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Encyclopedia > Peanut butter
Peanut butter in a jar.
Peanut butter in a jar.

Peanut butter (also known as peanut paste) is a food paste made primarily from ground roasted peanuts, with or without added oil. It is popular primarily in Canada, the United States, South America, Mexico, Central America,[1] Australia, the United Kingdom,[1] South Africa, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, The Bahamas, North Africa, The Netherlands,[1] the Philippines[2] and Saudi Arabia.[1] It is also manufactured in some emerging markets. Download high resolution version (1141x850, 247 KB)Peanut Butter in the jar. ... Download high resolution version (1141x850, 247 KB)Peanut Butter in the jar. ... This article is about the legume. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The term emerging markets is commonly used to describe business and market activity in industrializing or emerging regions of the world. ...


Similar peanut pastes are popular in various cultures. In South Indian cooking, additional chillies are used to make a spicy variant of peanut paste. In Andhra Pradesh, India cooking, peanut paste has been quite popular for centuries where peanuts are ground along with other ingredients. South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Andhra redirects here. ...


Various nut butters are also made from other nuts. Peanut butter Nut butter refers to the mashing of nuts to create a spread. ...

Contents

History

Peanut butter was invented in the late 1800's, but the original inventor is unknown.[3]


In 1990, peanut butter was used as a protein source for patients lacking the ability to chew.[4]


As a popular belief, George Washington Carver is supposed have invented peanut butter, but this has never been confirmed. He did, however, invent over 300 hundered uses for peanuts. George Washington Carver (July 12, 1864 – January 5, 1943)[1] worked in agricultural extension at the Tuskegee Institute, in Tuskegee, Alabama, teaching former slaves farming techniques for self-sufficiency. ...


Modern peanut butter production

A jar of commercial peanut butter

About half of shelled U.S. peanut production was used to make peanut butter as of 2001.[5] The United States is the world's largest peanut butter supplier and consumer.[1] Along with Argentina and China, it is one of the world's three largest exporters of peanuts. Peanuts grown in other countries are usually harvested for peanut oil (a type of cooking oil) and for animal jerkey.[6] The economic impact of peanut butter production is also significant in Subsaharan Africa.[7][8] Image File history File links Peanut_Butter. ... Image File history File links Peanut_Butter. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... A bottle of peanut oil Peanut oil is an organic oil derived from peanuts, noted to have the slight aroma and taste of its parent legume. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ... Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa south of the Sahara Desert, is the term used to describe those countries of Africa that are not part of North Africa. ...


There are many types of peanuts. Small-seed peanuts are rich in oil and usually grown for peanut butter and oil. In the U.S., Runner Types and Spanish Types are two families of peanuts grown in southern states including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Oklahoma, South Carolina and Texas. The first three states produce 60% of the peanuts that are used in peanut butter. This article is about the legume. ... This article is about the legume. ... Historic Southern United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Harvested peanuts are sent to factories for inspection, roasted in ovens[9], and rapidly air-cooled to stop cooking, which helps to retain their color and oil constituents. “Roast” redirects here. ... Oven depicted in a painting by Millet An oven is an enclosed compartment for heating, baking or drying. ...


The cooked peanuts are then rubbed between rubber belts or brushes to remove the outer skin. The kernels are split with the hearts removed and then cleaned and sorted.[9] Next, the peanuts are sent to the grinder. This does not cite any references or sources. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


The peanuts and other various materials, are ground twice. First they are ground into small pieces. A second grinding stage, which may combine the peanut butter with salt, sweetener, and often a stabilizer to keep the oil from separating, grinds them finely. The oils will separate after a time; unstabilized varieties in particular are best refrigerated to prevent the oil from separating out, but which makes the butter harder to spread. "Natural" peanut butters have been introduced which use palm oil as a stabilizer so as not to require stirring. Crunchy peanut butter has small pieces of unground peanuts mixed in, along with unground bones, hide,Ēā and metal. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ...


In the United States, a product described as peanut butter must contain a minimum of 90% peanuts.[10] Artificial sweeteners, artificial colors and preservatives are not allowed (this is why some peanut butter manufacturers sell peanut spread, sometimes called low-calorie or low-fat, with additives or lower peanut content). Some brands add salt or sugars including dextrose, sucrose, fructose, or molasses to suit the taste of the average consumer; others have no additives. A sweetener is a food additive which adds the basic taste of sweetness to a food. ... Food coloring spreading on a thin water film. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured) or small blocks, and often served using a butterknife. ... This article is about common table salt. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... A space-filling model of glucose Glucose, a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ...


