the Peerage, which convey slightly different benefits, are: Image File history File links Flag_of_England_(bordered). ... The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. ... Image File history File links St_Patrick's_saltire. ... The Peerage of Ireland the term used for those peers created by British monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerages created in the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Act of Union 1707 but before the Act of Union 1800. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801. ...

The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... The Peerage of Ireland the term used for those peers created by British monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland. ... Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Monarchy King¹  - 1542-1547 Henry I  - 1760-1801 George III Chief Secretary  - 1660 Matthew Lock  - 1798-1801 Viscount Castlereagh Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House of Commons History  - Act of Parliament 1541  - Act of Union... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerages created in the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Act of Union 1707 but before the Act of Union 1800. ... The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801. ...

Ranks

Peers are of five ranks: duke, marquess, earl, viscount and baron. In Scotland, the fifth rank is called a lord of Parliament, as "barons" are holders of feudal dignities, not peers. Baronets, while holders of hereditary titles, are not peers. For other uses, see Duke (disambiguation). ... A Marquess (preferred English spelling) or Marquis (French spelling) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European monarchies (lacking in some other) and some of their colonies. ... For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... A viscount is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, as in the British peerage, above a baron, below an earl (in Britain) or a count (his continental equivalent). ... Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ... A Lord of Parliament is a member of the lowest rank of Scottish peerage, ranking below a viscount. ... A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt), is the holder of an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown, known as a baronetcy. ...

  • "Duke" comes from the Latin dux, leader.
  • "Marquess" comes from the French marquis, which is a derivative of marche or march. This is a reference to the English borders ("marches") with Wales and Scotland, a relationship more evident in the feminine form: marchioness.
  • "Earl" comes from the Old English or Anglo-Saxon eorl, a military leader. The meaning may have been affected by the Old Norse jarl, meaning free-born warrior or nobleman, during the Danelaw, thus giving rise to the modern sense. Since there was no feminine Old English or Old Norse equivalent for the term, "countess" is used (an earl is analogous to the Continental count), from the Latin comes.
  • "Viscount" comes from the Latin vicecomes, vice-count.
  • "Baron" comes from the Old Germanic baro, freeman.

The various titles are in the form of (Rank) (Name of Title) or (Rank) of (Name of Title). The name of the title can either be a place name or a surname. The precise usage depends on the rank of the peerage and on certain other general considerations. Dukes always use of. Marquesses and earls whose titles are based on place names normally use of, while those whose titles are based on surnames normally do not. Viscounts, barons and lords of Parliament do not use of. However, there are several exceptions to the rule. For instance, Scottish viscomitial titles theoretically include of, though in practice it is usually dropped. (Thus, the "Viscount of Falkland" is commonly known as "Viscount Falkland.") Of is normally not used when the place in question is outside British territory, as using of might imply that the nation has sovereignty over such a place. For instance, the title Marquess Douro is based on the River Douro in Portugal, over which the British monarch has neither sovereignty nor suzerainty. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Green: Danelaw The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu, Danish: Danelagen ) is an 11th century name for an area of northern and eastern England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... The Douro at Oporto The Douro (Spanish Duero, Latin Durius, Portuguese Douro) is one of the major rivers of Spain and Portugal, flowing from its source near Soria across central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Oporto. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ...


A territorial designation is often added to the main peerage title, especially in the case of barons and viscounts: for instance, Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven, County Lincoln or Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, of Hindhead, County Surrey. Any designation after the first comma generally does not form a part of the main title. Territorial designations in titles are not updated with local government reforms, but new creations do take them into account. Thus there is a Baroness Airey, of Abingdon in the County of Oxford, and a Baron Johnston of Rockport, of Caversham in the Royal County of Berkshire. There is no single system of local government in the United Kingdom. ... Abingdon is a market town in Oxfordshire, England and is one of the towns which claim to be Britains oldest continuously occupied town. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... Caversham is a suburb in the unitary authority of Reading, England, although, historically, Caversham was part of Oxfordshire. ... Berks redirects here. ...


