FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pederasty in ancient Greece
Pederastic courtship scene
Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. BC, Painter of Cambridge; Object currently in the collection of the Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek, Munich, Germany.

The bearded man is depicted in a traditional pederastic courtship gesture, one hand reaching to fondle the young man, the other grasping his chin so as to look him in the eye. The youth is putting up symbolic resistance only.

Greek pederasty, as idealised by the Greeks from Archaic times onward, was a relationship and bond between an adolescent boy and an adult man outside of his immediate family, and was constructed initially as an aristocratic moral and educational institution.[citation needed] As such, it was seen by the Greeks as an essential element in their culture from the time of Homer onwards.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (369x602, 163 KB) (This is a higher-res copy of Image:Munich vase 72 wiki. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (369x602, 163 KB) (This is a higher-res copy of Image:Munich vase 72 wiki. ... The term pederasty or paederasty embraces a wide range of erotic practices between adult and adolescents, generally between males. ... The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ... Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ...


The term derives from the combination of pais (Greek for 'boy') with erastēs (Greek for 'lover'; cf. eros). In a wider sense it referred to erotic love between adolescents and adult men. The Greeks considered it normal for any man to be drawn to the beauty of a boy - just as much if not more than to that of a woman.[2] What they disagreed upon was whether and how to express that desire. Eros ( érōs) is passionate love, with sensual desire and longing. ...


Pederasty is closely associated with the customs of athletic and artistic nudity in the gymnasia, delayed marriage for gentlemen, symposia and seclusion of women.[3] It is also integral to Greek military training, and an important factor in the deployment of troops. In ancient Greece, the gymnasium (Greek: ; gymnasion) functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games. ... Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ...

Analogous relations between Greek women and adolescent girls have been reported by Plutarch, Xenophon and others. See Lesbian for details.

Contents

A lesbian is a woman who is romantically and sexually attracted only to other women. ...

History

Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes
Copy of marble by Helidorus; ca. 100 BC Found in Pompeii; Naples Archeological Museum; Photo: A. Calimach

Download high resolution version (388x769, 31 KB)Pan and Daphnis This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (388x769, 31 KB)Pan and Daphnis This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... Sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes; ca. ...

Possible beginnings

The ancient Greeks were the first to describe, study, systematize, and establish pederasty as an institution. The origin of that tradition has been variously explained. One school of thought, articulated by Bernard Sergent, holds that the Greek pederastic model evolved from far older Indo-European rites of passage, which were grounded in a shamanic tradition with roots in the Neolithic. French historian specializing in ancient Greek history. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Shan boy undergoing Poy Sang Long initiation A rite of passage is a ritual that marks a change in a persons social or sexual status. ... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...


Another explanation, articulated by Anglophone scholars such as William Percy, holds that pederasty was formalized in ancient Crete around 630 BC as a means of population control, together with delayed age of marriage for men of thirty years. William Alexander Percy (May 14, 1885-January 21, 1942) was an American poet from Greenville, Mississippi. ...


The earliest Greek texts, specifically the works attributed to the Ionian poet Homer, do not overtly document formal pederastic practices. A number of theories attempt to explain that lack. A largely held view is the Dorian hypothesis first established by K.O. Müller in the 1800s. According to this theory pederasty was brought in by the Dorian warrior tribes who conquered Greece around 1200 BC. They settled most of the Peloponnese along with the islands Crete, Thera, and Rhodes. This forced the Ionian Greeks towards Asia Minor but left important cities in Attica and Euboea. Another explanation is that the epic style excluded discussion of certain topics, among them pederastic relations. Nevertheless, Homer's works hint at homoerotic relationships obliquely, as in the mentions of the myth of Zeus and Ganymede in the Iliad and the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite. Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... [[Im Category: ... Karl Otfried Müller (August 28, 1797–August 1, 1840), was a German scholar and Philodorian. ... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Crete (Greek Κρήτη — classical transliteration KrÄ“tÄ“, modern Greek transliteration Kríti; Ottoman Turkish گريد (Girit); Classical Latin CrÄ“ta, Vulgar Latin Candia) is the largest of the Greek islands at 8,336 km² (3,219 square miles) and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean. ... View from the top of Thira Santorini is a small, circular group of volcanic islands located in the Aegean Sea, 75 km south-east of the Greek mainland, (latitude: 35. ... Deer statues in Mandraki harbor, where the Colossus of Rhodes once stood This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Euboea or Negropont (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Evia, Ancient Greek Εúβοια Eúboia; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is the largest island of the Greek archipelago. ... The Rape of Ganymede, by Rubens In Greek mythology, Ganymede, or closer to the Greek Ganymede the great man that leads (in Greek — Γανυμήδης, GanumÄ“dÄ“s) was a divine hero whose homeland was the Troad. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ...


Alternative forms

Pederasty was constructed in various ways. In some areas, such as Boeotia, the man and boy were formally joined together and lived as a couple. In other areas, such as Elis, boys were persuaded by means of gifts, and in a few, such as Ionia,[4] such relations were forbidden altogether. The Spartans however were said to practise chaste pederasty.[5] Where allowed, a free man was usually entitled to fall in love with a boy, proclaim it publicly, and court him as long as the boy in question manifested the traits prerequisite to a pederastic relationship: he had to be kalos (καλός), "handsome" and agathos (ἀγαθός), good, brave, just, and modest. The boy was expected to be circumspect and not let himself be easily won. Generally, the role of the lover had many of the characteristics of that of legal guardian, similar to the role of male relatives of the boy. Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... Elis, or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Ήλις, also Ilis, Doric: Άλις) is an ancient district within the modern prefecture of Ilia. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ...


Poets such as Theognis and Anacreon self-identify as pederasts, each thus presenting a persona embodying his own ideals for the tradition. In the case of Theognis, pederasty is political and pedagogical — the elite male's method of passing on his wisdom and loyalties to his beloved. Anacreon's values are erotic and Dionysiac, which is to say sensual and spiritual, and no less ideal than those of Theognis. Vase iconography of the period is consistent with this interpretation: the gifts offered, and the context of the palaestra speak of pedagogic values, while the repeated inscriptions of "KALOS" idealize the beauty and physical attraction of the erōmenos (the beloved boy).[6] Theognis of Megara (6th century BC) was an ancient Greek poet. ... Anacreon (born ca. ... Pompeii palaestra seen from the top of the stadium wall. ... Attic kylix with the inscription Kleomelos Kalos The Kalos inscription was a form of epigraph found on Attic vases in antiquity, common between 550 and 450 BCE and usually found on symposion vessels. ...


Problematics

Foucault declared that pederasty was "problematized" in Greek culture, that it was "the object of a special — and especially intense — moral preoccupation" focusing on concern with the chastity/moderation of the erōmenos (the term used for the "beloved" youth). Foucault's conclusions however are now thought to hold true only of Classical Athenian texts, while in Archaic Greece pederasty, rather than being problematized, was variously associated with the highest ideals.[7] Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ... The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy...


A different perspective is offered by Jeremy Bentham, in an essay written in 1785, not published in his lifetime, and which only saw the light of day in 1978. According to Bentham, what was condemned by the Greeks was not the same-sex aspect of the relationship, but immoderation such as may also be implicated in relationships with women: "They might be ashamed of what they looked upon as an excess in it, or they might be ashamed of it as a weakness, as a propensity that had a tendency to distract men from more worthy and important occupations, just as a man with us might be ashamed of excess or weakness in his love for women."[8] Jeremy Bentham (IPA: or ) (February 15, 1748 O.S. (February 26, 1748 N.S.) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ...


The study of Greek pederasty is complicated by the fact that the pederastic record has been subject to systematic destruction since antiquity. Of all the Greek works dealing principally with love between people of the same sex, none has survived, suggesting to at least one historian that "queer works were deliberately suppressed and destroyed rather than merely lost during the passage of time,"[9] though in general only a small percentage of ancient literature has been preserved. Nonetheless, there are some conspicuous exceptions to the general picture such as the Paidikē Mousa of Strato and the Erōtes of Pseudo-Lucian. Straton of Sardis (aka Strato) was a Greek poet and anthologist from the Lydian city of Sardis. ... The Erōtes or Amores is a Greek dialogue comparing the love of women and the love of boys, preferring the latter. ...


