FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Peer to peer" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Peer to peer

A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. P2P networks are typically used for connecting nodes via largely ad hoc connections. Such networks are useful for many purposes. Sharing content files containing audio, video, data or anything in digital format is very common, and realtime data, such as Telephony traffic, is also passed using P2P technology. A wide variety of systems of interconnected components are called networks. ... // Analog For analog signals, bandwidth is the width, usually measured in hertz, of a frequency band f2 − f1. ... IP Telephony, also called Internet telephony, is the technology that makes it possible to have a telephone conversation over the Internet or a dedicated Internet Protocol (IP) network instead of dedicated voice transmission lines. ...


The term "P2P network" can also mean grid computing. // Grid computing uses the resources of many separate computers connected by a network (usually the internet) to solve large-scale computation problems. ...


A pure peer-to-peer file transfer network does not have the notion of clients or servers, but only equal peer nodes that simultaneously function as both "clients" and "servers" to the other nodes on the network. This model of network arrangement differs from the client-server model where communication is usually to and from a central server. A typical example for a non peer-to-peer file transfer is an FTP server. One user uploads a file to the FTP server, then many others download it, with no need for the uploader and downloader to be connected at the same time. A node is a device connected to a computer network. ... Client/Server is a network application architecture which separates the client (usually the graphical user interface) from the server. ... This page is about the File Transfer Protocol, a computer protocol. ... This page is about the File Transfer Protocol, a computer protocol. ...


Some networks and channels, such as Napster (now closed), OpenNap, or IRC @find, use a client-server structure for some tasks (e.g., searching) and a peer-to-peer structure for others. Networks such as Gnutella or Freenet use a peer-to-peer structure for all purposes, and are sometimes referred to as true peer-to-peer networks, although Gnutella is greatly facilitated by directory servers that inform peers of the network addresses of other peers. OpenNAP is a piece of free software that replicates the functionality of the once-popular Napster peer-to-peer filesharing server. ... Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of instant communication over the Internet. ... A depot channel is a channel on an IRC network where you can use the @find command. ... Gnutella (pronounced ) is a file sharing network used primarily to exchange music, films and software. ... Freenet is a decentralized censorship-resistant peer-to-peer distributed data store. ...


Peer-to-peer architecture embodies one of the key technical concepts of the internet, described in the first internet Request for Comments, "RFC 1, Host Software" [1] dated 7 April 1969. More recently, the concept has achieved wide prominence among the general public in the context of the absence of central indexing servers in architectures used for exchanging multimedia files. A Request for Comments (RFC) document is one of a series of numbered Internet informational documents and standards very widely followed by both commercial software and freeware in the Internet and Unix communities. ... Alternate meaning: Wikipedia:Requests for comment A Request for Comments (RFC) document is one of a series of numbered Internet informational documents and standards very widely followed by both commercial software and freeware in the Internet and Unix communities. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... In computing, a server is: A computer software application that carries out some task (i. ...

Contents


Operation of peer-to-peer networks

Three major types of P2P network are:


Pure P2P:

  • Peers act as clients and server
  • There is no central server
  • There is no central router

Hybrid P2P:

  • Has a central server that keeps information on peers and responds to requests for that information.
  • Peers are responsible for hosting the information as the central server does not store files, for letting the central server know what files they want to share and for downloading its shareable resources to peers that request it.
  • Route terminals are used addresses, which are referenced by a set of indices to obtain an absolute address.

Mixed P2P:

  • Has both pure and hybrid characteristics

Advantages of peer-to-peer networks

An important goal in peer-to-peer networks is that all clients provide resources, including bandwidth, storage space, and computing power. Thus, as nodes arrive and demand on the system increases, the total capacity of the system also increases. This is not true of a client-server architecture with a fixed set of servers, in which adding more clients could mean slower data transfer for all users. // Analog For analog signals, bandwidth is the width, usually measured in hertz, of a frequency band f2 − f1. ... Client/Server is a network application architecture which separates the client (usually the graphical user interface) from the server. ...


The distributed nature of peer-to-peer networks also increases robustness in case of failures by replicating data over multiple peers, and -- in pure P2P systems -- by enabling peers to find the data without relying on a centralized index server. In the latter case, there is no single point of failure in the system. Reliable system design is the design of systems with high levels of reliability and availability. ...


When the term peer-to-peer was used to describe the Napster network, it implied that the peer protocol nature was important, but, in reality, the great achievement of Napster was the empowerment of the peers (i.e., the fringes of the network) in association with a central index, which made it fast and efficient to locate available content. The peer protocol was just a common way to achieve this. In computing, a protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between two computing endpoints. ...


Generational classification of peer-to-peer file sharing networks

Some people describe peer-to-peer file-sharing networks by their 'generation'. In this context, they are referring only to the popular internet-based file-sharing networks, not earlier research- and business-oriented peer-to-peer systems, which pre-date them. File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ...


