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Encyclopedia > Peasant
In a detail of Brueghel's Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the 16th century.
In a detail of Brueghel's Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the 16th century.

A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground. The word is derived from 15th century French païsant meaning one from the pays, or countryside. The term peasant today is sometimes used in a pejorative sense for impoverished farmers. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Pieter Brueghel the Elder, The Land of Cockaigne (Het Luilekkerland) 1567, Alte Pinakothek, Munich The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Pieter Brueghel the Elder, The Land of Cockaigne (Het Luilekkerland) 1567, Alte Pinakothek, Munich The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ...


There were free and unfree peasants. Free peasants could leave the manor as they wished. Unfree peasants had to buy their way out of the manor by paying their lord.


Peasants typically make up the majority of the agricultural labour force in a Pre-industrial society, depending on the cultivation of their land: without stockpiles of provisions they thrive or starve according to the most recent harvest. Pre-industrial societies have diminished with the advent of globalization and as such there are considerably fewer peasants to be found in rural areas throughout the world. Pre-industrial society refers to specific social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the rise of Capitalism. ... Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ...


Though "peasant" is a word of loose application, once a market economy has taken root the term peasant proprietors is frequently used to describe the traditional rural population in countries where the land is chiefly held by smallholders. A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ...

Contents

Communities

In the great majority of pre-industrial societies, peasants constitute the bulk of the population. Peasant societies generally have very well developed social support networks. Especially in harder climates, members of the community who have a poor harvest or suffer some form of hardship will be taken care of by the rest of the community. Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Peasant societies can often have very stratified social hierarchies within them as well. A rural peasant population differs enormously in its values and economic behavior from urbanites and tends to be more conservative. Peasants are often very loyal to inherited power structures that define their rights and privileges and protect them from interlopers, despite their low status within those power structures. Stratification is the building up of layers of deposits, and can have several variations of meaning: Social stratification, is the dividing of a society into levels based on wealth or power. ... Social conservatism generally refers to a political ideology or personal belief system that advocates the conservation or resurrection of what one, or ones community, considers to be traditional morality and social structure. ...


Fernand Braudel devoted the first volume–called The Structures of Everyday Life.–of his major work, Civilization and Capitalism 15th–18th Century to the largely silent and invisible world that existed below the market economy. Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ...


Since it was the literate classes who left the most records, and these tended to dismiss peasants as figures of coarse appetite and rustic comedy, the term "peasant" may have a pejorative rather than descriptive connotation in historical memory. Society was theorized as being organized in three “estates”: those who work, those who pray, and those who fight.[1]


In a barter economy, peasants characteristically have a different attitude to work than people in a money economy would. Barter is a simple form of trade where goods or services are exchanged for a certain amount of other goods or services, i. ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ...


Medieval European peasants

Russian peasants in Viktor Vasnetsov's "Moving House", 1876

The relative position of Western European peasants was greatly improved after the Black Death unsettled medieval Europe, granting far greater economic and political power to those peasants fortunate enough to survive the cataclysm. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1633x1280, 1067 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Viktor Vasnetsov ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1633x1280, 1067 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Viktor Vasnetsov ... Self-portrait 1873 Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (May 15 (N.S.), 1848—1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


In the wake of this disruption to the established hierarchy, later centuries saw the invention of the original printing presses, widespread literacy and the enormous social and intellectual changes of the Enlightenment. The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Children reading. ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ...


This evolution of ideas in an environment of relatively widespread literacy laid the groundwork for the Industrial Revolution, which enabled mechanically and chemically augmented agricultural production while simultaneously increasing the demand for factory workers in cities. These factory workers with their low skill and large numbers quickly came to occupy the same socio-economic stratum as the original medieval peasants. Children reading. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ...


This was especially pronounced in Eastern Europe. Lacking any catalysts for change in the 14th century, Eastern European peasants largely continued upon the original medieval path until the 18th and 19th centuries. The Tsars then began to notice that the West had made enormous strides they had not, responding by forcing the largely illiterate peasant populations under their control to embark upon a Westernization and industrialization campaign. Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... A catalyst (Greek: καταλύτης) is a substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction, at some temperature, but without itself being transformed or consumed by the reaction (see also catalysis). ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ... This article is about the influence of western culture. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ...


Peter the Great initiated a half-successful attempt to force more than 500 years' worth of social change in the space of a few generations. Modernization of agriculture in Eastern Europe and Russia was not achieved until after the October Revolution. Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ...


See also

"Peasants in a Tavern" by Adriaen van Ostade (c. 1635), at the Alte Pinakothek, Munich
"Peasants in a Tavern" by Adriaen van Ostade (c. 1635), at the Alte Pinakothek, Munich

Example of the early work of Adriaen van Ostade Painting dated c. ... Example of the early work of Adriaen van Ostade Painting dated c. ... Peasants in a Tavern by Adriaen van Ostade (c. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Folk culture refers to the localized lifestyle of a subsistence or otherwise inward looking culture. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ... Peasant revolt is a term with broad application, typically meaning uprisings of rural or agricultural people against an existing order or establishment. ... Popular revolts in late medieval Europe were uprisings and rebellions by (typically) peasants in the countryside, or the bourgeois in towns, against nobles, abbots and kings during the upheavals of the 14th through early 16th centuries, part of a larger Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. Sometimes also known as... Slave redirects here. ... The Anti-Rent War (also known as the Helderberg War) was a tenants revolt in upstate New York during the early 19th century, beginning with the death of Stephen Van Rensselaer in 1839. ...