Evolution and extinction

Greek pederasty went through a series of changes over the millennium from its entry into the historical record and its final demise as an official institution. In some areas, such as Athens, the construction of the relationship seems to have gone from greater modesty in the early days to a freer physicality and lack of restraint in classical times, followed by a return to a more spiritual form in the early fifth century. Its formal end resembled its beginning, in that it came by official decree – that of emperor Justinian, who also put an end to other institutions that sustained ancient culture, such as Plato's Academy and the Olympic Games. (Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus, Greek: Ιουστινιανός;) commonly known as Justinian I, or (among Eastern Orthodox Christians) as Saint Justinian the Great; c. ... An academy is an institution for the study of higher learning. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Philosophical discourses

Main article: Philosophy of Greek pederasty
Tomb of the Diver

Socrates, Plato, Aeschines Socraticus, and Xenophon described the inspirational powers of love between men though decrying its physical expression. Upon the death of Plato the presidency of the Academy passed from lover to lover. Of the Stoics, Chrysippus, Cleanthes, and Zeno fell in love with young men. The topic of pederasty was the subject of extensive analysis. Some of the principal dilemmas discussed were: Tomb of the Diver The topic of pederasty, one that took pride of place over the love of women in the erotic lives of Greek aristocrats in general and 5th century BC Athenians in particular[1], was the subject of extensive analysis in the Greek philosophical schools as well as... Banquet scene. ... Banquet scene. ... This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Aeschines (c. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... An academy is an institution for the study of higher learning. ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... Chrysippus of Soli (279-207 BC) was Cleanthess pupil and eventual successor to the head of the stoic philosophy (232-204 BC). ... Cleanthes (c. ... Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) (sometime called Zeno Apathea) (333 BC-264 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium, Cyprus. ...

  • Which form should pederasty take, chaste or erotic?
  • Is pederasty right or wrong?
  • Is pederasty better or worse than the love of women?

Socrates, as represented in Plato's writings, appears to have favored chaste pederastic relationships, marked by a balance between desire and self-control. By setting aside the sexual consummation of the relationship, Socrates essentialized the friendship and love between the partners. He pointedly criticized purely physical infatuations, for example by mocking Critias' lust for Euthydemus by comparing his behavior towards the boy to that of "a piglet scratching itself against a rock".[10] That, however, did not prevent him from frequenting the boy brothels, from which he bought and freed his future friend and student, Phaedo, nor from describing his erotic intoxication upon glimpsing the beautiful Charmides' naked body beneath his open tunic.[11] This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ... Critias (Greek , 460-403 BC), was born in Athens, son of Callaeschrus, was the uncle of Plato, leading member of the Thirty Tyrants, and one of the most violent. ... Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus (230-200 B.C.) Euthydemus was allegedly a native of Magnesia and possible Satrap of Sogdiana, who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 BC according to Polybius. ... It has been suggested that Phaidon be merged into this article or section. ...


Socrates' love of Alcibiades, which was more than reciprocated, is held as an example of chaste pederasty. Plutarch and Xenophon, in their descriptions of Spartan pederasty, state that even though it is the beautiful boys who are sought above all others (contrary to the Cretan traditions), nevertheless the pederastic couple remains chaste. Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: Spártē) is a city in southern Greece. ...


Male relationships were represented in complex ways, some honorable and others dishonorable. But for the vast majority of ancient historians for a man to have not had a youth for a lover presented a deficiency in character. Plato, in his early works (the Symposium or in Phaedrus), does not question the principles of pederasty and states, referring to same-sex relationships: PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ... Phaedrus, ¹ (15 B.C. – AD 50), Roman fabulist, was by birth a Macedonian and lived in the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. ...

  • For I know not any greater blessing to a young man who is beginning in life than a virtuous lover, or to a lover than a beloved youth. For the principle, I say, neither kindred, nor honor, nor wealth, nor any motive is able to implant so well as love. Of what am I speaking? Of the sense of honor and dishonor, without which neither states nor individuals ever do any good or great work… And if there were only some way of contriving that a state or an army should be made up of lovers and their loves, they would be the very best governors of their own city, abstaining from all dishonor and emulating one another in honor; and it is scarcely an exaggeration to say that when fighting at each other’s side, although a mere handful, they would overcome the world.[12]

Later, however, in his Laws, Plato spoke up against the decadence into which traditional Athenian pederasty was sinking, blamed pederasty for promoting civil strife and driving many to their wits' end, and recommended the prohibition of sexual intercourse with boys, laying out a path whereby this may be accomplished.[13]


Other writers, often under the guise of "debates" between lovers of boys and lovers of women, have recorded other arguments used for and against pederasty. Some, like the charge that the practice was "unnatural" and not to be found among "the lions and the bears," applied to all relationships between men and youths. Others' charges do not involve traditional pederasty, but practices devised for the sexual satisfaction of the strong at the expense of the weak. Chief among these is denouncement of the castration of captive slave boys. As Lucian has it, "Effrontery and tyrannical violence have gone as far as to mutilate nature with a sacrilegious steel, finding, by ripping from males their very manhood, a way to prolong their use."[14]"Erotes" text at Diotima


Social aspects

Two lovers
Red-figure kylix by Peithinos (detail). Late sixth century BC. The border of the cup shows men courting youths and hetaerae (high-class prostitutes), who all put up varying degrees of resistance. Found in Vulci, Italy. Staatliche Museen, Berlin

The erastes-eromenos relationship was fundamental to the Classical Greek social and educational system, had its own complex social-sexual etiquette and was an important social institution among the upper class.[15] Pederastic relationships were dyadic mentorships. These mentorships were sanctioned by the state, as evidenced by laws mandating and controlling such relationships. Likewise, they were consecrated by the religious establishment, as can be seen from the many myths describing such relationships between gods and heroes (Apollo and Hyacinth, Zeus and Ganymede, Heracles and Hylas, Pan and Daphnis) and between one hero and another (Achilles and Patroclus, Orestes and Pylades). (It is interesting to note that the Greeks tried to project a semblance of pederasty (read: propriety) onto these last two pairs, despite a great deal of evidence that the two myths were originally intended to symbolize egalitarian relationships.) In general, the pederasty described in the Greek literary sources is clearly an aristocratic institution. Image File history File links Red-figure kylix by Peithinos (detail). ... Image File history File links Red-figure kylix by Peithinos (detail). ... Kylix by Euergides (circa 500 BC) in the British Museum, London. ... Hetaera (Greek: singular: Εταίρα Hetaera, plural: Εταίραι Hetaerae)In ancient Greece, hetaerae were courtesans, that is to say, sophisticated companions and prostitutes. ... In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ... In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ... Dyadic friendships refer to the most immediate and concrete level of peer interaction, which is expanded to include new forms of relationships in adolescence - most notably, romantic and sexual relationships. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... The Death of Hyacinthos, by Jean Broc Zephyrus and Hyacinth; Attic red-figure cup from Tarquinia, ca 480 BC, Boston Museum of Fine Arts In Greek mythology, Hyacinth (in Greek, Ὑάκινθος — Hyakinthos) was a divine hero, the son of Clio and Pierus, King of Macedonia. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... In Greek mythology, Ganymede (Greek: Γανυμήδης, Ganumêdês)) was a divine hero whose homeland was the Troad. ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) For other uses, see Heracles (disambiguation). ... Two Argonauts before a hunt. ... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... Sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes; ca. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ... The Remorse of Orestes by William-Adolphe Bouguereau For other uses, see Orestes (disambiguation). ... Pylades and Orestes by Francois Bouchot In Greek mythology, Pylades is the son of King Strophius of Phocis and is mostly known for his strong friendship with Orestes. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ...


Historical as well as mythographical materials suggest that pederastic relationships required the consent of the boy's father. In Crete, in order for the suitor to carry out the ritual abduction, the father had to approve him as worthy of the honor. Among the Athenians, as Socrates claims in Xenophon's Symposium, "Nothing [of what concerns the boy] is kept hidden from the father, by an ideal[16] lover."[17] This is consistent with the paramount role of the Greek patriarch, who had the right of life and death over his children. It is also consistent with the importance that a son would have had for him. Besides the bond of love between them, a son was the only hope for the survival of a Greek man's name, fortune and glory. In order to protect their sons from inappropriate attempts at seduction, fathers appointed slaves named pedagogues to watch over their sons. However, according to Aeschines, Athenian fathers would pray that their sons would be handsome and attractive, with the full knowledge that they would then invariably attract the attention of men and "be the objects of fights because of erotic passions"[18] This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill. ...