First generation

The first generation of peer-to-peer file sharing networks had a centralized file list, like Napster. Courts in the United States ruled that whoever controlled this centralized file list containing works whose copyright was being infringed was responsible for any infringement. Ultimately, Napster was held liable even if it used the most advanced technology available to identify works copyright holders had asked it to block, because no technology that can identify works with 100% certainty exists or can exist. Napster continues to operate today, but the company has taken a new direction, and is now legally distributing music under a subscription-based model. Second version (revised 2001) of Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones. ... For copyright issues in relation to Wikipedia itself, see Wikipedia:Copyrights. ...


In the centralized peer-to-peer model, a user would send a search to the centralized server of what they were looking for, i.e., song, video, movie. The server then sends back a list of which peers have the data and facilitates the connection and download.


Second generation

After Napster encountered legal troubles, Justin Frankel of Nullsoft set out to create a network without a central index server, and Gnutella was the result. Unfortunately, the Gnutella model of all nodes being equal quickly died from bottlenecks as the network grew from incoming Napster refugees. FastTrack solved the problem by having some nodes be 'more equal than others'. Justin Frankel is a computer programmer best known for his work on the Winamp media player application, and for inventing the Gnutella peer-to-peer system. ...


By electing some nodes that had more capacity as indexing nodes, and having lower capacity nodes branching off from them, it allowed for a network that could scale to a much larger size. Gnutella quickly adopted this model, and most current peer-to-peer networks follow this model, as it allows for large and efficient networks without central servers.


Also included in the second generation are distributed hash tables, which solve the scalability problem by electing various nodes to index certain hashes (which are used to identify files), allowing for fast and efficient searching for any instances of a file on the network. They are not without their own drawbacks; perhaps most significantly, DHTs do not directly support keyword searching (as opposed to exact-match searching). Distributed hash tables (DHTs) are a class of decentralized distributed systems which partition ownership of a set of keys among participating nodes, and can efficiently route messages to the unique owner of any given key. ...


Third generation

The third generation of peer-to-peer networks are those that have anonymity features built in. Examples of anonymous networks are Freenet, I2P, GNUnet, Entropy. Anonymity is the state of not being identifiable within a set, called the anonymity set. ... Freenet is a decentralized censorship-resistant peer-to-peer distributed data store. ... I2P is a free and open source project building an anonymous and/or pseudonymous virtual private network. ... GNUnet is a framework for decentralized, peer-to-peer networking. ... Entropy is a decentralized, peer-to-peer communication network designed to be resistant to censorship, much like Freenet. ...


Friend-to-friend networks only allow already known users (a.k.a. "friends") to connect to your computer, then each node can forward requests and files anonymously between its own "friends" nodes; some of these networks are: MUTE / Napshare / ANts P2P / WASTE. A friend-to-friend (or F2F P2P) computer network is a particular type of anonymous P2P in which people use direct connections with their friends. F2F software only allows people you trust (using IP addresses or digital signatures you trust) to exchange files directly with your computer. ... A node is a device connected to a computer network. ... Mute comes from mutus, Latin for mum. ... NapShare 0. ... ANts P2P is an anonymous peer-to-peer open source GPLed application written in Java. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Third generation networks, however, have not reached mass usage for file sharing because of the overhead that anonymity features introduce, multiplying the bandwidth required to send a file with each intermediary used.


Academic peer-to-peer network

Recently, developers at Pennsylvania State University, in conjunction with Massachusetts Institute of Technology Open Knowledge Initiative, researchers at Simon Fraser University, and the Internet2 P2P Working Group, have been working on an academic application for the peer-to-peer network. This project referred to as LionShare is based on a second generation network, more specifically the Gnutella model. The main purpose of this network is to share academic material between users at many different academic institutions. The LionShare network is based on a hybrid model that mixes the Gnutella decentralized peer-to-peer network with a more traditional client-server network. Users of this program are able to upload files to a server where they can be shared continuously, regardless of whether or not the user is online. This network allows for a much smaller than normal sharing community. The Pennsylvania State University The Pennsylvania State University (commonly known as Penn State) is a prestigious state-related land-grant university in Pennsylvania, with over 80,000 students at 24 campuses throughout the state. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a research and educational institution located in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is a world leader in science and technology, as well as in many other fields, including management, economics, linguistics, political science, and philosophy. ... Simon Fraser University (SFU) is located in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, a suburb of Vancouver, British Columbia. ... Client/Server is a network application architecture which separates the client (usually the graphical user interface) from the server. ...


The main difference between this network and virtually all other peer-to-peer networks is the fact that the users of LionShare will not be anonymous. The purpose of this is to deter the sharing of copyrighted material over the network, and thus avoid legal issues. Another difference is the ability to selectively share individual files with specific groups. A user is able to select on an individual basis which users are able to receive an individual file or group of files.


This technology is needed in the academic community because of the use of more and larger multimedia files in the classroom setting. More and more professors are using multimedia files such as audio, video and powerpoint. Transferring these files to students is a difficult task that would be made much easier by a network such as LionShare.


Legal controversy

Under US law, "the Betamax decision" case holds that copying "technologies" are not inherently illegal, if substantial non-infringing use can be made of them. This decision, predating the widespread use of the Internet applies to most data networks, including peer-to-peer networks, since distribution of correctly licensed files can be performed. These non-infringing uses include sending open source software, public domain files and out of copyright works. Other jurisdictions tend to view the situation in somewhat similar ways.


