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Encyclopedia > Pederasty in the Islamic lands
Shah Abbas I embracing his wine boyMuhammad Qasim, 1627, Illuminated miniature; The poem reads: May life grant all that you desire from three lips, those of your lover, the river, and the cup. Musée du Louvre, Paris
Shah Abbas I embracing his wine boy
Muhammad Qasim, 1627, Illuminated miniature; The poem reads: May life grant all that you desire from three lips, those of your lover, the river, and the cup. Musée du Louvre, Paris
For a generalized discussion of relations between men and boys see main article: Pederasty

For a period starting in the 800's and ending in the mid 1800's, pederastic relationships, poetry, art and spirituality were a prominent and pervasive feature of Islamic culture from Moorish Spain to Northern India. The forms of this pederasty ranged from the chaste and spiritual adoration of beautiful youths at one extreme, to the violent and forcible use of unwilling boys at other. While sodomy was considered a major sin, other aspects of same-sex relations were not, though they were problematized to various degrees at various times and places. Shah Abbas and Wine Boy Muhammad Qasim (1627) Wine Pourer Illuminated miniature of Shah Abbas I (1571-1629) of Persia, embracing his wine boy. ... Shah Abbas and Wine Boy Muhammad Qasim (1627) Wine Pourer Illuminated miniature of Shah Abbas I (1571-1629) of Persia, embracing his wine boy. ... Pederasty as idealized by the ancient Greeks, was a relationship and bond between an adolescent boy and an adult man outside of his immediate family. ... Sodomy is a term of religious origin used to characterize certain sexual acts. ...


Incidents of pederastic relationships and esthetics continue to be reported from Islamic lands to the present day, though they are not as visible as in the past. See also Pederasty in the modern world Peace and love to Tirakh, -Teh Modder Person Pederasty is defined as The erotic relationship between an adult male and a boy, generally one between the ages of twelve and seventeen, in which the older partner is attracted to the younger one who returns his affection. ...

Contents


Individual regions

Mughal India

The Mughal period saw strong pederastic influences in the arts and literature. Poetry in ghazal form was a favorite means of such expression, produced by poets such as Mir Taqi Mir. The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... In poetry (and as the lyrics in songs), the ghazal (Arabic: غزل; Turkish gazel) is a poetic form consisting of couplets which share a rhyme and a refrain. ... Mir Taqi Mir was the leading Urdu poet of the eighteenth century, and one of the pioneers who gave shape to the Urdu language itself. ...


Central Asia

Dance of a bacchá (dancing boy) Samarkand, (ca 1905 - 1915), photo S. M. Prokudin-Gorskii. Library of Congress, Washington, DC.
Dance of a bacchá (dancing boy)
Samarkand, (ca 1905 - 1915), photo S. M. Prokudin-Gorskii. Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

In central Asia the practice is reputed to have long been widespread. The paragon of the practice can be said to be the love between Mahmood of Ghazni and his slave, Ayaz. The Sultan is seen as an example of the man who, because of the power of his love, becomes "a slave to his slave." Ayaz came to be recognized as the ideal beloved, and a model of purity in Sufi literature. The two have gained pride of place among the favorite pairs of lovers in Persian literature. Modern scholars, such as Prods Oktor Skjœrvø, the Aga Khan Professor of Iranian at Harvard University, consider the relationship between the two to have been one example of the pederasty practiced at the Turkish Courts: "Under the Turkish Ghaznavid, Seljuq, and Khawarazmshah rulers of Iran in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, pederasty was quite common in courtly circles." [1] Download high resolution version (1024x899, 135 KB)Dance of a bacha (dancing boy), Samarkand, ca 1905 - 1915, Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863-1944) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the... Download high resolution version (1024x899, 135 KB)Dance of a bacha (dancing boy), Samarkand, ca 1905 - 1915, Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863-1944) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the... Dance of a bacchá (dancing boy) Samarkand, (ca 1905 - 1915), photo S. M. Prokudin-Gorskii. ... Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (August 31, 1863 – September 27, 1944) (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Прокудин-Горский  listen) devoted his career to the advancement of photography. ... The Great Hall interior. ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971–April 30, 1030), also known as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ...


In the Terminal Essay of his translation of the Arabian Nights, Richard Francis Burton notes that, "The Afghans are commercial travellers on a large scale and each caravan is accompanied by a number of boys and lads almost in woman's attire with kohl'd eyes and rouged cheeks, long tresses and henna'd fingers and toes, riding luxuriously in Kajawas or camel-panniers: they are called Kuch-i safari, or travelling wives, and the husbands trudge patiently by their sides." Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Richard Burton, portrait by Frederic Leighton, National Portrait Gallery, London Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton (March 19, 1821 – October 19, 1890) was a British explorer, translator, writer, Orientalist, ethnologist, linguist, fencer and diplomat. ...