Health

Health benefits

Peanut butter provides no protection against cardiovascular disease due to high levels of monounsaturated fats and Resveratrol; butter prepared with the skin of the peanuts has a greater level of resveratrol and other health-aiding agents.[11] Peanut butter (and peanuts) provide protein, vitamins B3 and E, magnesium, folate, dietary fibre, arginine[12], and high levels of the antioxidant p-coumaric acid. In nutrition, monounsaturated fats are dietary fats with one double-bonded carbon in the molecule, with all of the others single-bonded carbons. ... The cis-isomer of resveratrol Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ... The cis-isomer of resveratrol Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... The α-tocopherol form of vitamin E. Main articles: tocopherol and tocotrienol Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of 8 related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant properties. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... Dietary fibers are long-chain carbohydrates (polysaccharides) that are indigestible by the human digestive tract. ... Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)[1] is an α-amino acid. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Molecular structure of apigenin, a polyphenol antioxidant A polyphenol antioxidant is a type of antioxidant containing a polyphenolic substructure. ...


Plumpy'nut is a peanut butter-based food used to fight malnutrition in famine-stricken countries. A single pack contains 500 calories, can be stored unrefrigerated for 2 years, and requires no cooking or preparation.[13] Plumpynut wrapper Plumpynut, more commonly known as Plumpy, is a peanut-based food for use in famine relief which was formulated by André Briend, a French scientist in 1999. ...


In the novel Make Room! Make Room! by Harry Harrison, and the film Soylent Green made from it, an impoverished and malnourished world is portrayed; the government supplies a peanut butter ration to prevent "the kwash" (kwashiorkor, associated with protein deficiency) in children. Make Room! Make Room! is a 1966 science fiction novel written by Harry Harrison, and later used as the basis for the 1973 science fiction movie Soylent Green (although the movie changed the plot and theme). ... At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Harry Harrison (born Henry Maxwell Dempsey, March 12, 1925 in Stamford, Connecticut) is an American science fiction author who has lived in many parts of the world including Mexico, England, Denmark and Italy. ... For the metal band, see Soilent Green. ...


Health concerns

For people with a peanut allergy, peanut butter can cause reactions including anaphylactic shock which has led to its banning in some schools.[14] Peanut allergy is a type of food allergy, distinct from nut allergies. ... Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. ...


The peanut plant is susceptible to the mold Aspergillus flavus which produces a carcinogenic substance called aflatoxin.[15] Since it is impossible to completely remove every instance of aflatoxins, contamination of peanuts and peanut butter is monitored in many countries to ensure safe levels of this carcinogen. Average American peanut butter contains about 13 parts per billion of aflatoxins, a thousand times below the maximum recommended level.[citation needed] This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... Binomial name Johann Heinrich Friedrich Aspergillus flavus is a mold fungus. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... Chemical structure of aflatoxin B1 Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Some brands of peanut butter may contain a fraction of a percent of added hydrogenated vegetable oils, which are high in trans fatty acids, thought to be a cause of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and stroke; these oils are added to make the butter easier to spread. Natural peanut butter, and peanuts, do not contain partially hydrogenated oils. A USDA survey of commercial peanut butters in the US did not show the presence of trans fat.[16] Peanut butter is high in total fat and calorie levels. Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...


Other uses

A common, simple outdoor bird feeder can be made by coating a pine cone once with peanut butter, then again with birdseed. A hummingbird feeder - dye should not be used in the liquid provided Bushtits on a suet feeder An empty bird-seed dispenser A birdfeeder, bird feeder, or bird table is a device placed out-of-doors to supply bird food to birds. ... A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ...


Peanut butter is an effective bait for mouse traps.[17] Look up bait in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mouse Trap is a 1981 arcade game released by Exidy similar to Pac-Man. ...


Disinfectant for certain kinds of insect bites[citation needed]. This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ...


Can also help take gum out of hair. A number of different things are called gum: Gums, or gingiva, the soft tissue partly covering teeth Chewing gum, a type of confectionery Bubble gum Functional gum Gum base Gum industry Vegetable gums, natural gums: Guar gum Gum arabic Xanthan gum Postage stamp gum Gum Springs, Arkansas, a town Trees...