In practice, many, often most, of the files shared on peer-to-peer networks are copies of copyrighted popular music and movies in wide variety of formats (MP3, MPEG, RM, etc.) Sharing of these copies is illegal in most jurisdictions. This has led many observers, including most media companies and some peer-to-peer advocates, to conclude that the networks themselves pose grave threats to the established distribution model. The research that attempts to measure actual monetary loss has been somewhat equivocal. Whilst on paper the existence of these networks results in massive losses, the actual income does not seem to have changed much since these networks started up. Whether the threat is real or not, both the RIAA and the MPAA now spend large amounts of money attempting to lobby lawmakers for the creation of new laws, and some copyright owners pay companies to help legally challenge users engaging in illegal sharing of their material. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a special interest group representing the U.S. recording industry, and the body responsible for certifying gold and platinum albums and singles in the USA. For more information about sales data see list of best selling albums and list of best selling... The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) is a non-profit trade association formed to advance the interests of movie studios. ...


In spite of the Betamax decision, peer-to-peer networks themselves have been targeted by the representatives of those artists and organizations who license their creative works, including industry trade organizations such as the RIAA and MPAA as a potential threat. The Napster service was shut down by an RIAA lawsuit. In this case, Napster had been deliberately marketed as a way to distribute audio files without permission from the copyright owners.


As actions to defend copyright infringement by media companies expand, the networks have quickly adapted and constantly become both technologically and legally more difficult to dismantle. This has caused the users that are actually breaking the law to become targets, because whilst the underlying technology may be legal, the abuse of it by individuals redistributing content in a copyright infringing way is clearly not.


Anonymous peer-to-peer networks allow for distribution of material - legal or not - with little or no legal accountability across a wide variety of jurisdictions. Many people profess to believe that this will lead to greater or easier trading of illegal material and even (in some unclear way) facilitate terrorism, and call for its regulation on those grounds. Others counter that the potential for illegal uses should not prevent the technology from being used for legal purposes, that the presumption of innocence must apply, and that non peer-to-peer technologies like email, which also possess anonymizing services, have similar capabilities. An anonymous P2P computer network is a particular type of peer_to_peer network in which the users and their nodes are pseudonymous by default. ... The term terrorism is controversial and has many definitions, none of which are universally accepted. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ...


Important Cases

Sony Corp v. ... Holding decision pending Court membership Case opinions Laws applied Copyright Act of 1976 MGM Studios, Inc. ...

Computer science perspective

Technically, a completely pure peer-to-peer application must implement only peering protocols that do not recognize the concepts of "server" and "client". Such pure peer applications and networks are rare. Most networks and applications described as peer-to-peer actually contain or rely on some non-peer elements, such as DNS. Also, real world applications often use multiple protocols and act as client, server, and peer simultaneously, or over time. Completely decentralized networks of peers have been in use for many years: two examples are USENET (1979) and FidoNet (1984). The Domain Name System or DNS is a system that stores information about host names and domain names in a kind of distributed database on networks, such as the Internet. ... Usenet is a distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP network of the same name. ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... FidoNet is an inter-connecting file and message transport system that was used by bulletin board systems. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Many P2P systems use stronger peers (super-peers, super-nodes) as servers and client-peers are connected in a star-like fashion to a single super-peer.


Sun added classes to the Java technology to speed the development of peer-to-peer applications quickly in the late 1990s so that developers could build decentralized real time chat applets and applications before Instant Messaging networks were popular. This effort is now being continued with the JXTA project. // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but keeping the same mind-set. ... In computer networking, JXTA (Juxtapose) is Sun Microsystems opensource-based peer-to-peer infrastructure. ...


Peer-to-peer systems and applications have attracted a great deal of attention from computer science research; some prominent research projects include the Chord project, ARPANET, the PAST storage utility, the P-Grid, a self-organized and emerging overlay network and the CoopNet content distribution system (see below for external links related to these projects). The Chord project aims to build scalable, symmetric and robust distributed systems using peer-to-peer ideas. ... ARPANET logical map, March 1977. ... PAST A large-scale, persistent peer-to-peer storage utility. ... P-Grid is a self-organizing structured peer-to-peer system, which can accommodate arbitrary key distributions (and hence support lexicographic key ordering and range queries), still providing storage load-balancing and efficient search by using randomized routing. ...


Attacks on Peer-to-peer networks

Many peer-to-peer networks are under constant attack by people with a variety of motives.


Examples include:

  • poisoning attacks (providing files whose contents are different than the description)
  • denial of service attacks (attacks that may make the network run very slowly or break completely)
  • defection attacks (users or software that make use of the network without contributing resources to it)
  • insertion of viruses to carried data (e.g., downloaded or carried files may be infected with viruses or other malware)
  • malware in the peer-to-peer network software itself (e.g., the software may contain spyware)
  • filtering (network operators may attempt to prevent peer-to-peer network data from being carried)
  • identity attacks (e.g., tracking down the users of the network and harassing or legally attacking them)
  • spamming (e.g., sending unsolicited information across the network- not necessarily as a denial of service attack)

Most attacks can be defeated or controlled by careful design of the peer-to-peer network and through the use of encryption. P2P network defense is in fact closely related to the "Byzantine Generals Problem". However, almost any network will fail when the majority of the peers are trying to damage it, and many protocols may be rendered impotent by far fewer numbers. In fault-tolerant distributed computing, a Byzantine failure is an arbitrary fault that occurs during the execution of an algorithm by a distributed system. ...