It was once the case that a peer administered the place associated with his title, but this has not been true since the Middle Ages. The only remaining peerage with associated lands controlled by the holder is the Duchy of Cornwall, which is associated with the Dukedom of Cornwall, a dukedom held by the eldest son and heir to the Sovereign. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Hereditary peers

Main article: Hereditary peer

An hereditary peer is a peer whose dignity may be inherited. Hereditary peerage dignities may be created with writs of summons or by letters patent; the former method is now obsolete. Writs of summons summon an individual to Parliament, in the old feudal tradition, and merely implied the existence or creation of an hereditary peerage dignity, which is automatically inherited, presumably according to the traditional mediæval rules (male-preference primogeniture, similar to the succession of British crown). Letters patent explicitly create a dignity and specify its course of inheritance (usually agnatic succession, like the Salic Law). Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-06-08, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In hereditary monarchies, particularly in more ancient or in more underdeveloped times, seniority was a much used principle of order of succession. ... The King of the Franks, in the midst of the military chiefs who formed his Treuste -- or armed court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ...


Once created, a peerage dignity continues to exist as long as there are surviving descendants of the first holder, unless a contrary method of descent is specified in the letters patent. Once the heirs of the original peer die out, the peerage dignity becomes extinct. In former times, peerage dignities were often forfeit by Acts of Parliament, usually when peers were found guilty of treason. Often, however, the felonious peer's descendants successfully petitioned the Sovereign to restore the dignity to the family. Some dignities, such as the Dukedom of Norfolk, have been forfeit and restored several times. Under the Peerage Act 1963 an individual can disclaim his peerage dignity within one year of inheriting it. Traitor redirects here. ... Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk holding the baton of the Earl Marshal. ... The Peerage Act 1963 is a significant act in the history of the British Peerage. ...


When the holder of a peerage succeeds to the throne, the dignity merges in the Crown and ceases to exist.


All hereditary peers were entitled to sit in the House of Lords, subject only to qualifications such as age and citizenship, but under the House of Lords Act 1999 they lost this right. The Act provided that 92 hereditary peers—the Lord Great Chamberlain and the Earl Marshal, 75 hereditary peers elected by other peers, and ten chosen by the government—would remain in the House of Lords in the interim. The House of Lords Act 1999, an Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament, was a major constitutional enactment as it reformed greatly one of the chambers of Parliament, the House of Lords (see Lords Reform). ... The Lord Great Chamberlain of England is the sixth of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Privy Seal and above the Lord High Constable. ... Earl Marshal (alternatively Marschal or Marischal) is an ancient chivalric title used separately in England, Ireland and the United Kingdom. ...


From 1707 until 1963 Scottish peers elected 16 representative peers to sit in the House of Lords. Since 1963 they have had the same rights as Peers of the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, representative peers were individuals elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to represent them in the British House of Lords. ...


From 1801 until 1922 Irish peers elected 28 representative peers to sit in the House of Lords. In 1922 the Irish Free State became a separate country. Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann...


Some hereditary titles can pass through and vest in female heirs in a system called coparceny.


Life peers

Main article: Life peer

The Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 and the Life Peerages Act 1958 authorise the regular creation of life peerages. Life peers created under both acts are of baronial rank, though there is nothing to prevent the creation by the Sovereign of a life peer of some other rank. They are always created under letters patent. In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ... The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ... The Life Peerages Act 1958 established the modern standards for the creation of Life Peers by the monarch of the United Kingdom, and granted them non-hereditary voting status in the House of Lords. ...


Life peers created under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act are known as "Lords of Appeal in Ordinary." They perform the judicial functions of the House of Lords and serve on the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. They remain peers for life, but cease to receive judicial salaries at the age of 75. There may be no more than 12 Lords of Appeal in Ordinary under the age of 75 at one time. The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ...


There is no limit on the number of peerages the Sovereign may create under the Life Peerages Act. Normally life peerages are granted to individuals nominated by political parties or by the House of Lords Appointments Commission, and to honour important public figures such as the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Prime Minister on their retirement. Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Prime Minister is in practice the most important political office in the United Kingdom. ...


Styles and titles

Main articles: Forms of Address in the United Kingdom, Courtesy title

Dukes use His Grace, Marquesses use The Most Honourable and other peers use The Right Honourable. Peeresses (whether they hold peerages in their own right or are wives of peers) use equivalent styles. Forms of address used in the United Kingdom are given below. ... A courtesy title is a form of address in the British peerage system used for wives, children, and other close relatives of a peer. ...