Boys entered into such relationships in their teens, around the same age that Greek girls were given in marriage – also to adult husbands many years their senior. There was a difference between the two types of bonding: boys usually had to be courted and were free to choose their mate. Girls, on the other hand, were used for economic and political advantage, their marriages contracted at the discretion of the father and the suitor.


The function of the relationship seems to have been the introduction of the young man into adult society and adult responsibilities. To that end the mentor was expected to teach the young man or to see to his education, and to give him certain appropriate ceremonial gifts (in Crete, an ox, a suit of armor, and a chalice (from kylix, Greek for wine cup), signifying his empowerment in agriculture, war and religion). The bond between the two participants seems to have been based in part on mutual love and desire – usually sexually expressed – and in part on the political interests of the two families. A great deal of importance was placed on the friendship between the two, as shown by a contemporary proverb, A lover is the best friend a boy will ever have.[19] The relationships were open and public, and became part of the biography of the person. Thus when Spartan historians wrote about a personage they would usually indicate whom it was that he had heard or whom it was that he inspired. Crete (Greek Κρήτη — classical transliteration KrÄ“tÄ“, modern Greek transliteration Kríti; Ottoman Turkish گريد (Girit); Classical Latin CrÄ“ta, Vulgar Latin Candia) is the largest of the Greek islands at 8,336 km² (3,219 square miles) and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean. ... Chalice For other uses, see Chalice A chalice (from Latin calix, cup) is a goblet intended to hold drink. ...


For the youth – and his family – one important advantage of being mentored by an influential older man was an expanded social network. Thus, some considered it desirable to have had many older lovers / mentors in one’s younger years, both attesting to one's physical beauty and paving the way for attaining important positions in society. Typically, after their sexual relationship had ended and the young man had married, the older man and his protégé would remain on close terms throughout their life. For those lovers who continued their lovemaking after their beloveds had matured, the Greeks made allowances, saying, You can lift up a bull, if you carried the calf.[20]


Pederasty was the idealized form of an age-structured homoeroticism that, like all social institutions, had other, less idyllic, manifestations, such as prostitution or the use of one’s slave boys. However, certain forms were prohibited, such as slaves making love to boys (though their access to women was unimpeded),[21] or paying free boys or young men for sex. Free youths who did sell their favors were generally ridiculed and later in life were prohibited from performing certain official functions.


A prosecution by an Athenian politician, Aeschines, in 346 BC, Against Timarchus, is an example of how these regulations were used to political advantage. In his speech, Aeschines argues against further allowing Timarchus, an experienced middle-aged politician, his political rights, on account of his having spent his adolescence as the kept boy of a series of wealthy men. Aeschines won his case, and Timarchus was sentenced to atimia. But Aeschines is careful to acknowledge what seemingly all Athens knows: his own dalliances with beautiful boys, the erotic poems he dedicated to these youths, and the scrapes he has gotten into as a result of his affairs, none of which — he hastens to point out — were mediated by money. Aeschines (389 - 314 BC), Greek statesman and one of the ten Attic orators, was born at Athens. ... Atimia was a form of disenfranchisement used under classical Athenian democracy. ...


Even when lawful, it was not uncommon for the relationship to fail, as it was said of many boys that they "hated no one as much as the man who had been their lover". See Death of King Philip II of Macedon Likewise, the Cretans required the boy to declare whether the relationship had been to his liking, thus giving him an opportunity to break it off if any violence had been done to him. Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ...


Synergy with sports

The institution of pederasty was inseparable from that of organized sports. The main venue for men and boys to meet and spend time together, and for the men to educate the boys in the arts of warfare, sports, and philosophy was the gymnasium, which was preeminently the training ground for these disciplines, and one of the principal venues for pederastic relationships. In particular, the practice of exercising nude was held to be of the utmost importance in the cult of beauty and eros which permeated pederastic societies. "The cities which have most to do with gymnastics", is the phrase which Plato uses to describe the states where Greek love flourished.[22] "Gymnastics" in this instance conveys not only the sense of athletic discipline but also, from the Greek gymnos, "nude", the fact that all these exercises were taken by men and boys who were naked, and thus especially liable to be excited by physical beauty. In ancient Greece, the gymnasium (Greek: ; gymnasion) functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games. ... “Clothes free” redirects here. ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, and kinesthetic awareness, such as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ...


The beauty and erotic power of the naked body was highlighted by the custom of oiling one's body for exercise. The provision of oil for such decoration was the greatest expense of a gymnasium, and had to be heavily subsidized by the public coffers or private donors. The practice itself varied over time: in the early days it was said that modesty prevented the boys from drawing attention to their sexuality by oiling themselves below the waist. Such restraint was presumably cast by the wayside by Plato's time.


The relationship between a trainer and his athletes often had an erotic dimension, and the same place which served as training ground served equally for erotic dalliances, as can be seen from the many scenes of seduction and lovemaking depicting implements found at palaestras, such as sponges and strigils. Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... A strigil was a small, curved, metal tool used in ancient Greece to scrape dirt and sweat from the body. ...


Educational and military aspects

Warrior and youthful charioteer
Athenian marble bas-relief; Pediment of a kouros statue, 490 BC; National Archaeological Museum, Athens

Ancient writers, as well as modern historians such as Bruce Thornton, hold that the goal of paiderastia was pedagogical, the channeling of Eros into the creation of noble and good citizens. The various mythographical materials available suggest religious training (see story of Tantalus, Poseidon, and Pelops) as well as military training (Hercules and Hylas). The theme of learning to drive a war chariot occurs repeatedly (Poseidon and Pelops, Laius and Chrysippus). Apollo is said to have taught Orpheus, one of his beloveds, to play the harp. And Zeus had Ganymede serve nectar, a theme with religious connotations. It is thus plausible to assume that even as the loves of the gods paralleled and symbolized those of the mortals, their pedagogy pointed to aspects of the educational process that took place between a lover and his beloved. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Tantalos, by Goya In Greek mythology Tantalus (Greek Τάνταλος) was a son of Zeus[1] and the nymph Plouto (riches)[2] Thus he was a king in the primordial world, the father of a son Broteas whose very name signifies mortals (brotoi)[3] Other versions name his father as Tmolus wreathed... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek Πέλοψ, from pelios: dark; and ops: face, eye) was venerated at Olympia, where his cult developed into the founding myth of the Olympic Games, the most important expression of unity, not only for the Peloponnesus, land of Pelops, but for all Hellenes. ... Hercules and the Nemean Lion (detail), silver plate, 6th century BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris). ... Two Argonauts before a hunt. ... Laius abducting Chrysippus, who is reaching out to Pelops, his father (detail). ... Chrysippus of Soli (279-207 BC) was Cleanthess pupil and eventual successor to the head of the stoic philosophy (232-204 BC). ... The head of Orpheus, from an 1865 painting by Gustave Moreau. ... Pedagogy (IPA: ) , the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek (paidagōgeō; from (child) and (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, was (usually) a slave who supervised the...


In talking about the Cretan rite, the historian Ephorus informs us that the man (known as philetor, befriender) took the boy (known as kleinos, "glorious") into the wilderness, where they spent several months hunting and feasting with their friends. If the boy was satisfied with the conduct of his would-be comrade, he changed his title from kleinos to parastates (comrade and bystander in the ranks of battle and life), returned to the philetor and lived in close bonds of public intimacy with him. Ephorus' account does not discuss the educational aspects of the sojourn. However, this is clearly a coming-of-age rite culminating in a major ceremony upon the return of the pair from the mountains, and a process of acculturation into male society is implied.[23] (See [4] for Athenian practices and philosophy) Ephorus (c. ... Pederastic courtship scene; 6th c. ... Kleinos (Κλεινός) is a municipality in the Trikala Prefecture, Greece. ... Man and youth. ... Coming of age is a young persons transition from adolescence to adulthood. ...


Military function

Military training is inseparable from the other educational aspects of pederasty since the times of the Ancient Greeks were marked by continuous warfare, both internal and external. Martial prowess was held in the highest esteem, and one of the principal functions of pederastic relationships was the cultivation of bravery and fighting skills.