Though no longer widely practiced, such boy marriages nevertheless still occur. However, in part as a result of resurgent Islamic fundamentalism, they are less well received than in former times. In late 2005, the Afghan refugee Liaquat Ali, 42, and his Pakistani beloved, Markeen Afridi, 16, were both threatened with death by the tribal elders, subsequent to their public and ceremonial wedding in the Tribal Territories.(The Sydney Morning Herald) 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the aftermath of the US-Afghan war, western mainstream media have reported derisively on patterns of adult/adolescent male relationships, documented in Kandahar in Afghanistan (The New Yorker) and in Pakistan (The Boston Globe), often conflating them with pedophilia. The youth in these relationships, usually in his early- to mid-teens, is known alternatively as haliq, "beautiful boy," or ashna, "dear friend," and the man as mehboob, "lover," from the Persian mohabbat, "love," related to its Arabic counterpart, mahabbâh. The prevalence of homosexual relationships in Kandahar and other Pashtun areas has been explained in these articles as a behavior resulting from strict gender segregation (Los Angeles Times) and "without any moral or educational value." For the 2001 movie by Mohsen Makhmalbaf, see Kandahar (film). ... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, پارسی Pârsi, older, local name still used by some speakers, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...


These reports however have been characterized as "privileging a political spin over more precise and informative writing," and as suffering from ethnocentric bias (Stephanie Skier, in queer.). Brian James Baer, writing in the Gay and Lesbian Review (March-April, 2003), claimed that "their subtext was clearly aimed at discrediting the Pashtun tradition by equating it with the ultimate American taboo, adult sex with minors," and that "Western journalists insisted on reducing relationships that are often long-term emotional bonds to a crude sexual bargain." In contrast, alternative media have carried accounts by native sources describing married men engaging youths in mutually affectionate long term relationships (Trikone).


Besides relationships following the pederastic model, cases of sexual brutality by men against youths - in this instance as one aspect of the military use of children - have also been documented. In Afghanistan, out of the thousands of Pakistani boys recruited by mullahs under the guise of jihad to fight for the Taliban, it is thought that about 1500 survived, only to be held for ransom in private jails, where they were being systematically abused J. Gettleman in the L. A. Times, July 2001. Also, commercial sexual exploitation of boys in Pakistan is reported to be widespread despite the fact that prostitution of minors is illegal and there is a death penalty for child abusers, according to the Bangkok-based international child protection campaign group, ECPAT (End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes). Boy soldier in the Tatmadaw, the Myanmar army. ... Mullahs are Islamic clergy who have studied the Quran and the Hadith and are considered experts on related religious matters in this religion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ...


In the northern, Turkic-speaking areas, one manifestation of the pederastic tradition were the entertainers known as bacchá (a Turkik Uzbeki term etymologically related to the Persian bachcheh, "boy" or "child", sometimes with the connotation of "catamite"). A bachá, typically an adolescent, was a performer practiced in erotic songs and suggestive dancing. He wore resplendent attire and makeup, and would also be available as a sex worker. These Muslim bachás were trained from childhood and carried on their trade until their beard began to grow. Though after the Russian conquest the tradition was suppressed by tsarist authorities, early Russian explorers were able to document the practice. Dance of a bacchá (dancing boy) Samarkand, (ca 1905 - 1915), photo S. M. Prokudin-Gorskii. ... Motto: none Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan Capital Tashkent Largest city Tashkent Official language(s) Uzbek Government President Prime Minister Single-party state Islam Karimov Shavkat Mirziyayev Independence Declared Recognized Formation From the Soviet Union September 1, 1991 December 8, 1991 1747, as Bukharian Emirate Area  â€¢ Total... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, پارسی Pârsi, older, local name still used by some speakers, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ...


Middle East

Men and youths by a streamCeramic panel from Chehel Sotoun; Louvre, Paris.
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Men and youths by a stream
Ceramic panel from Chehel Sotoun; Louvre, Paris.

The construction of same-sex love in the Middle East has been influenced by its history and geography. Hellenistic elements can be recognized in the use of the wine boy as a symbol of homoerotic passion, and in such ideas as that pederasty is absent from primitive cultures since there a boy can learn all he needs from his father, but that people of high civilization require the erotic attraction of boys to motivate experienced men to teach the boys lovingly (found in the Rasa'il Ikhwan as-Safa', a tenth century Iraqi philosophical and religious encyclopedia). Photo of object in the Louvre; This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Photo of object in the Louvre; This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Chehel Sotoun is a pleasure pavilion in Isfahan, Iran, built by Shah Abbas I to be used for the shahs entertainment and receptions. ... I.M. Peis Louvre Pyramid: the entrance to the galleries lies below the glass pyramid The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre, pronounced in French) in Paris, France, is one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance...