In speech, any peer or peeress except a duke or duchess is referred to as Lord X or Lady X. Confusion is possible here, for though the wife of an Earl and a suo jure Countess (that is, one holding the dignity in her own right) are both officially titled Countess and are known in speech as Lady, the wife of a Baron is officially titled Lady, while a woman holding that rank in her own right (usually a life peeress) is officially titled Baroness but is also commonly referred to in speech as Lady. Hence, Margaret Thatcher, a suo jure life peeress, may be referred to as either "Baroness Thatcher" or "Lady Thatcher". "Baroness" is not used for female holders of Scottish lordships of Parliament; for example, Flora Fraser is known as "Lady Saltoun", not "Baroness Saltoun". It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Latin phrases (P–Z). ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ... Flora Marjory Fraser, 21st Lady Saltoun1, Chief of the Name and the Arms of Fraser (born October 18, 1930) is currently the only female holder of a lordship of Parliament who has a seat in the House of Lords as an elected hereditary peer. ...


A peer is referred to by his peerage even if it is the same as his surname, thus Baron Owen is "Lord Owen" not "Lord David Owen", though such incorrect forms are commonly used. The Right Honourable David Anthony Llewellyn Owen, Baron Owen, CH, PC (born July 2, 1938) is a British politician and one of the founders of the British Social Democratic Party (SDP). ...


Some peers, particularly life peers who were well-known before their ennoblement, do not use their peerage titles. Others use a combination: for example, the author John Julius Norwich is John Julius Cooper, second Viscount Norwich. John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich (born 15 September 1929), known as John Julius Norwich, is a British historian, travel writer and television personality and the son of the Conservative politician and diplomat Duff Cooper, who in 1952 was created Viscount Norwich, and of Lady Diana Cooper, a celebrated beauty...


Individuals who use the style Lord or Lady are not necessarily peers. Children of peers use special titles called courtesy titles. The eldest son of a duke, a marquess, or an earl generally uses his father's highest lesser peerage dignity as his own. Hence, the Duke of Devonshire's son is called Marquess of Hartington. Such an eldest son is called a courtesy peer, but is a commoner. A courtesy title is a form of address in the British peerage system used for wives, children, and other close relatives of a peer. ... The Dukes of Devonshire are members of the aristocratic Cavendish family in the United Kingdom. ... The Dukes of Devonshire are members of the aristocratic Cavendish family in the United Kingdom. ...


Younger sons of dukes and marquesses prefix Lord to their first names as courtesy titles. Daughters of dukes, marquesses and earls use Lady, and younger sons of earls and children of viscounts, barons and lords of Parliament use The Honourable.


Privilege of Peerage

Peers wear ceremonial robes, whose designs are based on their rank.
Peers wear ceremonial robes, whose designs are based on their rank.
Main article: Privilege of Peerage

The Privilege of Peerage is the body of privileges that belongs to peers, their wives and their unremarried widows. While the Privilege of Peerage was once extensive, only three privileges survived into the 20th century: The Marquess of Bath in Parliamentary Robes (Public domain painting done c. ... The Marquess of Bath in Parliamentary Robes (Public domain painting done c. ... The Privilege of Peerage is the body of special privileges belonging to members of the British Peerage. ...

  • the right to be tried by fellow peers in the Lord High Steward's Court and in the House of Lords, abolished 1948;
  • the right to personally access the Sovereign, but this privilege has long been obsolete;
  • the right to be exempt from civil arrest. This privilege has been used only twice since 1945.

Peers enjoy several rights that do not formally form a part of the Privilege of the Peerage. For instance: The position of Lord High Steward of England, not to be confused with the Lord Steward, a court functionary, is the first of the Great Officers of State. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...

  • peers and their families have positions in the order of precedence.
  • peers wear special coronets at coronations of Sovereigns; depictions of these coronets also appear atop peers' armorial achievements.
  • peers have distinctive robes for use at coronations and in the House of Lords (if a member of the latter).

An order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of people; it is used by many organizations and governments. ... Coin showing a coronet A coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ...

History

Main article: History of the Peerage

When William of Normandy conquered England, he divided the nation into many "manors", the owners of which came to be known as barons; those who held many manors were known as "greater barons", while those with fewer manors were the "lesser barons". When Kings summoned their barons to Royal Councils, the greater barons were summoned individually by the Sovereign, lesser barons through sheriffs. In 1254, the lesser barons ceased to be summoned, and the body of greater barons evolved into the House of Lords. Since the Crown was itself a hereditary dignity, it seemed natural for seats in the upper House of Parliament to be so as well. By the beginning of the 14th century, the hereditary characteristics of the Peerage were well developed. The first peer to be created by patent was Lord Beauchamp of Holt in the reign of Richard II. The Peerage is a system of nobility unique to the United Kingdom. ... William of Normandy (French: Guillaume de Normandie; c. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... The title Earl Beauchamp (pronounced Beecham) was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1815 for William Lygon, 1st Baron Beauchamp (the family surname is pronounced Liggon), along with the subsidiary title Viscount Elmley, in the County of Worcester. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan The Fair Maid of Kent. He was born in Bordeaux and became his fathers successor when his elder brother died in infancy. ...