At the palaestra
Youth, holding a net shopping bag filled with walnuts, a love gift, draws close to a man who reaches out to fondle him; Attic red-figure plate 530 BC-430 BC; Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Pompeii palaestra seen from the top of the stadium wall. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC - 430 BC - 429 BC 428 BC... Ashmolean Museum main entrance. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ...

Sexual aspects

Ancient sources suggest a range of sexual activity. Cicero, describing Spartan customs, suggests that relations were expected to stop short of consummation, "The Lacedaemonians, while they permit all things except outrage [hybris] in the love of youths, certainly distinguish the forbidden by a thin wall of partition from the sanctioned, for they allow embraces and a common couch to lovers."[24] On the other hand, one Athenian term for sodomy was "to do it the Lacedemonian way." Literary sources are a lot more risqué, especially ancient comedy. For example, Aristophanes, in 'Peace', his parody of Ganymede riding on the back of Zeus in eagle form, has his character ride to Olympus on the back of a dung beetle, a scatological pun on anal sex. Some modern historians, such as Thornton, conclude that whether the relationship was consummated or not probably depended on the partners. Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ... Peace is a comedy written and produced by the ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes. ... This article refers to a mountain in Greece. ...


The majority of ceramic paintings depict the older partner importuning the younger, in a variation of the Greek gesture for pleading. Normally the supplicant embraced the knees of the person whose favor he sought, while grasping the man's chin so as to look into his eyes. Pederastic art usually shows the man standing, grasping the boy's chin with one hand and reaching to fondle his genitals with the other. The boys are shown in varying degrees of rejecting or accepting the man's attentions. Less frequently, intercrural intercourse is depicted, where the erastes is shown inserting his penis between the thighs of the younger one. Only very rarely is anal sex suggested or shown. A number of sources suggest it was seen as shameful. Among these is a fable attributed to Aesop which tells that Aeschyne (Shame) consented to enter the human body from behind only as long as Eros did not follow the same path, and would fly away right off if he did.[25] Other literary and epigraphic indications, such as the Theran graffiti suggest it was more common.[26] Intercrural intercourse is a type of outercourse which involves placing the penis of one partner between the other partners thighs, either from the front or rear, and thrusting to create sexual pleasure. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ... View from the top of Thira Santorini is a small, circular group of volcanic islands located in the Aegean Sea, 75 km south-east of the Greek mainland, (latitude: 35. ...


All this was claimed to be endured by the youth without physical excitement. K. J. Dover states that the eromenos was not "supposed" to feel desire for the erastes, as that would be unmanly.[27] More recent evidence suggests that in actual practice (as opposed to theory) there was, in fact, reciprocation of desire. As Thomas Hubbard points out in a critique of David Halperin's contention that boys were not aroused, some vases do show boys as being sexually responsive, and "Fondling a boy's organ (cf. Aristophanes, Birds 142) was one of the most commonly represented courtship gestures on the vases. What can the point of this act have been unless lovers in fact derived some pleasure from feeling and watching the boy's developing organ wake up and respond to their manual stimulation?"[28] Sir Kenneth James Dover, FRSE, FBA (born March 11, 1920) is a distinguished British academic who is currently Chancellor of the University of St Andrews. ...


The theme of mutuality of desire was a topic of discussion in ancient times as well. While the passive role was seen as problematic, to be attracted to men was often taken as a sign of masculinity, and it was thought that the boys who most sought the company and affections of men were the most likely to be successful in life.


Religious aspects

Ganymede rolling a hoop and bearing aloft a cockerel - a love gift from Zeus (in pursuit, on obverse of vase).
Attic red-figure crater, 500-490 BC; Painter of Berlin; Louvre, Paris)

Myths provide more than fifty examples of young men who were the lovers of gods.[29] Poets and traditions ascribe Zeus, Poseidon, Apollo, Orpheus, Hercules, Dionysus, Hermes, and Pan to such love. All the main gods of the pantheon except Ares had these relationships. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 562 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1874 × 1998 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 562 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1874 × 1998 pixel, file size: 1. ... Ganymede rolling a hoop and bearing aloft a cockerel - a love gift from Zeus (in pursuit, on obverse of vase). ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... The head of Orpheus, from an 1865 painting by Gustave Moreau. ... Hercules and the Nemean Lion (detail), silver plate, 6th century BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris). ... For uses of the similar name Dionysius, see Dionysius. ... Hermes Fastening his Sandal, Roman marble copy of a Lysippan bronze (Louvre Museum) Hermes (Greek, , IPA: ), in Greek mythology, is the Olympian god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators and wit, of literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Ares (Ancient Greek: , modern Greek Άρης [pron. ...


Mythographic material suggests that the initiate experienced ecstatic states of spirit journey leading to mystic death and transfiguration, analogous to practices still reported today in shamanic work. If so, by the fifth century the Greeks had forgotten the connection. In 476 BC, the poet Pindar, in his Olympian Ode I, claims to be horrified by suggestions that the gods would eat human flesh – in this context, an obvious shamanic metaphor. An opposite theory (discussed by Murray in his Homosexualities) gives credence to the texts that credit (or blame) the Cretans with its origination (Aristotle et al.) and notes the anomaly of an apparent path of diffusion radiating from Crete, while the areas (in the north of Greece) closest to the Indo-European sources are not known to have institutionalized the practice. The word Transfiguration means a changing of appearance or form. ... Pindar (or Pindarus) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ...


Myths also were a vehicle for conveying a set of moral standards for such relationship. In the myth of Zeus and Ganymede, when Zeus sends gifts and assurances to Tros, king of Troy and father of Ganymede, the ancients were reminded that even the king of Heaven must show consideration to the father of the eromenos. Many of the other pederastic myths likewise incorporate the presence of the father, suggesting an essential role for the father in these relationships. The myths also spoke directly to the youths, as is shown by a recently discovered version of the Narcissus myth. This, a more archaic version than the one related by Ovid in his Metamorphoses, is a moral tale in which the proud and unfeeling Narcissus is punished by the gods for having spurned all his male suitors.[30] In Greek mythology, King Tros of Dardania, son of Erichthonius from whom he inherited the throne and the father of three named sons: Ilus, Assaracus, and Ganymedes. ... Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ...


Political aspects

The state benefitted from these relationships, according to the statements of ancient writers. The friendship functioned as a restraint on the youth, since if he committed a crime it was not he but his lover who was punished. In the military the lovers fought side by side, with each vying to shine before the other. Thus, it was said that an army of lovers would be invincible, as was the case until the battle of Chaeronea with the Theban Sacred Band, a battalion of one hundred and fifty warriors pairs, each lover fighting beside his beloved. Chaeronea was a city in the province of Boeotia in Ancient Greece. ... The Sacred Band of Thebes (ancient Greek: Ιερός Λόχος τών Θηβών; ἱερὸς λόχος hieròs lókhos) was a troop of picked soldiers, numbering 150 pederastic couples, which formed the elite force of the Theban army in late-classical Greece. ...


Pederastic couples were also said to be fundamental to democracy and feared by tyrants, because the bond between the friends was stronger than that of obedience to a tyrannical ruler. Athenaeus states that "Hieronymus the Aristotelian says that love with boys was fashionable because several tyrannies had been overturned by young men in their prime, joined together as comrades in mutual sympathy." He gives as examples of such pederastic couples the Athenians Harmodius and Aristogeiton, who were credited (perhaps symbolically) with the overthrow of the tyrant Hippias and the establishment of the democracy, and also Chariton and Melanippus. Others, such as Aristotle, claimed that some states encouraged pederasty as a means of population control, by directing love and sexual desire into non-procreative channels, a feature of pederasty also employed by other cultures.[31] Athenaeus (ca. ... Statue of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, Naples. ... Hippias was one of the sons of Pisistratus, and was tyrant of Athens in the 6th century BC. Hippias succeeded Pisistratus in 527 BC, and in 525 BC he introduced a new system of coinage in Athens. ... Population control is the practice of limiting population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. ...