Islam has been another force shaping the ways in which same-sex love is understood and practiced in the Middle East. The valorization of youthful male beauty is found in the Qur'an itself: "And there shall wait on them [the Muslim men] young boys of their own, as fair as virgin pearls." (Qur’an 52:24; 56:17; 76:19). Islamic jurisprudence generally considers that attraction towards beautiful youths is normal and natural. The Hanbalite jurist Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 1200) is reputed to have said that "He who claims that he experiences no desire when looking at beautiful boys or youths is a liar, and if we could believe him he would be an animal, and not a human being." (James T. Monroe, in Homoeroticism in Classical Arabic Literature, p. 117) However, anal intercourse (liwat), is proscribed and men are advised to be even more wary of attraction to beautiful boys than to beautiful women, through religious injunctions exhorting them to resist this temptation. It is related that the Prophet Muhammad enjoined his followers to "Beware of beardless youth for they are a greater source of mischief than young maidens." (Murray and Roscoe, 1997, passim) Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God)) is a monotheistic faith, considered one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Hanbali is one of the four schools (Maddhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... Anal sex or anal intercourse is human sexual behavior involving the anus and rectum, especially, but not limited to, the insertion of the erect penis into the anus. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ...


Likewise, the imam and legal scholar Sufyan At-Thawri (d. 783 CE) asserted, regarding sexual temptation, that "If every woman has one devil accompanying her, then a handsome lad has seventeen."<At-Thawri> At the same time, a hadith by the Prophet posits that chaste love grants one passage into paradise: "He who loves and remains chaste and conceals his secret and dies, dies a martyr." As a result, love for youths in Islam, far from being the path to perdition the Christians made of it, was an understandable passion which, if kept in check, raised one up to the heavens. Events Births Deaths July 12: Bertrada, wife of Pippin III Categories: 783 ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ...

Enlarge
Sheikh and boy partying in a garden
Mohammad Ali

Love of beauty, another quality praised in the haddith which records Muhammad as having said that God is beautiful and loves beauty, and that a handsome face refreshes the eye, was seen as a mark of refined and sophisticated character, even in the appreciation of beautiful boys. The 17th c. Persian philosopher Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi asserted that Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (418x698, 375 KB) Summary Sheikh and youth partying in a garden by Mohammad Ali; Moraqqa’, 1530 Reza Abbasi Museum Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Pederasty in the Islamic lands Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (418x698, 375 KB) Summary Sheikh and youth partying in a garden by Mohammad Ali; Moraqqa’, 1530 Reza Abbasi Museum Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Pederasty in the Islamic lands Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ...

We do not find anyone of those who have a refined heart and a delicate character . . . to be void of this love at one time or another in their life, but we find all coarse souls, harsh hearts and dry characters . . . devoid of this type of love, most of them restricting themselves to the love of men for women and the love of women for men with the aim of mating and cohabitation, as is in the nature of all animals [...] (El-Rouayheb, 2005, p.58)

At the other extreme, non-sublimated pederastic relationships were widespread, and widely documented in the poetry and art of the cultures involved, including in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. Libertine poets such as the Baghdad poet Abu Nuwas (750?–813?) flaunted their sexual conquests, often Christian wine boys, some of whom they plied with wine in order to subdue. (Kennedy 1997, pp.221,224) While some of these poems appear to describe affectionate relationships, others are clear depictions of rape, as is this quatrain by Mamayah al-Rumi: Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Buh-Buh-Buh-Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Province. ... Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami (750?–813?) was a renowned Arabic poet. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus Christ. ...

The art of liwat is the way of masculinity and might
So leave Laylah to Majnun, and Azzah with Kuthayyir,
And go up to every beardless boy, strip him, and even if he cries,
Present him with your prick and fuck him by force. (El-Rouayheb, 2005, p.21)

In order for any such act, whether willing or not, to be a punishable offense one had to consummate it and be caught at it, which required witnesses of four men or eight women. If one was not caught at it, however, it was thought that one would still be punished in the fires of hell.


Persia

The origin of pederasty in ancient Persia was debated even in ancient times, with Herodotus claiming they had learned it from the Greeks: "...and [the Persians'] luxurious practices are of all kinds, and all borrowed: the Greeks taught them pederasty." (Histories;I.135, tr. A.D. Godley) However, Plutarch asserts that the Persians used eunuch boys "the Greek way" long before they had seen the Grecian main. (De Malig. Herod. xiii.ll) Despite these historians, Richard Francis Burton was of the opinion that the Persians had picked up the habit from the people inhabiting the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. Bust of Herodotus at Naples Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Ήροδοτος, Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (c. ... Richard Burton, portrait by Frederic Leighton, National Portrait Gallery, London Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton (March 19, 1821 – October 19, 1890) was a British explorer, translator, writer, Orientalist, ethnologist, linguist, fencer and diplomat. ...