The ranks of baron and earl date to feudal, and perhaps Anglo-Saxon, times. The ranks of duke and marquess were introduced in the 14th century, and that of viscount in the 15th century. While life peerages were often created in the early days of the Peerage, their regular creation was not provided for by Act of Parliament until the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (citation 39 & 40 Vict c. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Counterparts

Other feudal monarchies equally had a similar system, grouping high nobility of different rank titles under one term, with common privileges and/or in an assembly, sometimes legislative and/or judicial.


In France, the system of pairies (peerage) existed in two different versions: the exclusive 'old' in the French kingdom, in many respects an inspiration for the English/British practice, and the very prolific chambre des pairs of the Bourbon Restoration (1814-1848) The Peerage of France (French: ) was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages. ... The Peerage of France (French: ) was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages. ...


In Spain and Portugal, the closest equivalent title was grandee; in Hungary, magnate. Spanish nobles are classified either as Grandees (also called Peers) or as Titled Nobles. ... For a wealthy or powerful business baron, executive, or tycoon, see Business magnate. ...


In the Holy Roman Empire, instead of an exclusive aristocratic assembly, the imperial Diet, the Reichstag, was the highest organ, membership of which, expressed by the title Reichsfürst, was granted to all major princes, and various minor ones, princes of the church (parallel to the Lords spiritual) and in some cases restricted to a collective 'curiate' vote in a 'bench', such as the Grafenbank. The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Fürst (plural Fürsten) is a German title of nobility, usually translated into English as Prince. The female form is Fürstin (plural Fürstinnen). ...


See also

The Ancient Greek term aristocracy meant a system of government with rule by the best. This is the first definition given in most dictionaries. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The title Baron de Longueuil is the only French colonial title that is recognised by Queen Elizabeth II in her capacity as Queen of Canada. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Landed gentry is a term traditionally applied in Britain to members of the upper class with country estates often (but not always) farmed on their behalf by others, and who might be without a peerage or other hereditary title. ... This page lists all dukedoms, extant, extinct, dormant, abeyant, or forfeit, in the peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. ... This page lists all marquessates, extant, extinct, dormant, abeyant, or forfeit, in the peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. ... This page lists all Earldoms, extant, extinct, dormant, abeyant, or forfeit, in the peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. ... This page lists all viscounties, extant, extinct, dormant, abeyant, or forfeit, in the peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. ... This page is meant to list all baronies and lordships of parliaments created in the peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of Life Peerages in the Peerage of the United Kingdom created under the Life Peerages Act 1958, grouped by the sitting Prime Minister. ... This is a list of Life Peerages in the Peerage of the United Kingdom created under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876. ... This is a list of representative peers elected from the Peerage of Ireland to sit in the House of Lords. ... As of February 2004, the spiritual peers, in order of seniority, are as follows: with seniority ex officio The Archbishop of Canterbury - Rowan Williams The Archbishop of York - John Sentamu The Bishop of London - Richard Chartres The Bishop of Durham - Nicholas Thomas Wright The Bishop of Winchester - Michael Scott-Joynt... A substantive title is a title of nobility or royalty actually held, usually alone, by someone which they gained through either grant or inheritance, as opposed to one given or loaned to them either as a courtesy title, or gained through marriage. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

Sources and references

External links


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Burke's Peerage - Page cannot be found (69 words)
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Substantive peerage - encyclopedia article about Substantive peerage. (1797 words)
A substantive title (or substantive peerage) is a title of nobility or royalty held by someone (normally by one person alone), which they gained through either grant or inheritance, as opposed to one given or loaned to them either as a courtesy title, or gained through marriage.
The British peerage and some continental nobilities confer titles only to individuals, such as Comte de Clermont or Duke of Leinster (which are substantive titles).
For the British peerage, written references to substantive peers are supposed to be in the form The Marquess of Winchester, The Earl of Derby, etc, including the preceding definite article ("The"); courtesy peers are named without the article, e.g.
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