Political leaders Solon, Peisistratus, Hippias, Hipparchus, Themistocles, Aristides, Critias, Demosthenes, and Aeschines of Athens; Pausanias, Lysander, and Agesilaus of Sparta; Polycrates of Samos; Hieron and Agathocles of Syracuse; Epaminondas and Pelopidas of Thebes; and Archelaus, Philip II, and Alexander of Macedon were recorded to have had same-sex relationships. For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... Peisistratos or Peisistratus (Greek: )[1] (ca. ... Hippias was one of the sons of Pisistratus, and was tyrant of Athens in the 6th century BC. Hippias succeeded Pisistratus in 527 BC, and in 525 BC he introduced a new system of coinage in Athens. ... Hipparchus was one of the sons of Pisistratus who became tyrant of Athens when Pisistratus died in 527 BC. Hipparchus ruled jointly with his brother Hippias. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Aristides (530 BC–468 BC) was an Athenian statesman, nicknamed the Just. He was the son of Lysimachus, and a member of a family of moderate fortune. ... Critias (Greek , 460-403 BC), was born in Athens, son of Callaeschrus, was the uncle of Plato, leading member of the Thirty Tyrants, and one of the most violent. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, Dēmosthénēs) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Aeschines (389 - 314 BC), Greek statesman and one of the ten Attic orators, was born at Athens. ... Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Pausanias (Greek = Παυσανίας) was a Spartan general of the 5th century BCE. He was the nephew of Leonidas I and served as regent after his uncles death, as Leonidas son, Pleistarchus was still under-age. ... Lysander (d. ... Agesilaus II, or Agesilaos II, king of Sparta, of the Eurypontid family, was the son of Archidamus II and Eupolia, and younger step-brother of Agis II, whom he succeeded about 401 BC. Agis had, indeed, a son Leotychides, but he was set aside as illegitimate, current rumour representing him... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: Spártē) is a city in southern Greece. ... For the bishop, see Polycrates of Ephesus. ... Samos (Greek Σάμος) is a Greek island in the Eastern Aegean Sea, located between the island of Chios to the North and the archipelagic complex of the Dodecanese islands to the South and in particular the island of Patmos and off the coast of Turkey, on what was formely known as... Hiero I was the brother of Gelo, and tyrant of Syracuse from 478 to 467 BC. During his reign he greatly increased the power of Syracuse. ... For the grindcore band, see Agathocles (band) Agathocles (361 BC - 289 BC), tyrant of Syracuse (317 BC - 289 BC) and king of Sicily (304 BC - 289 BC). ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ... For information about the modern board game of the same name, see Epaminondas (game). ... Pelopidas (d. ... For the ancient capital of Upper Egypt, see Thebes, Egypt. ... Archelaus I was king of Macedon from 413 to 399 BC, following the death of Perdiccas II. The son of Perdiccas by a slave woman, Archelaus obtained the throne by murdering his uncle, his cousin, and his half-brother, the legitimate heir, but proved a capable and beneficent ruler, known... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ...


Regional characteristics

NarcissusA Boeotian hero whose archaic myth was a cautionary tale warning boys against being cruel to their lovers.
Narcissus
A Boeotian hero whose archaic myth was a cautionary tale warning boys against being cruel to their lovers.

The structure of pederastic practices varied from one polis to another, differences that often became the basis of competition or denigration between the cities. For example, the character of Pausanias in Plato's Symposium unfavorably compares regions such as Elis and Boeotia, where men are "unskilled in speech" and boys are permitted to yield uncritically, or Ionia, where boys are forbidden to yield, to the superior pederasty of Athens and Sparta, where men are well versed in the art of rhetoric and boys relate critically to their suitors, choosing only the most persuasive. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2454, 335 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Narcissus (mythology) Narcissus (Caravaggio) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2454, 335 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Narcissus (mythology) Narcissus (Caravaggio) ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Symposium can refer to two dialogues: Platos Symposium Xenophons Symposium Category: ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of spoken language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ...


Athens

Main article: Athenian pederasty

The founder of the pederastic tradition in Athens is said to be the lawgiver Solon, who also composed poetry praising the love of boys. The lover was known as the erastes, and his young partner as the eromenos or paidika.. High society generally encouraged the erastes to pursue a boy to love. At the same time, the boy and his family were expected to be selective and not yield too easily. Love gift Man presents a cut of meat to a youth with a hoop, in an allusion to boy love. ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ...


Pederastic affairs were the butt of jokes for the commoners. Athenian philosophers, around the end of the fifth century, prompted by a discomfort with the lack of self-restraint and crude sexuality of some pederastic relationships, elaborated a philosophy of pederasty that valorized chaste pederastic relations.


Chalkis

Chalkis was also known in Greece as one of the centers of pederasty, leading the Athenians to jocularly use the verb chalkidizein for "sodomize". In talking about the origin of the Ganymede myth, Athenaeus claims that "the Chalcidians assert that Ganymede was carried off by Zeus in their own country, and they point out the place, calling it Harpagion." Initially the Chalcidians were said to have frowned on pederasty. However, being in military straits in a war against the Eretrians, they called for the aid of a warrior named Cleomachus. Cleomachus brought his eromenos along. In sight of the boy he displayed great bravery, leading the Chalcidian charge against the Eretians, bringing victory to the Chalcidians at the cost of his own life. The Chalcidians erected a tomb for him in their marketplace and from that time on began to honor pederasty. Aristotle attributed a popular local song to the event: A marketplace is the space, actual or metaphorical, in which a market operates. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... A song is a relatively short musical composition. ...

Ye lads of grace and sprung from worthy stock
Grudge not to bravemen converse with your beauty
In cities of Chalcis, Love, looser of limbs
Thrives side by side with courage.

Crete

Main article: Cretan pederasty

The Cretans, a Dorian people described by Plutarch as renowned for their moderation and conservative ways, practiced an archaic form of pederasty in which the man enacted a ritual kidnapping of a boy of his choosing, with the consent of the boy's father. Zeus and Ganymede The Cretans, a Dorian people described by Plutarch as renowned for their moderation and conservative ways, practiced an archaic form of pederasty [1] in which the man enacted a ritual kidnapping (known as the harpagmos, or seizing) of a boy of his choosing, with the consent of... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


Aristotle states that it was king Minos who established pederasty as a means of population control on the island community. This custom was highly regarded, and it was considered shameful for a youth to not acquire a male lover. These same Cretans were credited with introducing the myth of Zeus kidnapping Ganymede to be his lover in Olympus – though even the king of the gods had to make amends to the father. Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Front face of the MINOS far detector. ... Population control is the practice of limiting population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. ...


Ionia and Aeolia

Most of the early pederastic elegiac poets, with the exception of Theognis and Tyrtaeus, were of Aeolian and Ionian descent. Unlike the warlike mainland Greeks, these were sailors and merchants. They seem to have transformed the compulsory Doric pederasty of martial apprenticeship into an elective, intellectual undertaking, and indulged in it extensively.


Their tradition featured poets such as Anacreon, and Alcaeus, a man also reputed for his bravery and political skills, who composed many of the sympotic skolia that were to become later part of the mainland tradition. Unlike the Dorians, where a lover would usually have only one eromenos, in the east a man might have several eromenoi over the course of his life. From the poems of Alcaeus we learn that the lover would customarily invite his eromenos to dine with him.[32] However, once Ionia was annexed by the Persians, the practice was outlawed. This was regarded as reflecting moral weakness. On one hand it revealed the rulers' greed for power - thus their suppression of customs likely to lead to strong friendships and inquisitive minds, the product of love. On the other, it revealed the cowardice of the subjects.[33] Anacreon roman copy , Rome in Palazzo dei Conservatori Anacreon (also Anakreon) (born ca. ... Alcaeus may refer to several ancient Greek figures: in mythology, Alcaeus was the son of Perseus and the father of Amphitryon. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Megara

A lover and a beloved kissTondo from an Attic kylix, 5th c. BC by the Briseis painter. Louvre
A lover and a beloved kiss
Tondo from an Attic kylix, 5th c. BC by the Briseis painter. Louvre

One of the first cities after Sparta to be associated with the custom of athletic nudity, Megara was home to the runner Orsippus who was famed as the first to run the footrace naked at the Olympic games and "first of all Greeks to be crowned victor naked."[34][35] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 616 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2240 × 2180 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 616 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2240 × 2180 pixel, file size: 1. ... Kylix by Euergides (circa 500 BC) in the British Museum, London. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα (Big Houses); see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece. ... Orsippus, from Megara, was a runner who was famed as the first to run the footrace naked at the Olympic games and first of all Greeks to be crowned victor naked. ... Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games were an athletic and religious celebration held in the Greek town of Olympia from (historically) as early as 776 BC to 393. ...