Shah Abbas I entertaining guests Banquet with kocek male dancers and female musicians. Fresco at Chehel Sotoun, Isfahan.
Shah Abbas I entertaining guests
Banquet with kocek male dancers and female musicians. Fresco at Chehel Sotoun, Isfahan.

In Islamic Persia, where, as Louis Crompton claims, "boy love flourished spectacularly," art and literature also made frequent use of the pederastic topos, often referred to as baccheh bazi, (the boy game). Omar Khayyám's (d. 1123) quatrains, Attar (d. 1220), Rumi (d. 1273), Sa'adi (d. 1291) in his Rose Garden, Hafez Shirazi (d. 1389) in his ghazals, Jami (d. 1492), and even Iraj Mirza (d. 1926) wrote works "replete with homoerotic allusions, as well as explicit references to beautiful young boys and to the practice of pederasty," as Janet Afary explains in her Foucault and the Iranian Revolution: Gender and the Seductions of Islam. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... The köçek phenomenon is considered to be one of the most significant symbols of Ottoman Empire culture. ... Chehel Sotoun is a pleasure pavilion in Isfahan, Iran, built by Shah Abbas I to be used for the shahs entertainment and receptions. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Motto: Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic (Persian: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ«) Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Capital Tehran Largest city Tehran Official language(s) Persian Government Supreme Leader President Islamic republic Ali Khamenei Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Revolution Declared Against Mohammad Reza Pahlavi February... Tomb of Omar Khayyám, Nishapur, Iran. ... Farid ad-Din Attar (farÄ«du-d-dÄ«n aṭṭār ; ca. ... Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi or Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi Rumi (also known as Mowlavi or Moulana, meaning my guide in Iran, Central and South Asia or Mevlana meaning our guide in Turkey) (September 30, 1207 - December 17, 1273 CE) was a Persian poet and Sufi mystic, who was... Tomb of Sadi, Shiraz, Iran. ... Khwajeh Shams al-Din Muhammad Hafez-e Shirazi (also spelled Hafiz) (خواجه شمس‌الدین محمد حافظ شیرازی in Persian) was a Persian mystic and poet. ... Youth seeking his fathers advice Miniature illustration to the Haft Awrang of Jami, in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love See Sufi outlook on male love Freer and Sackler Galleries, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Persian youth playing chess with two suitors Illustration to the Haft...


All these celebrate the love of the wine boy, as do the paintings and drawings of artists such as Reza Abbasi (1565 - 1635), whose patron was the Safavid Shah Abbas I (r.1588-1629). Much of the artistic output of the shah's workshops celebrated love between men and youths. He also ordered the building of Chehel Sotoun, "Forty Columns," in Isfahan, a pleasure palace decorated with many pederastic paintings on ceramic. Reza Abbasi, in full Aqa Reza Reza-e abbasi, sometimes known as Reza (1565 - 1635) was the most renowned Persian painter and calligrapher of the Isfahan school, which flourished during the Safavid period under the patronage of Shah Abbas I. Princely Youth and Dervish by Reza Abbasi, ca. ... Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded April 27 - Cebu City is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... Chehel Sotoun is a pleasure pavilion in Isfahan, Iran, built by Shah Abbas I to be used for the shahs entertainment and receptions. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ...


Thomas Herbert, the twenty one year old secretary to the English ambassador to Persia, later reported that at Abbas' court (some time between 1627 and 1629) he saw, "Ganymede boys in vests of gold, rich bespangled turbans, and choice sandals, their curled hair dangling about their shoulders, with rolling eyes and vermilion cheeks." This was also a time when male houses of prostitution amrad khaneh, "houses of the beardless," were legally recognized and paid taxes. Regarding this trade, John Chardin, traveling through Persia at the time, reported that he had found "numerous houses of male prostitution, but none offering females." John Fryer, who traveled to Persia in the late seventeenth century, was of the opinion that "The Persians, when they let go their modesty.. covet boys as much as women." Sir Thomas Herbert (1606 - 1682), traveller and historian, belonged to an old Yorkshire family, studied at Oxford and Cambridge, and went in connection with an embassy to Persia, of which, and of other Oriental countries, he published a description. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ...


