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Encyclopedia > Pear
Pear
European Pear branch with fruit
European Pear branch with fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Maloideae
Genus: Pyrus
L.
Species

About 30 species; see text Download high resolution version (640x975, 132 KB)Pears from http://www. ... Binomial name Pyrus communis L. The European Pear Pyrus communis is a species of pear native to central and eastern Europe and southwest Asia. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae Moraceae (mulberry family) Rosaceae (rose family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) For the Philippine municipality, see Rosales, Pangasinan. ... Global distribution of Rosaceae Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ... Genera Amelanchier - serviceberry, juneberry Aronia - chokeberry Chaenomeles - Japanese quince Cotoneaster - cotoneaster Crataegus - hawthorn Cydonia - quince Eriobotrya - loquat Eriolobus (Malus pro parte) Heteromeles - Toyon Malus - apple, crabapple Mespilus - medlar Osteomeles Photinia Pyracantha - firethorn Pyrus - pear Rhaphiolepis - Indian hawthorn Sorbus - rowan, whitebeam, service tree Stranvaesia - (Photinia pro parte) The Maloideae, or the... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

A pear is a pomaceous fruit produced by a tree of genus Pyrus. The English word pear is probably from Common West Germanic *pera, probably a loanword of Vulgar Latin pira, the plural of pirum, which is itself of unknown origin. See also Peorð. The place name Perry can indicate the historical presence of pear trees. The term "pyriform" is sometimes used to describe something which is "pear-shaped". Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Look up pear in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An apple is an example of a pome fruit. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... ᛈ is the rune denoting the sound p in the Old Futhark runic alphabet, in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem named peorð. It does not appear in the Younger Futhark. ... Perry is an alcoholic beverage made of fermented pear juice. ...


The pear is classified within Maloideae, a subfamily within Rosaceae. The apple (Malus ×domestica) which it resembles in floral structure, is also a member of this subfamily. In both cases the so-called fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the flower-stalk (the so-called calyx tube) greatly dilated, and enclosing within its cellular flesh the five cartilaginous carpels which constitute the "core" and are really the true fruit. From the upper rim of the receptacle are given off the five sepals, the five petals, and the very numerous stamens. Another major relative of the pear (and thus the apple) is the quince. Genera Amelanchier - serviceberry, juneberry Aronia - chokeberry Chaenomeles - Japanese quince Cotoneaster - cotoneaster Crataegus - hawthorn Cydonia - quince Eriobotrya - loquat Eriolobus (Malus pro parte) Heteromeles - Toyon Malus - apple, crabapple Mespilus - medlar Osteomeles Photinia Pyracantha - firethorn Pyrus - pear Rhaphiolepis - Indian hawthorn Sorbus - rowan, whitebeam, service tree Stranvaesia - (Photinia pro parte) The Maloideae, or the... Global distribution of Rosaceae Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Tetramerous flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal (from Latin separatus separate + petalum petal) is a part of the flower of angiosperms or flower plants. ... Cartilage is type of dense connective tissue. ... A carpel is the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... Flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal is one member or part of the calyx of a flower. ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... Binomial name Mill. ...


The form of the pear and of the apple respectively, although usually characteristic enough, is not by itself sufficient to distinguish them, for there are pears which cannot by form alone be distinguished from apples, and apples which cannot by superficial appearance be recognized from pears. A major distinction is the occurrence in the tissue of the fruit, or beneath the rind, of clusters of lignified cells known as "grit" in the case of the pear, while in the apple no such formation of woody cells takes place. The appearance of the tree—the bark, the foliage, the type of inflorescence (i.e. form of the flower cluster)—is, however, usually quite characteristic in the two species.

Contents

History

Callery Pears in flower
Callery Pears in flower

The cultivation of the pear extends to the remotest antiquity. Traces of it have been found in the Swiss lake-dwellings; it is mentioned in the oldest Greek writings, and was cultivated by the Romans. The word "pear" or its equivalent occurs in all the Celtic languages, while in Slavonic and other dialects different appellations, but still referring to the same thing, are found—a diversity and multiplicity of nomenclature which led Alphonse de Candolle to infer a very ancient cultivation of the tree from the shores of the Caspian to those of the Atlantic. A certain race of pears, with white down on the under surface of their leaves, is supposed to have originated from P. nivalis, and their fruit is chiefly used in France in the manufacture of Perry (see Cider). Other small-fruited pears, distinguished by their precocity and apple-like fruit, may be referred to P. cordata, a species found wild in western France, and in Devonshire and Cornwall. Pears have been cultivated in China for approximately 3000 years. Bradford pear in bloom Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 05:34, 21 Mar 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Bradford pear in bloom Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 05:34, 21 Mar 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Pyrus calleryana Decne. ... Alphonse de Candolle Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyrame de Candolle (Paris October 28, 1806 – Geneva April 4, 1893), was a French-Swiss botanist, the son of the Swiss botanist A. P. de Candolle. ... This article is about is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ...