Megara was also the home of the poet Theognis, among whose works are many pederastic compositions, often addressed to his beloved Cyrnus. In his work he associates naked athletics with pederasty: Theognis of Megara (6th century BC) was an ancient Greek poet. ...

Happy is the lover who works out naked
And then goes home to sleep all day with a beautiful boy.[36]

Many critics hold that his is not the work of a single poet but represents "several generations of wisdom poetry." The poems are "social, political, or ethical precepts transmitted to Cyrnus as part of his formation into an adult Megarian aristocrat in Theognis' own image."[37]


It has been noted that in the seventh century, when pederasty is postulated to have first been formalized in Dorian cities, Megara cultivated good relations with Sparta, and may have been culturally attracted to emulate Spartan practices.[38]


Another poet, Theocritus, describes a local kissing contest for boys: Theocritus (Greek Θεόκριτος), the creator of Ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of him beyond what can be inferred from his writings. ...

And ye Megarians, at Nesaea dwelling,
Expert at rowing, mariners excelling,
Be happy ever! for with honors due
Th' Athenian Diocles, to friendship true
Ye celebrate. With the first blush of spring
The youth surround his tomb: there who shall bring
The sweetest kiss. whose lip is Purest found,

Back to his mother goes with garlands crowned.
Nice touch the arbiter must have indeed,
And must, methinks, the blue-eyed Ganymede
Invoke with many prayers—a mouth to own
True to the touch of lips, as Lydian stone
To proof of gold—which test will instant show
The pure or base, as money changers know.[39]

Sparta

Main article: Spartan pederasty

Sparta, another Dorian polis, is thought to be the first city to practice athletic nudity, and one of the first to formalize pederasty.[40] The Spartans believed that the love of an older, accomplished aristocrat for an adolescent was essential to his formation as a free citizen. The agoge, the education of the ruling class, was thus founded on pederastic relationships required of each citizen.[41] Zephyrus and Hyacinthus Hyacinthus, beloved of Apollo was a patron hero of pederasty in Sparta. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: Spártē) is a city in southern Greece. ... The agoge was a rigorous education and training regime undergone by all Spartan citizens (with the exception of future kings [1]). It involved separation from the family, cultivation of loyalty to ones group, loving mentorship, military training, hunting, dance and social preparation. ...


Many ancient writers held that Spartan pederasty was chaste, though still erotic.[42] Plutarch also describes the relationships as chaste, and states that it was as unthinkable for a lover to sexually consummate a relationship with his beloved as for a father to do so with his own son.[43] Aelian goes even farther, stating that if any couple succumbed to temptation and indulged in carnal relations, they would have to redeem the affront to the honor of Sparta by either going into exile or taking their own lives.[44]


The lover was responsible for the boy's training. Pederasty and military training were intimately connected in Sparta, as in many other cities. The Spartans, claims Athenaeus[45] sacrificed to Eros before every battle. Look up eros, Eros, EROS in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Thebes

Main article: Theban pederasty

In Thebes, the main polis in Boeotia, renowned for its practice of pederasty, the tradition was enshrined in the founding myth of the city. In this instance the story was meant to teach by counterexample: it depicts Laius, one of the mythical ancestors of the Thebans, in the role of a lover who betrays the father and rapes the son. Another Boeotian pederastic myth is the story of Narcissus. Laius abducting Chrysippus, who is reaching out to Pelops, his father. ... For the ancient capital of Upper Egypt, see Thebes, Egypt. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... A founding myth is a story or myth surrounding the foundation of a nation-state. ... Laius abducting Chrysippus, who is reaching out to Pelops, his father (detail). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Theban pederasty, was instituted as an educational device for boys, in order to "soften, while they were young, their natural fierceness", and to "temper the manners and characters of the youth".[46] The Sacred Band of Thebes, a battalion made up of 150 pairs of lovers, was unbeatable until its final battle against Philip II at Chaeronea in 338 BC. The Sacred Band of Thebes (ancient Greek: Ιερός Λόχος τών Θηβών; ἱερὸς λόχος hieròs lókhos) was a troop of picked soldiers, numbering 150 pederastic couples, which formed the elite force of the Theban army in late-classical Greece. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Chaeronea was a city in the province of Boeotia in Ancient Greece. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC 336 BC 335...


Influence on literature and the arts

Vase with courtship sceneDetail from an Attic black-figure cup, ca. 530 BC–520 BCE.
Vase with courtship scene
Detail from an Attic black-figure cup, ca. 530 BC–520 BCE.

Poets write of pederasty from the earliest eras to the end of the Hellenistic era. Five philosophical dialogues debate its ethical implications. Notable scholars and writers such as Plato, Xenophon, Plutarch, and pseudo-Lucian would discuss the topic. Tragedies on the theme became very popular. Aristophanes made comical theater about sexual relationships between men and youths. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 395 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1350 × 2050 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 395 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1350 × 2050 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, a making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Ethics (via Latin from the Ancient Greek moral philosophy, from the adjective of ēthos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Lucian. ... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ... Human sexuality is the expression of sexual feelings. ...


The famous poets Alcaeus, Ibycus, Anacreon, Theognis, Pindar and of course Sappho all wrote of pederastic love. Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides made plays on the subject. Alcaeus may refer to several ancient Greek figures: in mythology, Alcaeus was the son of Perseus and the father of Amphitryon. ... Ibycus (), of Rhegium in Italy, Greek lyric poet, contemporary of Anacreon, flourished in the 6th century BC. He was included in the canonical list of nine lyric poets by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria. ... Anacreon roman copy , Rome in Palazzo dei Conservatori Anacreon (also Anakreon) (born ca. ... Theognis of Megara (6th century BC) was an ancient Greek poet. ... Pindar (or Pindarus) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece. ... Ancient Greek bust. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... Sophocles (ancient Greek: ; 495 BC - 406 BC) was the second of three great ancient Greek tragedians. ... A statue of Euripides. ...


Vases portray numerous homoerotic depictions with hundreds of inscriptions celebrating the love of youths. Famous politicians, warriors, artists, and writers would enjoy these relationships. Such idealized relationships held an honored place in their culture from at least 600 BC to 400 AD. (Dialogues) Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... The term dialogue (or dialog) expresses basically reciprocal conversation between two or more persons. ...


The sculptor Phidias even memorialized his lover Pantarces in marble by inscribing his name on the finger of a colossal statue of Zeus. During the Hellenistic era (332 BC400 AD) Plutarch, Athenaeus, and Aelian traced the history of Greek homosexuality to its beginning. Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias (or Pheidias) (in ancient Greek, ) (c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 337 BC 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC - 332 BC - 331 BC 329 BC 328... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Athenaeus (ca. ... The name Aelian may refer to one of two people: Aelianus Tacticus, a Greek military writer of the 2nd century, who lived in Rome Claudius Aelianus, a Roman teacher and historian of the 3rd century, who wrote in Greek This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists...


Ceremonies and proverbs

  • Oath of loyalty at the tomb of Iolaus in Thebes; rite undertaken by lovers to consecrate the relationship.[47]
  • The Iolaeia, a yearly athletic festival in Thebes, consisting of musical, gymnastic and equestrian events (agones). It was held in the gymnasium of Iolaus in honor of Heracles, and lasted several days. The winners were awarded brass tripods.[48]
  • The Hyacinthia festival in Sparta, honoring Hyacinth, the mythical young prince of Sparta and beloved of Apollo. The festivities continued for three days, with the first mourning the death of Hyacinthus and the last two celebrating his rebirth. It has been suggested that the cycle symbolizes the development of a youth in such relationships, in which he dies as a child in order to be reborn as an adult.
  • Gymnopaedia; Spartan dances by naked boys, attendance restricted to married men.
  • The Diocleia festival at Megara in honour of Diocles, lover of Philolaus; A kissing contest was held in which the boys would kiss a male judge, with a wreath awarded to the one with the best kiss.[49]
  • A lover is the best friend a boy will ever have.[50]
  • You can carry a bull, if you carried the calf. Also in Ancient Rome, as Taurum tollet, qui vitulum sustulerit. Said to excuse men's relations with "boys" who were no longer adolescents.[51]

In Greek mythology, Iolaus (Greek: ΄Ιόλαος) was a son of Iphicles and thus a nephew of Heracles. ... In ancient Greece, the gymnasium (Greek: ; gymnasion) functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games. ... The Hyacinthia (Ancient Greek Ὑακίνθια / Hyakínthia) were Spartan religious festivities, organized at Amycla every year in early summer. ... The Death of Hyacinthos, by Jean Broc Zephyrus and Hyacinth; Attic red-figure cup from Tarquinia, ca 480 BC, Boston Museum of Fine Arts In Greek mythology, Hyacinth (in Greek, Ὑάκινθος — Hyakinthos) was a divine hero, the son of Clio and Pierus, King of Macedonia. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Corybantian dance, the type of dance most likely danced on Gymnopedia festivals (image from Smiths Dictionary of Antiquities) Gymnopaedia derives from the ancient Greek γυμνοπαιδία, a festivity in Sparta, where naked youths would perform war dances. ... Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα (Big Houses); see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece. ... In Greek mythology, Diocles, or Díoklês was one of the first priests of Demeter and one of the first to learn the secrets of the Eleusinian Mysteries. ... Philolaus (circa 480 BC – circa 405 BC) was a Greek mathematician and philosopher. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...