The notoriety of the Persians for boyish pleasures was such that in the late nineteenth century Richard Francis Burton referred to Central Asian pederasty as "the Persian vice." He confirmed the findings of Chardin, indicating that the boy bordellos continued to exist, adding that "the boys are prepared with extreme care by diet, baths, depilation, unguents and a host of artists in cosmetics." He accounted for the tastes of the Persians by postulating that the habit began in boyhood, when Persian boys used each other for sexual pleasure, in a game known as alish-takish. Later in life, after marrying and begetting children, "Paterfamilias returns to the Ganymede," according to Burton.


The Ottoman Empire

Tellak From the Hubanname (The Book of the Handsome Ones), an 18th century homoerotic work by the Turkish poet Fazyl bin Tahir Enderuni.
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Tellak
From the Hubanname (The Book of the Handsome Ones), an 18th century homoerotic work by the Turkish poet Fazyl bin Tahir Enderuni.

In the Ottoman empire, same-sex relations between men and youths were often of a mercantile nature. The sex workers involved - who were never Muslims but were youths bought or levied or captured from neighboring nations, such as Armenia, Greece, and the Balkan states - were either entertainers such as the köçeks or masseurs in the hammams known as tellak. The köçek tradition was a central element of Ottoman culture, flourishing from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. It was brought to an end by its very success in that the competition for the handsome boy dancers became a threat to public order, and the practice was banned in 1856 under the reign of Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid I. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A sex worker in Germany. ... The köçek phenomenon is considered to be one of the most significant symbols of Ottoman Empire culture. ... The Turkish hammam (also Turkish bath or hamam) is the Turkish variant of a steam bath, which can be categorized as a wet relative of the sauna. ... Tellak Detail of an illustration from the Hubanname (The Book of the Handsome Ones), an 18th century homoerotic work by the Turkish poet Fazyl bin Tahir Enderuni. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Sultan Abdul Mejid I Abd-ul-Mejid (Arabic: عبد المجيد الأول ) (April 23, 1823 – June 25, 1861) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on July 2, 1839. ...


The tellaks were also highly prized. Catalogs were compiled listing their individual qualities, and competition for their favors at times resulted in violence. One episode, in the mid-eighteenth century, led to urban warfare between opposing bands of Janissaries and was brought to an end only by the intervention of the Sultan, who had the boy hanged. It was expected that military men would have relations with handsome boys, who often would be taken on campaign. The English traveler Henry Blount, who accompanied the Turkish army through the Balkans in the 1630's on its march to Poland recounted that, "Besides these [ten to fifteen] wives, each Basha hath as many, or likely more Catamites . . . usually clad in Velvet or Scarlet, with guilt Scymitars and bravely mounted, with Sumptuous furniture." Tellak Detail of an illustration from the Hubanname (The Book of the Handsome Ones), an 18th century homoerotic work by the Turkish poet Fazyl bin Tahir Enderuni. ... YOUNG GREEKS AT THE MOSQUE (Jean Léon Gérôme, oil on canvas, 1865); this oil painting portrays Greek youths who converted to Islam to become the elite of the army (Turkish yeniceri, recruit) The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeni çeri, meaning new troops) comprised infantry units that... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... This article discusses the rank/title used in the Ottoman Empire. ...


The sexual doings of the Turks came under frequent criticism by their Christian neighbors. The Chronicles of the Moldavian Land mention that the Ottomans upon the sack of Crimea in 1475, sailed away with a galleon filled with one hundred and fifty young boys destined for "the filthy sodomy of the whoring Turk." Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Sogut (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty... Crimea /kraɪˈmia/ is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... Events August 29 - Treaty of Picquigny ends a brief war between France and England. ... A Spanish galleon A galleon was a large, multi-decked sailing ship used primarily by the nations of Europe from the 16th to 18th centuries. ...


Thomas Sherley, held captive by the Ottomans between 1603 and 1605 under harsh circumstances, reported in his Discourse of the Turks that "For their Sodommerye they use it soe publiquely and impudentlye as an honest Christian woulde shame to companye his wyffe as they do with their buggeringe boys." King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ...


John Cam Hobhouse an early traveller to Istanbul with his friend Lord Byron described the köçek dances as "beastly" and the anonymous poem Don Leon (written in the voice of Byron and ascribed to him by some), referred to Turkish boy prostitution as a "monstrous scene." John Cam Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton and 2nd Baronet, PC (1786–1869) was the eldest son of Sir Benjamin Hobhouse, born at Redland near Bristol, educated at Westminster School and at Cambridge, where he became intimate with Lord Byron, and accompanied him in his journeys in the Peninsula, Greece, and... Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... This article incorporates public domain text from: Cousin, John William (1910). ...