Networks, protocols and applications

Format:

  • network/protocol: list of applications using that network (operating system)

All networks and protocols are in alphabetical order except very similar applications which are listed in one entry with the most important one first, determining the place of this very similar applications in the list.

An earlier generation of peer-to-peer systems were called "metacomputing" or were classed as "middleware". These include: Legion, Globus, Condor, ByteTornado Applejuice is a centralized peer-to-peer file sharing network similar to the original Edonkey Network. ... Avalanche is the name of a proposed peer-to-peer network created by Microsoft, which claims to offer improved scalability and bandwidth efficiency compared to existing p2p systems. ... BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer (P2P) file distribution tool written by programmer Bram Cohen and debuted at CodeCon 2002. ... ABC is an open source BitTorrent client program. ... Azureus is a Java based BitTorrent client, with support for I2P and Tor anonymous communication protocols. ... BitComet is a BitTorrent client written in C++ for Microsoft Windows. ... BitSpirit is a freeware Windows BitTorrent client by ByteLinker, Inc. ... BitTornado is a BitTorrent client. ... BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer (P2P) file distribution tool written by programmer Bram Cohen and debuted at CodeCon 2002. ... BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer (P2P) file distribution tool written by programmer Bram Cohen and debuted at CodeCon 2002. ... MLDonkey is an open source multi-network peer-to-peer application. ... Shareaza is a Windows–based peer-to-peer client which supports the Gnutella, Gnutella2, EDonkey Network, and BitTorrent network protocols and which can handle magnet links, ed2k links, Piolet links, and the now deprecated Gnutella links. ... Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS, the operating system software for Macintosh computers. ... A cake is a form of food, usually sweet, often baked . ... A cake is a form of food, usually sweet, often baked . ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with NeoModus Direct Connect. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... NeoModus Direct Connect is a file-sharing client for Windows and Mac users that provides file-sharing capabilities for any type of file within a hub-centric, peer-to-peer network. ... eDonkey network (also called eDonkey2000 network or ed2k) is a file sharing network used primarily to exchange music, films and software. ... In computing, aMule is a peer-to-peer file sharing application that works with the eDonkey2000 network, but offers more features than the standard eDonkey client. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS, the operating system software for Macintosh computers. ... eDonkey2000 is a peer-to-peer file sharing application developed by MetaMachine, using the Multisource File Transfer Protocol. ... In computing, eMule is a peer to peer file sharing application that works with the EDonkey network and has more features than the EDonkey client. ... LMule was an early attempt to bring an eMule-like client to Linux, starting in January 2002. ... MLDonkey is an open source multi-network peer-to-peer application. ... Shareaza is a Windows–based peer-to-peer client which supports the Gnutella, Gnutella2, EDonkey Network, and BitTorrent network protocols and which can handle magnet links, ed2k links, Piolet links, and the now deprecated Gnutella links. ... xMule is a client for the eDonkey peer-to-peer file sharing network. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... FastTrack is a peer-to-peer protocol, used by the Kazaa and variants, Grokster, iMesh and, Morpheus file sharing programs. ... Look up Gift in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This page is about gifts in the common English-language sense. ... Grokster Ltd. ... iMesh is a file sharing service that uses the FastTrack protocol, founded by Israeli company iMesh. ... Adware or advertising-supported software is any computer program or software package in which advertisements or other marketing material are included with or automatically loaded by the software and displayed or played back after installation or in which information about the computer or its users activities is uploaded automatically when... Kazaa Media Desktop (once capitalized as KaZaA, but now usually left as Kazaa) is a peer-to-peer file sharing application using the FastTrack protocol. ... Sharman Networks is a company headquartered in Australia and incorporated in Vanuatu. ... Adware or advertising-supported software is any computer program or software package in which advertisements or other marketing material are included with or automatically loaded by the software and displayed or played back after installation or in which information about the computer or its users activities is uploaded automatically when... Kazaa Media Desktop (once capitalized as KaZaA, but now usually left as Kazaa) is a peer-to-peer file sharing application using the FastTrack protocol. ... KCeasy is a Windows peer-to-peer filesharing front-end application which uses giFT as its back end foundation. ... Species Mammuthus columbi Columbian mammoth Mammuthus exilis Pygmy mammoth Mammuthus jeffersonii Jeffersonian mammoth Mammuthus meridionalis Mammuthus primigenius Wooly mammoth A mammoth (from Russian мамонт) is any of a number of an extinct genus of elephant, often with long curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair. ... MLDonkey is an open source multi-network peer-to-peer application. ... Poisoned is a free peer-to-peer computer program for Mac OS X. It is a frontend to giFT, and currently supports the OpenFT, FastTrack and Gnutella protocols, using the third-party gift-fasttrack plugin. ... FotoSwap is an online digital photo sharing software application that allows people to instantly share a whole collection of personal photos with friends and family over the Internet. ... Freenet is a decentralized censorship-resistant peer-to-peer distributed data store. ... Entropy is a decentralized, peer-to-peer communication network designed to be resistant to censorship, much like Freenet. ... Gnutella (pronounced ) is a file sharing network used primarily to exchange music, films and software. ... Acquisitionx is a shareware Gnutella-based peer-to-peer client on Mac OS X. It is based on LimeWire and is open-source. ... Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS, the operating system software for Macintosh computers. ... BearShare is a popular closed source Gnutella client software package from a company called Free Peers, Inc. ... BetBug is a downloadable software application that links users together so that they can share betting offers. ... Cabos is a filesharing program using the Gnutella network. ... RISC OS (Reduced Instruction Set Computing Operating System) is a British GUI operating system for ARM-processor based computers or similar devices. ... In computing, Gnucleus is a popular Gnutella client for the Microsoft Windows platform, released under the GPL license. ... Grokster Ltd. ... iMesh is a file sharing service that uses the FastTrack protocol, founded by Israeli company iMesh. ... gtk-gnutella is an open-source unix servent for the Gnutella network, based on the GTK toolkit. ... Unix or UNIX is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T Bell Labs employees including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy. ... LimeWire is a free and open source Gnutella peer-to-peer network client released under the GNU General Public License. ... Java is a reflective, object-oriented programming language developed initially by James Gosling and colleagues at Sun Microsystems. ... MLDonkey is an open source multi-network peer-to-peer application. ... Morpheus is the name of a file sharing client for Microsoft Windows, operated by the company StreamCast (formerly called MusicCity), that originally used the OpenNAP peer-to-peer (P2P) platform. ... Phex is a simple peer-to-peer network client. ... Poisoned is a free peer-to-peer computer program for Mac OS X. It is a frontend to giFT, and currently supports the OpenFT, FastTrack and Gnutella protocols, using the third-party gift-fasttrack plugin. ... Shareaza is a Windows–based peer-to-peer client which supports the Gnutella, Gnutella2, EDonkey Network, and BitTorrent network protocols and which can handle magnet links, ed2k links, Piolet links, and the now deprecated Gnutella links. ... XoloX is a Gnutella-based peer-to-peer file sharing application for Windows. ... The Gnutella2 peer-to-peer protocol is a reworking of the Gnutella protocol, written mainly by Michael Stokes. ... Adagio is a server-only computer program for the peer-to-peer Gnutella2 network. ... This page is about the computer software Caribou. ... In computing, Gnucleus is a popular Gnutella client for the Microsoft Windows platform, released under the GPL license. ... iMesh is a file sharing service that uses the FastTrack protocol, founded by Israeli company iMesh. ... MLDonkey is an open source multi-network peer-to-peer application. ... Morpheus is the name of a file sharing client for Microsoft Windows, operated by the company StreamCast (formerly called MusicCity), that originally used the OpenNAP peer-to-peer (P2P) platform. ... Shareaza is a Windows–based peer-to-peer client which supports the Gnutella, Gnutella2, EDonkey Network, and BitTorrent network protocols and which can handle magnet links, ed2k links, Piolet links, and the now deprecated Gnutella links. ... TrustyFiles is a closed source Microsoft Windows-based peer-to-peer client which connects to the Gnutella, Gnutella2, FastTrack and BitTorrent network protocols. ... Altnet is a program that came bundled with Kazaa. ... BullGuard is a Danish company founded in 2001 by the entrepreneur Morten Lund [1]. BullGuard is probably best known for its free P2P version of their anti-virus software now downloaded by over 20 million users. ... Kazaa Media Desktop (once capitalized as KaZaA, but now usually left as Kazaa) is a peer-to-peer file sharing application using the FastTrack protocol. ... Kazaa Media Desktop (once capitalized as KaZaA, but now usually left as Kazaa) is a peer-to-peer file sharing application using the FastTrack protocol. ... The Kad Network is a completely decentralized file sharing network that does not make use of central servers. ... Kademlia is a P2P overlay protocol designed for decentralized peer to peer computer networks. ... In computing, eMule is a peer to peer file sharing application that works with the EDonkey network and has more features than the EDonkey client. ... MLDonkey is an open source multi-network peer-to-peer application. ... LUSerNet is a file sharing network that was designed to run on Local Area Network. ... LUSerNet is a file sharing network that was designed to run on Local Area Network. ... MANOLITO is the internal protocol name for the proprietary peer-to-peer network developed by Pablo Soto, first used by Blubster, and later Piolet. ... Piolet is a MANOLITO servent developed by Pablo Soto. ... Piolet is a MANOLITO servent developed by Pablo Soto. ... Second version (revised 2001) of Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones. ... For Napster, Inc. ... OpenNAP is a piece of free software that replicates the functionality of the once-popular Napster peer-to-peer filesharing server. ... WinMX is a peer-to-peer file sharing program authored by Frontcode Technologies and running on Windows operating systems. ... Peercasting is a method of multicasting streams, usually audio and/or video, to the internet via peer-to-peer technology. ... PeerCast is an open source streaming media multicast tool. ... IceShare