The genus is thought to have originated in present-day western China in the foothills of the Tian Shan Mountains, and to have spread to the east and west along mountain chains, evolving into a diverse group of over 20 widely recognized primary species. The cultivated European pear (Pyrus communis), whose number is enormous, are without doubt derived from one or two wild species (P. pyraster and P. caucasica), widely distributed throughout Europe, and sometimes forming part of the natural vegetation of the forests. In England, where the pear is sometimes considered wild, there is always the doubt that it may not really be so, but the produce of some seed of a cultivated tree deposited by birds or otherwise, which has degenerated into wild spine-bearing trees. Asian species with medium to large edible fruit include P. pyrifolia, P. ussuriensis, P. ×bretschneideri, P. ×sinkiangensis, and P. pashia. Other small-fruited species are frequently used as rootstocks for the cultivated species. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Botany

Pear, "La France" (Japan)
Pear, "La France" (Japan)

Pears are native to coastal and mildly temperate regions of the Old World, from western Europe and north Africa east right across Asia. They are medium sized trees, reaching 10–17 m tall, often with a tall, narrow crown; a few species are shrubby. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 2–12 cm long, glossy green on some species, densely silvery-hairy in some others; leaf shape varies from broad oval to narrow lanceolate. Most pears are deciduous, but one or two species in southeast Asia are evergreen. Most are cold-hardy, withstanding temperatures between −25 °C and −40 °C in winter, except for the evergreen species, which only tolerate temperatures down to about −15 °C. The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... This article is about plant types. ...


The flowers are white, rarely tinted yellow or pink, 2–4 cm diameter, and have five petals. Like that of the related apple, the pear fruit is a pome, in most wild species 1–4 cm diameter, but in some cultivated forms up to 18 cm long and 8 cm broad; the shape varies in most species from oblate or globose, to the classic pyriform 'pear-shape' of the European Pear with an elongated basal portion and a bulbous end. For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... An apple is an example of a pome fruit. ... A European Pear. ... Binomial name Pyrus communis L. The European Pear Pyrus communis is a species of pear native to central and eastern Europe and southwest Asia. ...


The pear is very similar to the apple in cultivation, propagation and pollination. This article is about the fruit. ... Fruit tree propagation is usually carried out through asexual reproduction by grafting or budding the desired variety onto a suitable rootstock. ... Apples are self incompatible and must be cross pollinated. ...


There are about 30 primary species, major subspecies, and naturally occurring interspecific hybrid of pears.


Major recognized taxa

Pear and quince output in 2005
Pear and quince output in 2005
Pear, still-life by Keaton Cooper
  • Pyrus amygdaliformis—Almond-leafed Pear
  • Pyrus armeniacifolia
  • Pyrus betulifolia
  • Pyrus boissieriana
  • Pyrus × bretschneideri—Chinese white pear; also classified as a subspecies of Pyrus pyrifolia
  • Pyrus calleryana—Callery Pear
  • Pyrus communis—European Pear (cultivars include Beurre d'Anjou, Bartlett and Beurre Bosc)
  • Pyrus communis subsp. caucasica
  • Pyrus communis subsp. pyraster—Wild European Pear
  • Pyrus cordata—Plymouth Pear
  • Pyrus cossonii—Algerian Pear
  • Pyrus dimorphophylla
  • Pyrus elaeagrifolia—Oleaster-leafed Pear
  • Pyrus fauriei
  • Pyrus gharbiana
  • Pyrus glabra
  • Pyrus hondoensis
  • Pyrus koehnei—Evergreen pear of southern China and Taiwan
  • Pyrus korshinskyi
  • Pyrus mamorensis
  • Pyrus nivalis—Snow Pear
  • Pyrus pashia—Afghan Pear
  • Pyrus ×phaeocarpa
  • Pyrus pseudopashia
  • Pyrus pyrifolia—Nashi Pear, Sha Li
  • Pyrus regelii
  • Pyrus salicifolia—Willow-leafed Pear
  • Pyrus × serrulata
  • Pyrus × sinkiangensis—thought to be an interspecific hybrid between P. ×bretschneideri, Pyrus ussuriensis and Pyrus communis
  • Pyrus syriaca
  • Pyrus ussuriensis—Siberian Pear
  • Pyrus xerophila

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of pear and quince output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 11,537,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of pear and quince output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 11,537,000 tonnes). ... Binomial name Mill. ... Binomial name Pyrus calleryana Decne. ... Binomial name Pyrus communis L. The European Pear Pyrus communis is a species of pear native to central and eastern Europe and southwest Asia. ... DAnjou pear is a short-necked pear originating from ]France. ... Oregon grown Bosc Pears The Bosc Pear is a cultivar of the European Pear (Pyrus communis) grown in the northwestern U.S. states of California, Washington, and Oregon, as well as in British Columbia and Europe, where it is sometimes called Kaiser pear. ... Pyrus nivalis, more commonly knows as the snow pear is a type of pear that grows naturally from south-east Europe to western Asia. ... Binomial name Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. ... Binomial name Pyrus salicifolia Pall. ...