The Turk's sexual practices influence the languages of the constituent lands of the Otoman Empire to the present day. Their "pusht," a borrowing from Persian meaning "back" or "anus" survives in modern Greek as "poustis," a term of invective used of passive homosexuals, and in Romanian as "puşti", presently an innocuous term used of children and adolescents, but up to the end of the 1800's meaning "pederast" and "sodomite." (Dicţionarul Etimologic al Limbii Române, by Alexandru Cioranescu). 1800 (MDCCC) was an common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Studies of Ottoman criminal law, which is based on the Sharia, reveal that persistent sodomy with non-consenting boys was a serious offense and those convicted faced capital punishment. Sharia (Arabic: ; also Sharīah, Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is the Arabic word for Islamic law, also known as the Law of Allah, and governs both secular and religious life of the devout Muslim. ... Capital punishment, also called the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal as punishment for a crime often called a capital offence or a capital crime. ...


Albania

Hahn, in the course of his Albanische Studien (1854, p. 166), says that the young men between 16 and 24 seduce boys from about 12 to 17. A Gege marries at the age of 24 or 25, and then he usually, but not always, gives up boy-love. The following passage is reported by Hahn as the actual language used to him by an Albanian Gege:

The lover's feeling for the boy is pure as sunshine. It places the beloved on the same pedestal as a saint. It is the highest and most exalted passion of which the human breast is capable. The sight of a beautiful youth awakens astonishment in the lover, and opens the door of his heart to the delight which the contemplation of this loveliness affords. Love takes possession of him so completely that all his thought and feeling goes out in it. If he finds himself in the presence of the beloved, he rests absorbed in gazing on him. Absent, he thinks of nought but him. If the beloved unexpectedly appears, he falls into confusion, changes color, turns alternately pale and red. His heart beats faster and impedes his breathing. He has ears and eyes only for the beloved. He shuns touching him with the hand, kisses him only on the forehead, sings his praise in verse, a woman's never.

One of these love-poems of an Albanian Gege runs as follows: "The sun, when it rises in the morning, is like you, boy, when you are near me. When your dark eye turns upon me, it drives my reason from my head. It should be added that Prof. Weigand, who knew the Albanians well, assured Bethe (Rheinisches Museum für Philologie, 1907, p. 475) that the relations described by Hahn are really sexual, although tempered by idealism. A German scholar who travelled in Albania some years ago, also, assured Näcke (Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen, vol. ix, 1908, p. 327) that he could fully confirm Hahn's statements, and that, though it was difficult to speak positively, he doubted whether these relationships were purely ideal. While most prevalent among the Moslems, they are also found among the Christians, and receive the blessing of the priest in church. Jealousy is frequently aroused, the same writer remarks, and even murder may be committed on account of a boy. (Havelock Ellis, Studies in the Psychology of Sex, Sexual Inversion, Ch.I)

See also Homosexuality and Islam, Köçek, Tellak and Hammam

For age structured homosexuality, see Pederasty in the Islamic lands There is no concept analogous to homosexuality in Islam, in the sense of an innate identity. ... The köçek phenomenon is considered to be one of the most significant symbols of Ottoman Empire culture. ... Tellak Detail of an illustration from the Hubanname (The Book of the Handsome Ones), an 18th century homoerotic work by the Turkish poet Fazyl bin Tahir Enderuni. ... The Turkish hammam (also Turkish bath or hamam) is the Turkish variant of a steam bath, which can be categorized as a wet relative of the sauna. ...

Sufi outlook

Main articles: Nazar ill'al-murd and Homosexuality and Islam
Princely Youth and DervishReza Abbasi, ca. 1625; Isfahan, Iran;Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Princely Youth and Dervish
Reza Abbasi, ca. 1625; Isfahan, Iran;
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Youth conversing with suitorsMiniature illustration from the Haft Awrang of Jami, in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love. Freer and Sackler Galleries, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Youth conversing with suitors
Miniature illustration from the Haft Awrang of Jami, in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love. Freer and Sackler Galleries, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

The manifestations of pederastic attraction vary. At one extreme they are indeed of a chaste nature, incorporated into Islamic mysticism (see Sufism) as a meditation known in Arabic as Nazar ill'al-murd, "contemplation of the beardless," or Shahed-bazi, "witness play" in Persian. This is seen as an act of worship intended to help one ascend to the absolute beauty that is God through the relative beauty that is a boy. Modern Sufi thought asserts that this contemplation uses imaginal yoga to transmute erotic desire into spiritual consciousness. Princely Youth and Dervish Reza Abbasi, ca. ... For age structured homosexuality, see Pederasty in the Islamic lands There is no concept analogous to homosexuality in Islam, in the sense of an innate identity. ... Princely Youth and Dervish, private photo of painting in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. ... Princely Youth and Dervish, private photo of painting in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. ... The central lobby of the museum The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as The Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums, located on the eastern edge of Central Park in Manhattan, New York, United States. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Youth seeking his fathers advice Miniature illustration to the Haft Awrang of Jami, in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love See Sufi outlook on male love Freer and Sackler Galleries, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Persian youth playing chess with two suitors Illustration to the Haft... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Sufism (Arabic: تصوف, tasÌ£awwuf), a part of Islamic studies, is a mystic tradition of Islam based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as it is gradually revealed to the heart and mind of the Sufi (one who practices Sufism). ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Princely Youth and Dervish Reza Abbasi, ca. ... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, پارسی Pârsi, older, local name still used by some speakers, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia... Yoga is a family of ancient spiritual practices that originated in India, where it remains a vibrant living tradition and is seen as a means to enlightenment. ...