is a vaporware peercasting system for Ogg multimedia. ... Icecast is an open source streaming media project maintained by the creators of the Ogg media format, Xiph. ... CoolStreaming is P2P a technology that enable users to share television content with each other over the net. ... Cybersky-TV is a free software application for sharing television signals. ... WinMX is a peer-to-peer file sharing program authored by Frontcode Technologies. ... WinMX is a peer-to-peer file sharing program authored by Frontcode Technologies and running on Windows operating systems. ... ANts P2P is an anonymous peer-to-peer open source GPLed application written in Java. ... Ares Galaxy is a peer-to-peer file sharing program. ... Audiogalaxy was a file sharing system located at http://www. ... The Chord project aims to build a scalable, symmetric and robust distributed systems using peer-to-peer ideas. ... This article is about the peer to peer application; The Circle is also a 1920s play by W. Somerset Maugham. ... Coral is an open source, peer-to-peer content distribution network designed to mirror web content. ... Dexter is the name of a number of places in the United States of America: Dexter, Alabama Dexter, Arkansas Dexter, Georgia Dexter, Illinois Dexter, Indiana Dexter, Iowa Dexter, Kansas Dexter, Kentucky Dexter, Maine Dexter, Michigan Dexter, Minnesota Dexter, Mississippi Dexter, Missouri Dexter, New Mexico Dexter, New York Dexter, North Carolina... Earth Station 5 (ES5) is a peer to peer network and file sharing program that has put special emphasis on providing security to uploaders and downloaders. ... FileTopia is a free, Windows-based client and network allowing users to do file organising, file sharing, text & voice chat, and instant messaging, with all communication being strongly encrypted. ... GNUnet is a framework for decentralized, peer-to-peer networking. ... It has been suggested that Grooviquette be merged into this article or section. ... Alternate meaning: Hotwire (filesharing protocol) Hotwiring is the process of bypassing an automobiles ignition interlock and thus starting it without the key. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Madster was one of the many P2P file sharing services that appeared in Napsters wake. ... Mute comes from mutus, Latin for mum. ... NapShare 0. ... From the giFT documentation at the giFT homepage: OpenFT is a file sharing protocol developed by the giFT project. ... Poisoned is a free peer-to-peer computer program for Mac OS X. It is a frontend to giFT, and currently supports the OpenFT, FastTrack and Gnutella protocols, using the third-party gift-fasttrack plugin. ... P-Grid is a self-organizing structured peer-to-peer system, which can accommodate arbitrary key distributions (and hence support lexicographic key ordering and range queries), still providing storage load-balancing and efficient search by using randomized routing. ... Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of instant communication over the Internet. ... A depot channel is a channel on an IRC network where you can use the @find command. ... (UTC)XDCC (Xabi DCC a. ... Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of instant communication over the Internet. ... mIRC is a shareware Internet Relay Chat client for Windows, created in 1995 and developed by Khaled Mardam-Bey. ... Trillian is a multiprotocol instant messaging application for Windows created by Cerulean Studios that can connect to multiple IM programs from one client, such as AIM, ICQ, MSN Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger, IRC, Novell GroupWise Messenger, Bonjour, and Jabber and Skype networks (the latter four with Trillian Pro which allows for... In computer networking, JXTA (Juxtapose) is Sun Microsystems opensource-based peer-to-peer infrastructure. ... Peersites is a peer-to-peer networks of peers, gateways and peername services. ... Mnet is a distributed, peer to peer, file store. ... This page deals with the computer program, for the South African TV channel, see M-Net Mnet is a distributed, peer to peer, file store. ... Scour Inc. ... Skype (pronounced to rhyme with ripe) is a proprietary peer-to-peer internet telephony (VoIP) network, founded by Niklas Zennström and Janus Friis, the creators of Kazaa. ... Solipsis is a free and open source system for a massively multi-participant shared virtual world designed by Joaquin Keller and Gwendal Simon at France Télécom Research and Development Labs. ... Soulseek is a file-sharing application and tight knit network used mainly to exchange music files, allthought it can share just about any other kind of file. ... SPIN stands for Secure Peered Internet. ... Swarmcast, invented by Justin Chapweske, who later sold it to Opencola, was the first peer-to-peer (P2P) content delivery system and the originator of the term Swarming Downloads. It works by breaking a file into lots of little packets, distributing those packets around to computers that have downloaded the... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Winny (also known as WinNY) is a Japanese peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing program that claims to be loosely inspired by the design principles behind the Freenet network and that also claimed to keep user identities untraceable. ... AsagumoWeb is a framework application to construct the Web system on the P2P network. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Soribada is the first Korean peer-to-peer system that started service on May, 2005. ... Legion is a computer software system variously classified as a distributed operating system, a peer-to-peer system, metacomputing software, or middleware. ... Globus is a Swiss department store company, that runs 11 department stores in Switzerland plus the Herren Globus chain of menswear stores, Office World chain of office supplies stores plus management of the cartoon character Globi. ...


