FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pedestrian safety through vehicle design

Almost two-thirds of the 1.2 million people killed in road traffic crashes worldwide are pedestrians [1]. Despite the magnitude of the problem, most attempts at reducing pedestrian deaths have focused solely on education and traffic regulation. However, in recent years crash engineers have begun to use design principles that have proved successful in protecting car occupants to develop vehicle design concepts that reduce the likelihood of injuries to pedestrians in the event of a car-pedestrian crash. These involve redesigning the bumper, hood (bonnet), and the windshield to be energy absorbing (softer) without compromising the structural integrity of the car. Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bumper is a part of a car designed to allow one vehicle to push another and to withstand the impact from collisions. ... Automobile windshield. ...

Contents

Anatomy of a pedestrian crash

The sequence of events in a car-pedestrian accident
The sequence of events in a car-pedestrian accident

Most pedestrian crashes involve a forward moving car. In such a crash, a standing or walking pedestrian is struck and accelerated to the speed of the car and then continues forward as the car brakes to a halt. Although the pedestrian is impacted twice, first by the car and then by the ground, most of the fatal injuries occur due to the interaction with the car. Thus vehicle designers usually focus their attention on understanding the car-pedestrian interaction, which is characterized by the following sequence of events: the vehicle bumper first contacts the lower limbs of the pedestrian, the leading edge of the hood hits the upper thigh or pelvis, and the head and upper torso are struck by the top surface of the hood and/or windshield [2]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1410x453, 182 KB) Summary This image was produced by me - Kavi Bhalla Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1410x453, 182 KB) Summary This image was produced by me - Kavi Bhalla Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... In humans, the lower limb is an anatomical term for the limb that is attached to the pelvic girlde, what is commonly referred to as the leg. ... Diagram of the human thigh bone In humans the thigh is the area between the pelvis and buttocks and the knee. ... The pelvis (pl. ... Human Head redirects here. ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ...


Reducing pedestrian injuries

Most pedestrians die due to the traumatic brain injury resulting from the hard impact of the head against the stiff hood or windshield [2]. In addition, although usually non-fatal, injuries to the lower limb (usually to the knee joint and long bones) are the most common cause of disability due to pedestrian crashes. A Frontal Protection System (FPS) is a device fitted to the front end of a vehicle to protect both pedestrians and cyclists who are involved in a front end collision with a vehicle. Traumatic brain injury(like james mousdell) (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

While the lower limb is the most commonly injured body region, most pedestrian fatalities are due to head injuries [3].
While the lower limb is the most commonly injured body region, most pedestrian fatalities are due to head injuries [3].

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (876x849, 32 KB) Summary This image was created by me - Kavi Bhalla Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (876x849, 32 KB) Summary This image was created by me - Kavi Bhalla Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Protecting the head

The hood of most vehicles is usually fabricated from sheet metal, which is a compliant energy absorbing structure and thus poses a comparatively small threat. Most serious head injuries occur when there is insufficient clearance between the hood and the stiff-underlying engine components. A gap of approximately 10 cm is usually enough to allow the pedestrian’s head to have a controlled deceleration and a significantly reduced risk of death [3]. Creating room under the hood is not always easy because usually there are other design constraints, such as aerodynamics and styling. In some regions of the hood it can be impossible. These include along the edges on which the hood is mounted and the cowl, where the hood meets the windshield. Engineers have attempted to overcome this problem by using deformable mounts, and by developing more ambitious solutions such as airbags that are activated during the crash and cover the stiff regions of the hood [4]. The 2006 year model of Citroën C6 and Jaguar XK feature a novel pop-up bonnet design, which adds 12cm (5") extra clearance over the engine block if the bumper senses a hit. Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a v-t graph, it is given by the gradient of the tangent to that point In physics, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or time derivative) of velocity. ... In engineering mechanics, deformation is a change in shape due to an applied force. ... The Citroën C6 is an executive car produced by the French automaker Citroën since 2005. ... The XK series (XK8 and XKR) is a grand tourer produced by the British automaker Jaguar since the 1997 model year. ... A flipfront provides easy access to the engine bay. ...


Protecting the limbs

Most limb injuries occur due to a direct blow from the bumper and the leading edge of the hood. This leads to contact fractures of the femur and the tibia/fibula and damage to the knee ligaments due to bending of the joint. Thus, attempts at reducing these injuries involve reducing the peak contact forces by making the bumper softer and increasing the contact area and by limiting the amount of knee bending by modifying the geometry of the front end of the car. Computer simulations and experiments with cadavers show that when cars have lower bumpers, the thigh and leg rotate together causing the knee to bend less and thus reducing the likelihood of ligament injuries. Deeper bumper profiles and structures under the bumper (such as the air dam) can also assist in limiting the rotation of the leg [5]. The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the human body. ... This article is about the vertebrate bone. ... For other uses see fibula (disambiguation) The fibula or calf bone is a bone placed on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. ... For other uses, see Knee (disambiguation). ... A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program which attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... A cadaver is a dead body. ... A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. ...


Trams

An early example can be found on trams in the form of a lifeguard which prevents pedestrians from being caught between the wheels of the leading bogie should they be hit. When a pedestian hit the lifeguard a scoop/grille would be automatically lowered in front of the vehicle. A CLRV Streetcar in the City of Toronto. ...


References

  1.   http://www.worldbank.org/transport/roads/safety.htm
  2.  a Hamer, M. (27 August 2005). "Stopping the slaughter of innocent pedestrians". New Scientist (2514). 
  3.  a  Crandall, JR, Bhalla, K, and Madeley, NJ (11 May 2002). "Designing road vehicles for pedestrian protection". British Medical Journal 324. 
  4.   http://www.autoliv.com/appl_alv/Autoliv.nsf/pages/pedestrian_protection
  5.   Bunketorp O, Romans B, Hansson T, Aldman B, Thorngren L, Eppingen R H. "Experimental Study of a Compliant Bumper System". Proceedings of the 27th Stapp Car Crash Conference.  SAE Paper No. 831623

August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...

Further reading

  • Protecting pedestrians by vehicle design
  • Used Car Safety Ratings - includes information on how seriously your vehicle is likely to harm other road users

See also


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m