Richard Francis Burton, in his "Terminal Essay" (Part D) to the Arabian Nights claims that Easterners value the love of boys above the love of women, using Persian terminology in which the moth and the bulbul (nightingale) represent the lover, and the taper and the rose represent the boy and the girl, respectively: "Devotion of the moth to the taper is purer and more fervent than the Bulbul's love for the Rose." Richard Burton, portrait by Frederic Leighton, National Portrait Gallery, London Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton (March 19, 1821 – October 19, 1890) was a British explorer, translator, writer, Orientalist, ethnologist, linguist, fencer and diplomat. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ...


In an illuminated manuscript of Sufi poet Abdul-Rahman Jami's (1414-1492) Haft Awrang (see manuscript), an anthology of seven alegorical poems on wisdom and love, there is a calligraphed verse in the section titled A Father Advises his Son About Love (in which a father instructs his son, when choosing a worthy male lover, to chose that man who sees beyond the mere physical and expresses a love for his inner qualities). The verse exemplifies one Sufi way of turning love into wisdom: Youth seeking his fathers advice Miniature illustration to the Haft Awrang of Jami, in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love See Sufi outlook on male love Freer and Sackler Galleries, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Persian youth playing chess with two suitors Illustration to the Haft... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

I have written on the wall and door of every house
About the grief of my love for you.
That you might pass by one day
And read the state of my condition.
In my heart I had his face before me.
With this face before me, I saw what I had in my heart.

Nazar was a principal expression of a male love that, according to the teachings, was not to be consummated physically.


Not all followed the teachings to the letter. On being challenged by Rabi’a al-‘Adawiyya (c.717-801) of Basrah (Sufi woman saint who first set forth the doctrine of mystical love), upon noticing him kissing a boy, for appreciating the beauty of boys above that of God, the ascetic Sufi Rabah al-Qaysi retorted that, "On the contrary, this is a mercy that God Most High has put into the hearts of his slaves." (Abu 'Abdur-Rahman as-Sulami, pp. 78-79) Rabi’a al-‘Adawiyya was an 8th c. ... Events March 25 - Leo III usurps the throne of Byzantium August 15 - Muslama begins the Second Arab siege of Constantinople. ... Events December 28 - Louis the Vrome occupies Barcelona. ... Location of Basra Basra (also known as Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes called Busra, Busrah, and early on Bassorah; Arabic: البصرة, Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of about 1,377,000 in 2003. ...


Conservative Islamic theologians condemned the custom of contemplating the beauty of young boys. Their suspicions may have been justified, as some dervishes boasted of enjoying far more than "glances", or even kisses. Nazar was denounced as rank heresy by such as Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328), who complained, "They kiss a slave boy and claim to have seen God!" The real danger to conventional religion, as Peter Lamborn Wilson asserts, was not so much the mixing of sodomy with worship, but "the claim that human beings can realize themselves in love more perfectly than in religious practices." Despite opposition from the clerics, the practice has survived in Islamic countries until only recent years, according to Murray and Roscoe. See References section below The word Dervish, especially in European languages, refers to members of Sufi Muslim ascetic religious fraternities, known for their extreme poverty and austerity, similar to mendicant friars. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Abu al-Abbas Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Abd al-Salaam ibn Abdullah ibn Taymiya al-Harrani, was a jurist, reformer, preacher, scholar, exegete of Islam. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Hakim Bey Peter Lamborn Wilson (b. ... Pederasty as idealized by the ancient Greeks, was a relationship and bond between an adolescent boy and an adult man outside of his immediate family. ...


Modern censorship

The traditional tolerance, literary and religious, for chaste pederastic love affairs which was prevalent since the 800's began to be eroded in the mid-1800's by the adoption of European Victorian attitudes by the new westernized elite. (El-Rouayheb, 2005, p.156) Pederasty as idealized by the ancient Greeks, was a relationship and bond between an adolescent boy and an adult man outside of his immediate family. ...