Multi-network applications

Format: application (networks/protocols) (operating systems) (open source?)

In computing, eMule is a peer to peer file sharing application that works with the EDonkey network and has more features than the EDonkey client. ... eDonkey network (also called eDonkey2000 network or ed2k) is a file sharing network used primarily to exchange music, films and software. ... The Kad Network is a completely decentralized file sharing network that does not make use of central servers. ... // Microsoft Windows is a range of operating environments for personal computers and servers. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... In computing, aMule is a peer-to-peer file sharing application that works with the eDonkey2000 network, but offers more features than the standard eDonkey client. ... eDonkey network (also called eDonkey2000 network or ed2k) is a file sharing network used primarily to exchange music, films and software. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS, the operating system software for Macintosh computers. ... A rendering of the BSD daemon by Poul-Henning Kamp FreeBSD is a free, open source, Unix-like operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through 386BSD and 4. ... NetBSD was the first of the freely redistributable, open source versions of the BSD Unix-like operating systems to produce a formal release, with NetBSD 0. ... OpenBSD Logo with Puffy, the pufferfish. ... // Microsoft Windows is a range of operating environments for personal computers and servers. ... The Solaris Operating Environment is a computer operating system, based on the open-source UNIX SunOS developed by Sun Microsystems. ... Epicea is a P2P program that allows you to share files on Internet with millions of other people. ... Epicea is a P2P program that allows you to share files on Internet with millions of other people. ... BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer (P2P) file distribution tool written by programmer Bram Cohen and debuted at CodeCon 2002. ... eDonkey network (also called eDonkey2000 network or ed2k) is a file sharing network used primarily to exchange music, films and software. ... FastTrack is a peer-to-peer protocol, used by the Kazaa and variants, Grokster, iMesh and, Morpheus file sharing programs. ... Gnutella (pronounced ) is a file sharing network used primarily to exchange music, films and software. ... Look up Gift in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This page is about gifts in the common English-language sense. ... From the giFT documentation at the giFT homepage: OpenFT is a file sharing protocol developed by the giFT project. ... xFactor is a multi-network client for Mac OS X, to access Kazaa, Gnutella, OpenFT, and most recently, Ares Galaxy. ... Look up Gift in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This page is about gifts in the common English-language sense. ... Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS, the operating system software for Macintosh computers. ... In computing, Gnucleus is a popular Gnutella client for the Microsoft Windows platform, released under the GPL license. ... The Gnutella2 peer-to-peer protocol is a reworking of the Gnutella protocol, written mainly by Michael Stokes. ... HydraEngine is a modular, plugin-driven peer-to-peer client framework which is designed with true multi-network downloads in mind. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS, the operating system software for Macintosh computers. ... iMesh is a file sharing service that uses the FastTrack protocol, founded by Israeli company iMesh. ... eDonkey network (also called eDonkey2000 network or ed2k) is a file sharing network used primarily to exchange music, films and software. ... The Gnutella2 peer-to-peer protocol is a reworking of the Gnutella protocol, written mainly by Michael Stokes. ... Kazaa Media Desktop (once capitalized as KaZaA, but now usually left as Kazaa) is a peer-to-peer file sharing application using the FastTrack protocol. ... Kazaa Media Desktop (once capitalized as KaZaA, but now usually left as Kazaa) is a peer-to-peer file sharing application using the FastTrack protocol. ... KCeasy is a Windows peer-to-peer filesharing front-end application which uses giFT as its back end foundation. ... eDonkey network (also called eDonkey2000 network or ed2k) is a file sharing network used primarily to exchange music, films and software. ... MLDonkey is an open source multi-network peer-to-peer application. ... eDonkey network (also called eDonkey2000 network or ed2k) is a file sharing network used primarily to exchange music, films and software. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS, the operating system software for Macintosh computers. ... Palm OS is an operating system made by PalmSource, Inc. ... Java is a reflective, object-oriented programming language developed initially by James Gosling and colleagues at Sun Microsystems. ... Morpheus is the name of a file sharing client for Microsoft Windows, operated by the company StreamCast (formerly called MusicCity), that originally used the OpenNAP peer-to-peer (P2P) platform. ... Poisoned is a free peer-to-peer computer program for Mac OS X. It is a frontend to giFT, and currently supports the OpenFT, FastTrack and Gnutella protocols, using the third-party gift-fasttrack plugin. ... Shareaza is a Windows–based peer-to-peer client which supports the Gnutella, Gnutella2, EDonkey Network, and BitTorrent network protocols and which can handle magnet links, ed2k links, Piolet links, and the now deprecated Gnutella links. ... WinMX is a peer-to-peer file sharing program authored by Frontcode Technologies and running on Windows operating systems. ... Second version (revised 2001) of Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones. ... WinMX is a peer-to-peer file sharing program authored by Frontcode Technologies. ... XNap is a free OpenNAP client for Unix-like systems and licensed under the GNU Public License . ... OpenNAP is a piece of free software that replicates the functionality of the once-popular Napster peer-to-peer filesharing server. ... LimeWire is a free and open source Gnutella peer-to-peer network client released under the GNU General Public License. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of instant communication over the Internet. ... Zultrax is a shareware multi-network peer-to-peer application. ...