Other terms for peasant

Aloers — the word is Catalan — were independent peasant proprieters in what is now Catalonia, especially during the years between the Carolingian reconquest of the Spanish Marches from the Moors in the late 9th century and the consolidation of feudalism in that region in the 11th century. ... Campesino may refer to A simple farmer is referred to as a campesino in Spanish. ... A churl, in its earliest Anglo-Saxon meaning, was simply a man, but the word soon came to mean a non-servile peasant, still spelt ceorle, and denoting the lowest rank of freemen. ... See also Canadian band The Cottars. ... For the Arabic word for success in the context of Islam, see Falah. ... Free Tenants, also known as Free Peasants, were peasants in Medieval England who occupied a unique place in the Medieval hierarchy. ... Honbyakushō (本百姓)- Type of peasant (hyakushō; 百姓) in pre-modern Japan. ... Kulaks (Russian: кула́к, kulak, fist, literally meaning tight-fisted) was a category of rich peasants in later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and Soviet Union. ... Mujik or muzhik (Russian Мужик) is a Russian word with several possible meanings, the choice of which largely depends on the context. ... Remença was a Catalan mode of serfdom; the equivalent Spanish word is remensa. ... Look up peon, peón in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Serf redirects here. ... Serf redirects here. ... Smerds (Smerd sing. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Richard Southern: The Making of the Middle Ages (1952)
Social stratification : Social class
v  d  e
Bourgeoisie Upper class Ruling class Nobility White-collar
Petite bourgeoisie Upper middle class Creative class Gentry Blue-collar
Proletariat Middle class Working class Nouveau riche/Parvenu Pink-collar
Lumpenproletariat Lower middle class Lower class Old Money Gold-collar
Peasant/Serf Slave class Underclass Classlessness
Social class in the United States
Upper class Middle class Lower class Income Educational attainment
Sir Richard W. Southern (1912-2001) was a notable medieval historian, based at the University of Oxford. ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Bourgeois redirects here. ... Upper class is a concept in sociology that refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... The term ruling class refers to the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that societys political policy. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... White-collar worker is an idiom referring to a salaried professional or a person whose job is clerical in nature, as opposed to a blue-collar worker whose job is more in line with manual labor. ... Petit-bourgeois (or petty bourgeois through folk etymology) is a French term that originally referred to the members of the lower middle social-classes in the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Vacations to destinations such as Hawaii, shown above, may be seen as a hallmark of the upper-middle class. ... The creative class is a group of people that social scientist Dr. Richard Florida, Hirst Professor of Public Policy at George Mason University, believes are a key driving force for economic development of post-industrial cities in the USA. The Creative Class concept is controversial, as is Floridas methodology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A blue-collar worker is a member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... For the Philadephia-based Post-Genre group, see Nouveau Riche (Philadelphia band). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... A pink-collar worker works in a relatively clean, safe environment, in a job that is considered traditionally female (these traditions generally harking back to the first half of the twentieth century). ... The lumpenproletariat (German Lumpenproletariat, rabble-proletariat; raggedy proletariat) is a term originally defined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The German Ideology (1845), their famous second joint work, and later expounded upon in future works by Marx. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ... Old money refers in the United Kingdom to the pre-decimal currency of pounds, shillings (or bob) and pence. ... Gold-collar worker (GCW) is rarely used compared to its blue-collar and white-collar counterparts. ... Serf redirects here. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar status. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... The American upper class described the sociological ideology concerning the status of the top layer of society in the United States. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... The socio-economic stratification of American society as outlined by Dennis Gilbert. ... The percentage of households and individuals in each income bracket. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
For Chinese, Peasant Revolt Is Rare Victory (959 words)
Angry residents overturned several police cars April 10 during a peasant revolt in which police officers carrying out a raid were beaten and driven away by 20,000 residents protesting an industrial park that was eventually shut down.
By the time dawn broke, up to 20,000 peasants from the half-dozen villages that make up Huaxi township had responded to the alarm, participants recounted, and they were in no mood to bow to authority.
Peasants and workers left behind by China's economic boom increasingly have resorted to the kind of unrest that ignited in Huaxi.
Peasant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (889 words)
Peasants exist in a world before the modern division of labor: a peasant must be a jack-of-all trades, handy at everything.
Peasants live to agricultural time; the "world-time", in Fernand Braudel's term, of politics and economics does not directly affect the peasant.
Peasants tend to be more conservative than urbanites, and are often very loyal to inherited power structures that define their rights and privileges and protect them from interlopers, despite their generally low status within them.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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