Historical material is reported to be systematically distorted. In his monograph on same-sex relations in the pre-modern Middle East, Khaled El-Rouayheb demonstrates how Persian and Arabic love poetry and other literary material is routinely heterosexualized or devalued in critical studies authored by post-colonial Arab and Islamic scholars. (El-Rouhayeb, 2005)


Some Western scholars likewise devalorize such material. In a 1999 review in The Spectator of an anthology of Classical Arabic literature, the reviewer, R.I. Penguin, defends the editor's censorship - and denigration - of the pederastic poems of a featured author: "Irwin is to be admired for sticking to a fair-minded overview of the whole field; Sanawbari's work, for instance, is described thus: 'Besides nature poems, he also produced mudhakarat, or poems addressed to small boys. However, in this anthology we will stick to the nature poems.' Quite right; the nature poems are much more interesting." [2] The Spectator is a conservative British political magazine, established 1828, published weekly. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pederasty

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami (750?–813?) was a renowned Arabic poet. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Khwajeh Shams al-Din Muhammad Hafez-e Shirazi (also spelled Hafiz) (خواجه شمس‌الدین محمد حافظ شیرازی in Persian) was a Persian mystic and poet. ... For age structured homosexuality, see Pederasty in the Islamic lands There is no concept analogous to homosexuality in Islam, in the sense of an innate identity. ... Youth seeking his fathers advice Miniature illustration to the Haft Awrang of Jami, in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love See Sufi outlook on male love Freer and Sackler Galleries, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Persian youth playing chess with two suitors Illustration to the Haft... Peace and love to Tirakh, -Teh Modder Person Pederasty is defined as The erotic relationship between an adult male and a boy, generally one between the ages of twelve and seventeen, in which the older partner is attracted to the younger one who returns his affection. ...

References

  • Abu 'Abdur-Rahman as-Sulami. Early Sufi Women, Dhikr an-niswa al-muta'abbidat as-sufiyyat. Louisville, KY: Fons Vitae, 1999, pp. 78-79
  • Homosexuality and Civilization, by Louis Crompton; Belknap, Harvard, 2003. ISBN 067401197X
  • Philip F. Kennedy. The Wine Song in Classical Arabic Poetry: Abu Nuwas and the Literary Tradition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. ISBN 0198263929
  • Khaled El-Rouayheb. The Love of Boys in Arabic Poetry of the Early Ottoman Period, 1500 - 1800. Middle Eastern Literatures; January 2005, vol.8, no.1.
  • Khaled El-Rouayheb. Before Homosexuality in the Arab-Islamic World, 1500 - 1800. Chicago; January 2005. ISBN 0226729885
  • Lacey, E.A. (Trans.) The Delight of Hearts: Or, What You Will Not Find in Any Book. Gay Sunshine Press, 1988.
  • Emilio Garcia Gomez. (Ed.) In Praise of Boys: Moorish Poems from Al-Andalus Translated from the Spanish by Erskine Lane. Gay Sunshine Press, 1975.
  • Ritter, Hellmut. Das Meer der Seele, 1955 (English translation The Ocean of the Soul, 2003). (Chapters 24, 25 ,26).
  • Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe, et al. Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History, and Literature. New York: New York University Press, 1997. ISBN 0814774687
  • Peter Lambourn Wilson. Contemplation of the Unbearded - The Rubaiyyat of Awhadoddin Kermani. Paidika, Vol.3, No.4 (1995).
  • Yoginder Sikand. A Martyr for Love - Hazrat Sayed Sarmad, a Sufi gay mystic. Perversions, Vol.1, No.4. Spring 1995.
  • Maarten Schild. The Irresistible Beauty of Boys - Middle Eastern attitudes about boy-love. Paidika, Vol.1, No.3.
  • Norman Roth. "The Care and Feeding of Gazelles" - medieval Hebrew and Arabic Love Poetry. Poetics of Love in the Middle Ages, 1989.
  • Roth, Norman. Fawn of My Delights - boy-love in Hebrew and Arabic Verse. Sex in the Middle Ages. 1991.
  • Norman Roth. Boy-love in Medieval Arabic Verse. Paidika, Vol.3, No.3, 1994.
  • Casey R. Williamson. Where did that boy go? - the missing boy-beloved in post-colonial Persian literature.
  • J. Wright & Everett Rowson. Homoeroticism in Classical Arabic Literature. 1998.
  • 'Homosexuality' & other articles in the Encyclopædia Iranica

Footnotes

  1. ^  Mukhtar, M. H. Tarbiyat-e-Aulad aur Islam [The Upbringing of Children in Islam]. dar-ut-Tasneef, Jamiat ul-Uloom Il-Islamiyyah allama Banuri Town Karachi. English translation by Rafiq Abdur Rahman. Transl. esp. Chapter 11: Responsibility for Sexual Education.

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