Cultivation

Pear, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 60 kcal   240 kJ
Carbohydrates     15.46 g
- Sugars  9.80 g
- Dietary fiber  3.1 g  
Fat 0 g
Protein 0.38 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.012 mg   1%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.025 mg   2%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.157 mg   1%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.048 mg  1%
Vitamin B6  0.028 mg 2%
Folate (Vit. B9)  7 μg  2%
Vitamin C  4.2 mg 7%
Calcium  9 mg 1%
Iron  0.17 mg 1%
Magnesium  7 mg 2% 
Phosphorus  11 mg 2%
Potassium  119 mg   3%
Zinc  0.10 mg 1%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

The pear may be readily raised by sowing the pips of ordinary cultivated or of wilding kinds, these forming what are known as free or pear stocks, on which the choicer varieties are grafted for increase. For new varieties the flowers can be cross-bred to preserve or combine desirable traits. The fruit of the pear is produced on spurs, which appear on shoots more than one year old.[citation needed] Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ... ...


Harvest

Summer and autumn pears are gathered before they are fully ripe, while they are still green, but snap off when lifted. If left to ripen and turn yellow on the tree, the sugars will turn to starch crystals and the pear will have gritty texture inside. In the case of the 'Passe Crassane', long the favored winter pear in France, the crop should be gathered at three different times, the first a fortnight or more before it is ripe, the second a week or ten days after that, and the third when fully ripe. The first gathering will come into eating latest, and thus the season of the fruit may be considerably prolonged.


Diseases and pests

Main article: List of pear diseases
Main article: List of Lepidoptera that feed on pear trees

This article is a list of diseases of pears (Pyrus communis). ...

Uses

Three species account for the vast majority of edible fruit production, the European Pear Pyrus communis cultivated mainly in Europe and North America, the Chinese white pear (bai li) Pyrus ×bretschneideri, and the Nashi Pear Pyrus pyrifolia (also known as Asian Pear or Apple Pear), both grown mainly in eastern Asia. There are thousands of cultivars of these three species. A species grown in western China, P. sinkiangensis, and P. pashia, grown in southern China and south Asia, are also produced to a lesser degree. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Binomial name Pyrus communis L. The European Pear Pyrus communis is a species of pear native to central and eastern Europe and southwest Asia. ... North American redirects here. ... Binomial name Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...


Other species are used as rootstocks for European and Asian pears and as ornamental trees. The Siberian Pear, Pyrus ussuriensis (which produces unpalatable fruit) has been crossed with Pyrus communis to breed hardier pear cultivars. The Bradford Pear (Pyrus calleryana 'Bradford') in particular has become widespread in North America and is used only as an ornamental tree. The Willow-leafed Pear (Pyrus salicifolia) is grown for its attractive slender, densely silvery-hairy leaves. Grafting is a method of plant propagation by which one woody plant is mechanically attached to another so that the two eventually fuse together. ... Petunia This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Pyrus calleryana Decne. ... Binomial name Pyrus salicifolia Pall. ...


Pears are consumed fresh, canned, as juice, and dried. The juice can also be used in jellies and jams, usually in combination with other fruits or berries. Fermented pear juice is called perry. For other uses, see Juice (disambiguation). ... Dried fruit is fruit that has been dried, either naturally or through use of a machine, such as a dehydrator. ... Jam from berries Fruit preserves refers to fruit, or vegetables, that have been prepared and canned for long term storage. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... This article is about is about the alcoholic beverage. ...


Pears will ripen faster if placed next to bananas in a fruit bowl. They stay fresh for longer if kept in a fridge. Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Domestic refrigerators (usually shortened to fridge) are amongst the most common electric applicances in the world, for instance being present in 99. ...


Pears are the least allergenic of all fruits. Along with lamb and soya formula, pears form part of the strictest exclusion diet for allergy sufferers. An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... Sheep redirects here. ... Soya (chiefly British English) or soy (chiefly American English) is the herb Glycine max, which produces the soya bean or soybean (see that article for more detail). ...


Pear wood is one of the preferred materials in the manufacture of high-quality woodwind instruments and furniture. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ...


It is also used for wood carving, and as a firewood to produce aromatic smoke for smoking meat or tobacco.
Stacking firewood in a shed Some firewood is harvested in woodlots managed for that purpose, but in heavily wooded areas it is more usually harvested as a byproduct of natural forests. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


External links

Look up Pear in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pears
Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Pear
  • USA Pears—descriptions of pear cultivars from a U.S. advocacy group.
  • University of Georgia Pear Page—History of cultivation and commerce.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pear (2934 words)
Pupae of the pear midge overwinter in the soil.
This important pest of pear reduces the growth and vigor of trees by sucking water and nutrients from trees, by injecting a toxin, and by transmitting the causative agent of "slow pear decline." In addition, the nymphs secrete honeydew upon which a fl sooty mold grows.
Pears are often cut from the trees by squirrels in August.
pear: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1576 words)
Pears are also available dried as well as canned in either water, sugar syrup or their natural juice.
The pear tree and its fruit are similar to the closely related apple (considered by some botanists to be of the same genus) in characteristics and in method of cultivation, but the tree is somewhat less hardy and the fruit more perishable.
Pear wood is one of the preferred materials in the manufacture of high-quality woodwind instruments and furniture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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