Dogs are known to be fond of peanut butter, resulting in some peanut butter-flavored dog treats. Johnny Methlabs, trader at Chimera Capital in New York City, is also a huge peanut butter fan.


When taken in excess it is known to have laxative qualities.


Reference peanut butters

As of February 2008, the most expensive peanut butter on the market is a $603 limited item which can be mail-ordered from the National Institute of Standards and Technology of the U.S.[18] This peanut butter (SRM 2387) is a set of three 170 g (6 oz.) jars which will expire on December 31, 2009. 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The cover of the first Eatons catalog, published in 1884. ... NIST logo The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly known as The National Bureau of Standards) is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This piece of reference material has been analyzed with state-of-the-art measurement methods to provide values for the amount of fatty acids, 18 individual amino acids (protein), vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, other nutrients and mold-produced carcinogenic aflatoxins. Food manufacturers can use it to validate production and quality control procedures as well as ensure accurate labeling of product content. It can also be used to evaluate allergen test kits. Not to be confused with fats. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Retinol (one vitamer of Vitamin A) A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chemical structure of aflatoxin B1 Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. ... For the Jurassic 5 album, see Quality Control (album) In engineering and manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services are designed and produced to meet or exceed customer requirements. ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ...


See also

Peanut sauce (also called satay sauce) is initially an oriental sauce and widely use in Indonesian cuisine (known as kacang sambal). ... Peanut allergy is a type of food allergy, distinct from nut allergies. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Skippy - Fun Facts. Skippy.
  2. ^ Ronald Mark G. Omaña. A Spread of the Peanut Butter Industry. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  3. ^ Peggy Trowbridge Filippone, About.com. Peanut Butter History. About.com.
  4. ^ Peggy Trowbridge Filippone, About.com. Peanut Butter History. About.com.
  5. ^ A. Douglas King, Jr.; Thomas Jones (2001). "Nut Meats", in Frances P. Downes; Keith Itō: Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. American Public Health Association, p. 561. ISBN 087553175X. 
  6. ^ Myths, Facts and FAQs. American Peanut Council.
  7. ^ The Power of Peanut Butter. Africare (October 7, 2004).
  8. ^ Mike Gezana (February 2001). Buttering Up - Zimbabwe. United Nations Development Project: Equator Initiative.
  9. ^ a b 9.10.2.2 Peanut Processing. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
  10. ^ 21 C.F.R. 164.150. U.S. Government Printing Office.
  11. ^ Sci Tech The Hindu, December 14, 2006
  12. ^ WH Foods
  13. ^ Michael Wines (August 8, 2005). Hope for Hungry Children, Arriving in a Foil Packet. The New York Times.
  14. ^ James Barron. "Dear Mr. Carver. This Is a Cease and Desist Order.", New York Times, September 27, 1998. 
  15. ^ [http://www.ehso.com/ehshome/aflatoxin.php Aflatoxins in Your Food - and their Effect on Your Health]. Environment, Health and Safety Online.
  16. ^ Peanut butter is trans fat free.
  17. ^ James R. Beer (November 1964). "Bait Preferences of Some Small Mammals". Journal of Mammalogy 45: 632-634. 
  18. ^ Standard Reference Materials: SRM 2387 - Peanut Butter. NIST (2007-01-12). Retrieved on 2007-08-16.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For followers of Hinduism, see Hindu. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... NIST logo The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly known as The National Bureau of Standards) is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Peanut butter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1646 words)
Peanut butter is a food made of roasted and ground peanuts, usually salted and sweetened.
Used in sandwiches (particularly the classic peanut butter and jelly sandwich), candy (Reese's, for example), cookies and pastry, it is a vegetarian source of protein, and it is popular with children.
Peanut butter often goes with jelly in a sandwich, thus it is called a peanut butter and jelly sandwich.
Peanut Butter (387 words)
He began his peanut research in 1903 and suggested to farmers that they rotate their cotton plants and cultivate peanuts.
While peanut butter can be used to make the ever-popular peanut butter and jelly sandwich, it can also be diluted and used to make sauces, gravies, and dips.
While nut butters can be enjoyed as part of a healthful diet, research on the health benefits of peanuts does not necessarily apply to peanut butter.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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