Modern scholarship

LGBT and Queer studies series
Rainbow flag
LGBT Portal
Gender · Homosexuality · Bisexuality · Transgender
LGBT history
Timeline · Gay Liberation · Social movements · AIDS timeline
Culture
Community · Pride · Coming out · Gay slang · Gay village · Queer theory · Religion · Symbols · Queer · Questioning
Law
Marriage · Civil union · Adoption · Sodomy law · Military service · Hate crime · Laws by country
Categories
This box: view  talk  edit

The ethical views held in those societies (such as Athens, Thebes, Crete, Sparta, Elis, and others) on the practice of pederasty have been explored by scholars only since the end of the nineteenth century. One of the first to do so was John Addington Symonds, who wrote his seminal work A Problem in Greek Ethics in 1873, but had to wait twenty eight years to be able to publish it (in revised form) in 1901 [5]. Edward Carpenter expanded the scope of the study, with his 1914 work, Intermediate Types among Primitive Folk. The text examines homoerotic practices of all types, not only pederastic ones, and ranges over cultures spanning the whole globe[6]. In Germany the work was continued by classicist Paul Brand writing under the pseudonym Hans Licht, who published his Sexual Life in Ancient Greece in 1932. The initialism LGBT is used to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... Queer studies is the study of issues relating to sexual orientation and gender identity. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Bisexuality is a sexual orientation which refers to the romantic and/or sexual attraction of individuals to other individuals of both their own and the opposite gender or sex. ... A transgendered person in New York Citys Gay Pride Parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... LGBT history refers to the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender cultures around the world, dating back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality within ancient civilizations. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      This timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history details notable events in the Common Era West. ... Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence LGBT social movements share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality or transgenderism. ... This is a timeline of AIDS, including some discussion of early AIDS cases (especially those before 1980). ... Christopher Street Parade Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures concern the culture, knowledge, and references shared by members of sexual minorities or transgendered people by virtue of their membership in those minorities or their state of being transgendered. ... The idea of a gay community is complex reflecting the diverse nature of the individuals who make up that community. ... Gay pride or LGBT pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity. ... Coming out of the closet (often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones (primarily homosexual or bisexual) sexual orientation or gender identity. ... Gay slang in linguistics refers to a form of English slang used predominantly among LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) people. ... A gay village (also gay ghetto or gayborhood) is usually an urban geographic location with generally recognized boundaries where a large number of gay, lesbian, transgender, and bisexual people live. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The word queer has traditionally meant strange or unusual, but it is also currently often used in reference to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and asexual communities. ... Questioning is a term that can refer to a person who is questioning his or her sexual identity or sexual orientation. ... World laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in the US. Legality of same-sex unions in Europe. ... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ... sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      The militaries of the world have a variety of responses to homosexual and bisexual orientations. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ... Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... For the ancient capital of Upper Egypt, see Thebes, Egypt. ... Crete (Greek Κρήτη — classical transliteration KrÄ“tÄ“, modern Greek transliteration Kríti; Ottoman Turkish گريد (Girit); Classical Latin CrÄ“ta, Vulgar Latin Candia) is the largest of the Greek islands at 8,336 km² (3,219 square miles) and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: SpártÄ“) is a city in southern Greece. ... Elis, or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Ήλις, also Ilis, Doric: Άλις) is an ancient district within the modern prefecture of Ilia. ... John Addington Symonds was the name of a father and son, both English writers. ... Edward Carpenter in 1875. ...


Mainstream Ancient Greek studies however had historically omitted references of the widespread practice of homosexuality. In 1910 a book called Maurice by E. M. Forster made reference to this "code of silence" by having a Cambridge professor employing “Omit: a reference to the unspeakable vice of the Greeks.” Four decades later in the 1940s: “This aspect of Greek morals is an extraordinary one, into which, for the sake of our equanimity, it is unprofitable to pry too closely”, by H. Michell. It would not be until 1978 when an English book on this topic, titled Greek Homosexuality, was published by K. J. Dover. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Edward Morgan Forster, OM, (January 1, 1879 – June 7, 1970) was an English novelist, short story writer, and essayist. ... Geography Status City (1951) Region East of England Admin. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... K. J. Dover – Greek Homosexuality Greek Homosexuality is a scholarly work by K.J. Dover, published in 1978 and discussing the practices and attitudes of the ancient Greeks toward homosexuality, based on archaelogical and literary sources. ... Sir Kenneth James Dover, FRSE, FBA (born March 11, 1920) is a distinguished British academic who is currently Chancellor of the University of St Andrews. ...


Dover's work triggered a number of debates which still continue. At the most basic level, there is strong resistance among modern Greeks to the portrait of ancient Greece painted by modern scholarship – that of a culture which integrated and valorized some aspects of same sex love for a period lasting close to one thousand years. See discussion of controversy. Same-sex love was an sporadic part of civic life in ancient Greece from the seventh century until the Roman era. ...


A modern line of thought leading from Dover to Foucault to Halperin holds that the eromenos did not reciprocate the love and desire of the erastes, and that the relationship was factored on a sexual domination of the younger by the older, a politics of penetration held to be true of all adult male Athenians' relations with their social inferiors – boys, women and slaves – a theory propounded also by Eva Keuls.[52] From this perspective, the relationships are characterized and factored on a power differential between the participants, and as essentially asymmetrical.


Other scholars point to artwork on vases, poetry and philosophical works such as the Platonic discussion of anteros, "love returned," all of which show tenderness and desire and love on the part of the eromenos matching and responding to that of the ersates. Critics of Dover and his followers also point out that they ignore all material which argued against their "overly theoretical" interpretation of a human and emotional relationship[53] and counter that "Clearly, a mutual, consensual bond was formed,"[54] and that it is "a modern fairy tale that the younger eromenos was never aroused."[55] Anteros was pope for some weeks at the end of the year 235. ...


Halperin's position has been criticized as a "persistently negative and judgmental rhetoric implying exploitation and domination as the fundamental characteristics of pre-modern sexual models" and challenged as a polemic of "mainstream assimilationist gay apologists" and an attempt to "demonize and purge from the movement" all non-orthodox male sexualities, especially that involving adults and adolescents.[56]