See also

An anonymous P2P computer network is a particular type of peer-to-peer network in which the users and their nodes are pseudonymous by default. ... A friend-to-friend (or F2F P2P) computer network is a particular type of anonymous P2P in which people use direct connections with their friends. F2F software only allows people you trust (using IP addresses or digital signatures you trust) to exchange files directly with your computer. ... A friend-to-friend (or F2F P2P) computer network is a particular type of anonymous P2P in which people use direct connections with their friends. F2F software only allows people you trust (using IP addresses or digital signatures you trust) to exchange files directly with your computer. ... The Byzantine Generals problem and several solutions were originally described by Lamport, Shostak, and Pease in ACM Transaction on Progamming Languages and Systems in 1982 (see References). ... A statutory license or compulsory license is a copyright license to use content under reasonable and non-discriminatory terms. ... In general a servent is a peer-to-peer network node, combining functionalities of a server and a client. ... Linux Cluster at Purdue University A computer cluster is a group of loosely coupled computers that work together closely so that in many respects it can be viewed as though it were a single computer. ... // Grid computing uses the resources of many separate computers connected by a network (usually the internet) to solve large-scale computation problems. ... Ambient network is a network integration solution to the modern-day problems of switching from one network to the other in order to keep in contact with the outside world. ...

External links

  • P2P Core File Sharing (P2P) News, BitTorrent/Edonkey Site Listings, Programs, etc.
  • peerSynth P2P network music synthesizer. Musicians are connected over a small p2p network and can jam in real-time.
  • BetBug BetBug was the first P2P network to enable secure financial transactions across an untrusted, anonymous P2P network
  • myBittorrent myBittorrent is the biggest BitTorrent site offering everything you need for the Torrent P2P network
  • IBM Developer Works: The practice of peer-to-peer computing
  • MindGem - Current P2P News with a Special Focus on Legal Aspects of File Sharing (DEAD as of August 26th, 2004)
  • OpenP2P
  • bSoftware Peer to peer
  • Wired News: Still Plenty of Music Out There - An overview of mostly peer-to-peer software, published Feb. 13, 2001.
  • P2P.co.uk - A search engine which searches peer-to-peer networks.
  • P2P Info Centre p2p news, apps, Linux P2P, beginners' guide, p2p statistics and much more
  • Slyck- A site giving greatly detailed information and advice on the different P2P networks and software
  • The File Sharing News In Polish and Hungarian.
  • Zeropaid.com - The File Sharing Portal - Programs, News, Forums
  • Respect P2P Online magazine.
  • wikibooks: P2P File sharing
  • Using Linux firewalls to filter Peer-to-peer traffic
  • LionShare - Academic peer-to-peer
  • Cluster Resources - Software enabling peer-to-peer capabilities for Grids and Clusters
  • SecurityFocus article link Identifying P2P users using traffic analysis
  • P2P Photo Sharing

The term jam band is commonly used to describe psychedelic rock-influenced bands whose concerts largely consist of bands reinterpreting their songs as springboards into extended improvisational pieces of music. ...

Canada's approach to p2p and copyright

  • C|net Article entititled "Judge: File Sharing is Legal in Canada." In Spring 2004, file sharing via p2p networks was affirmed as legal in Canada.
  • Canadian Private Copying Collective Since 1998, private copying of music for personal use is entirely legal in Canada. A levy was established on blank media sales in order to compensate artists for lost revenue due to file-sharing, and the CPCC was founded to oversee the levy process. The levy was renewed in December 2004.
  • Copyright Board of Canada Government copyright policy.
  • Copyfight: A Tale of Two Cities Article contrasting Ottawa and Washington, D.C.'s assessment of copyright parameters and the issue of criminal sanctions.
  • Digital Rights Management in Canada An advocacy website offering an introduction to digital rights management and links to licensed file sharers.
  • Digital Copyright Canada A forum created to host public dialogue concerning digital copyright and related issues. Includes a news aggregate.
  • Numbers Don't Crunch Against Downloading Michael Geist, a professor at the University of Ottawa, discusses the financial impact of downloading on the recording industry. This column appeared in the Toronto Star, November 29th 2004.
  • p2pnet.net An op-ed urging solidarity between musicians and Canadian consumers.

Computer science research

  • Brief of Computer Science Professors MGM v. Grokster, March 2005. Covers the early history of the internet and how P2P is a core part of it.
  • Chord lookup service
  • PAST distributed storage utility
  • CoopNet cooperative content distribution system
  • More peer-to-peer research resources
  • Advanced Peer-Based Technology Business Models - P2P Industry Model from M.I.T.
  • P2P Networks (history, music, copyright, Napster, GNUtella, YouServe, Freenet, search engines, routing, security)
  • P2P Economics
  • P2P Economics
  • P2P Content Distribution Resources P2P and Content Distribution Resources from HUJI
  • PlanetP: A decentralized content search and retrieval infrastructure powered by randomized gossiping

In telecommunications, the acronym PTP is used to refer to the term Point-to-Point which is sometimes incorrectly written as P2P. Holding decision pending Court membership Case opinions Laws applied Copyright Act of 1976 MGM Studios, Inc. ... Point-to-Point telecommunications is most recently (2003) referenced regarding wireless data communications for Internet or Voice over IP via radio frequencies in the multi-gigahertz range. ...


P2P can also stand for Pay-to-play (as in Pay-to-play/P2P games).


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m