Notes

  1. ^ Nick Fisher, Aeschines: Against Timarchos, "Introduction," p.27; Oxford University Press, 2001
  2. ^ Nick Fisher, Aeschines: Against Timarchos, "Introduction," p.26; Oxford University Press, 2001
  3. ^ William Armstrong Percy III, "Reconsiderations about Greek Homosexualities," in Same–Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West, Binghamton, 2005; pp47
  4. ^ Plato, Symposium, 182A
  5. ^ Xenophon, Constitution of the Lacedaemonians, 2.12-14
  6. ^ "Many of the gifts offered by erastai to eromenoi in vase-painting (hares, lyres, etc.) have pedagogical associations, as do other elements of costume and setting which connect pederastic scenes to athletics and the hunt: thus, like the Theognidea, vase-painting portrays pederasty as pedagogical. Other aspects of this iconography, however, emphasize the erotic/Dionysiac aspects of pederasty; kalos inscriptions, for instance, emphasize the importance in it of beauty — and hence desire. Yet as in Anacreon, the presence of the erotic does not detract from pederasty's idealized status: several crucial elements in vase-painting symbolize the sexual moderation of the lovers" Andrew LEAR, "The Idealization of Pederasty in Archaic Greek Poetry and Vase-Painting"[http://www.apaclassics.org/AnnualMeeting/05mtg/abstracts/LEAR.html American Philological Association abstract]
  7. ^ Andrew Lear, The Idealization of Pederasty in Archaic Greek Poetry and Vase-Painting, delivered at the 2005 American Philological Association Annual Meeting
  8. ^ Jeremy Bentham, Offences Against One's Self in Journal of Homosexuality, v.3:4(1978), p.389-405; continued in v.4:1(1978)[1]
  9. ^ The Suppression of Lesbian and Gay History, Rictor Norton.
  10. ^ Xenophon, Memorabilia 1.2.29-30
  11. ^ Plato, Charmides 155c-e
  12. ^ Plato, Phaedrus in the Symposium
  13. ^ Plato, Laws, 636D & 835E
  14. ^ pseudo-Lucian, Erotes
  15. ^ The Warren Cup: homoerotic love and symposial rhetoric in silver, John Pollini.
  16. ^ The term here rendered as "ideal" is καλοκἀγαθίᾳ, translated as "a perfect man, a man as he should be" in Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon (Oxford, 1968; p.397)
  17. ^ Xenophon, Symposium; VIII.11
  18. ^ Victoria Wohl, Love among the Ruins: The Erotics of Democracy in Classical Athens p.5 referring to Aeschines, (Tim.134)
  19. ^ Plato, Phaedrus, 231
  20. ^ Andrew Calimach, Lovers' Legends: The Gay Greek Myths
  21. ^ Plutarch, "De Amores" 4
  22. ^ Plato, Laws, I; 636 C
  23. ^ Ephorus, quoted in Strabo of Amaseia's Geography X.4.21
  24. ^ Cicero, De Rep., iv. 4
  25. ^ Aesop, "Zeus and Shame" (Perry 109, Chambry 118, Gibbs 528), in Fables
  26. ^ William A. Percy, Pederasty and Pedagogy in Ancient Greece, Chicago, 1996; p.53 N.36
  27. ^ K. J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality
  28. ^ David M. Halperin, How to Do the History of Homosexuality.
  29. ^ Bernard Sergent, Homosexuality and Greek Myth, passim
  30. ^ The ugly end of Narcissus: Ancient manuscript sheds new light on an enduring myth by David Keys.
  31. ^ Athenaeus, Deipnosophists, 602
  32. ^ Percy, William A. Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece, pp146-150
  33. ^ Plato, Symposium, 182c-d
  34. ^ W. Sweet, Sport and Recreation in Ancient Greece, 1987; p.125
  35. ^ Pausanias, 1.44.1
  36. ^ Theognis, 1335-36
  37. ^ Thomas K. Hubbard, Homosexuality in Greece and Rome: a sourcebook of basic documents in translation, University of California, 2003; p.23
  38. ^ N.G.L. Hammond, A history of Greece to 322 BC, 1989; p.150
  39. ^ Theocritus, Idyll XII, tr. Edward Carpenter
  40. ^ Thomas F. Scanlon, "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in Sixth-Century BC Greece," in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West, ed. B. C. Verstraete and V. Provencal, Harrington Park Press, 2005, pp.64-70
  41. ^ Erich Bethe,Die Dorische Knabenliebe: ihre Ethik und ihre Idee, 1907, 441, 444
  42. ^ Xenophon, Constitution of the Lacedaemonians, II.13-14
  43. ^ Cicero, De Rep., iv. 4
  44. ^ Aelian, Var. Hist., III.12
  45. ^ Athenaeus of Naucratis, The Deipnosophists, XIII: Concerning Women
  46. ^ Plutarch, Life of Pelopidas
  47. ^ Plutarch, Eroticus, cap. xvii
  48. ^ Pindar, Olympian Ode, VIII, 84
  49. ^ Theocritus, Idyll 12:30
  50. ^ Plato, Phaedrus, 231
  51. ^ Petronius, The Satyricon, III.67
  52. ^ Eva Keuls, The Reign of the Phallus: Sexual Politics in Ancient Athens, 1985
  53. ^ James Davidson, The Greeks and Greek Love, Orion, 2006
  54. ^ Robert B. Koehl, "Ephoros and Ritualized Homosexuality in Bronze Age Crete;" in Queer Representations: Reading Livers, Reading Cultures; Martin Duberman, ed. New York University, 1997
  55. ^ Hein van Dolen, Greek homosexuality, [2]
  56. ^ Thomas K. Hubbard, "Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2003.09.22" of David M. Halperin's How to Do the History of Homosexuality[3]

Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Phaedrus, ¹ (15 B.C. – AD 50), Roman fabulist, was by birth a Macedonian and lived in the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. ... Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ... The Phaedrus, written by Plato, is a dialogue between Platos main protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues. ... Andrew Calimach (1952 - ) is an American author of Romanian extraction. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... De re publica is a work by Cicero, written in six books 54-51 BC, in the format of a Socratic dialogue, that is to say: Scipio Africanus Minor (who had died a few decades before Cicero was born) takes the role of wise old man, that is an obligatory... Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ... K. J. Dover – Greek Homosexuality Greek Homosexuality is a scholarly work by K.J. Dover, published in 1978 and discussing the practices and attitudes of the ancient Greeks toward homosexuality, based on archaelogical and literary sources. ... Pelopidas (d. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Theocritus (Greek Θεόκριτος), the creator of Ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of him beyond what can be inferred from his writings. ... The Phaedrus, written by Plato, is a dialogue between Platos main protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues. ... This article is about the Roman author Petronius. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Greek pederasty

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Significant age disparity in sexual relationships has been a feature of couples in many cultures and societies. ... Love gift Man presents a cut of meat to a youth with a hoop, in an allusion to boy love. ... Zeus and Ganymede The Cretans, a Dorian people described by Plutarch as renowned for their moderation and conservative ways, practiced an archaic form of pederasty [1] in which the man enacted a ritual kidnapping (known as the harpagmos, or seizing) of a boy of his choosing, with the consent of... In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ... In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ... Walt Whitman and Bill Duckett. ... Same-sex love was an sporadic part of civic life in ancient Greece from the seventh century until the Roman era. ... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ... Religious narrative has included stories interpreted by many as accounts of same-sex love and sexuality. ... To the ancient Greeks, Paideia (παιδεία) was the process of educating man into his true form, the real and genuine human nature. ... The term pederasty or paederasty embraces a wide range of erotic practices between adult and adolescents, generally between males. ... Tomb of the Diver The topic of pederasty, one that took pride of place over the love of women in the erotic lives of Greek aristocrats in general and 5th century BC Athenians in particular[1], was the subject of extensive analysis in the Greek philosophical schools as well as... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... Zephyrus and Hyacinthus Hyacinthus, beloved of Apollo was a patron hero of pederasty in Sparta. ... Laius abducting Chrysippus, who is reaching out to Pelops, his father. ...

References

General
Ancient Greece
  • Greek Homosexuality, by Kenneth J. Dover; Duckworth 1978 ISBN 0-7156-1464-9
  • Percy, William A. Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1996. ISBN 0-252-02209-2
  • Die Griechische Knabenliebe [Greek Pederasty], by Herald Patzer; Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1982. In: Sitzungsberichte der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Vol. 19 No. 1.
  • Homosexuality in Greek Myth, by Bernard Sergent; Beacon Press, 1986. ISBN 0-8070-5700-2
  • Homosexualité et initiation chez les peuples indo-européens, by Bernard Sergent, Payot & Rivages, 1996, ISBN 2-228-89052-9
  • Lovers' Legends: The Gay Greek Myths, by Andrew Calimach; Haiduk Press, 2001. ISBN 0-9714686-0-5
  • Lovers' Legends Unbound, by Andrew Calimach et al.; Haiduk Press, 2004. ISBN 0-9714686-1-3
  • Homosexuality in Greece and Rome, by Thomas K. Hubbard; U. of California Press, 2003. [7] ISBN 0-520-23430-8

Sir Kenneth Dover, Chancellor of the University of St Andrews Sir Kenneth James Dover, FRSE, FBA (born March 11, 1920) is a distinguished British academic who is currently Chancellor of the University of St Andrews. ... Duckworth may be a surname or a company name. ... French historian specializing in ancient Greek history. ... Andrew Calimach (1952 - ) is an American author of Romanian extraction. ...

External links


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m