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Encyclopedia > Peanut
Peanut classification
Peanut (Arachis hypogea)
Peanut (Arachis hypogea)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Aeschynomeneae
Genus: Arachis
Species: A. hypogaea
Binomial name
Arachis hypogaea
L.

The peanut, or Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), is a species in the legume family Fabaceae native to South America, Mexico and Central America. [1] It is an annual herbaceous plant growing to 30 to 50 cm (1 to 1½ ft) tall. The leaves are opposite, pinnate with four leaflets (two opposite pairs; no terminal leaflet), each leaflet 1 to 7 cm (⅜ to 2¾ in) long and 1 to 3 cm (⅜ to 1 inch) broad. The flowers are a typical peaflower in shape, 2 to 4 cm (¾ to 1½ in) across, yellow with reddish veining. After pollination, the fruit develops into a legume 3 to 7 cm (1 to 2 in) long containing 1 to 4 seeds, which forces its way underground to mature. For other uses, see Peanut (disambiguation). ... Peanut or Peanuts may refer to: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a species in the pea family Fabaceae native to South America. ... Image File history File links Koeh-163. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families Fabaceae (legumes) Quillajaceae Polygalaceae (milkwort family) Surianaceae The Fabales are an order of flowering plants, included in the rosid group of dicotyledons. ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... Tribes Abreae Adesmieae Aeschynomeneae Amorpheae Bossiaeeae Brongniartieae Carmichaelieae Cicereae Crotalarieae Dalbergieae Desmodieae Dipterygeae Euchresteae Galegeae Genisteae Hedysareae Indigofereae Liparieae Loteae Millettieae Mirbelieae Phaseoleae Podalyrieae Psoraleeae Robinieae Sophoreae Swartzieae Thermopsideae Trifolieae Vicieae Faboideae is a subfamily of the flowering plant family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. ... This article is about peanut, the food. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... This article is about peanut, the food. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Peas are an annual plant. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Pinnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


The plant's name combines the morphemes pea and nut, causing some confusion as to the nature of the fruit. Although a nut in the culinary sense, in the botanical sense the fruit of the peanut plant is a woody, indehiscent legume and not a nut. The word pea describes the edible seeds of many other legumes in the Fabaceae family, and in that sense, a peanut is a kind of pea. In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ...


Peanuts are also known as earthnuts, goobers, goober peas, pindas, jack nuts, pinders, manila nuts and monkey nuts. (The last of these is often used to mean the entire pod, not just the seeds.)

Contents

History

Texture detail
Texture detail
Peanut. Moche Culture 300 A.D. Larco Museum Lima, Peru.
Peanut. Moche Culture 300 A.D. Larco Museum Lima, Peru.
Peanut shells, with one split open revealing two seeds with their brown seed coats
Peanut shells, with one split open revealing two seeds with their brown seed coats

The domesticated peanut is a amphidiploid or allotetraploid, meaning that it has two sets of chromosomes from two different species. The wild ancestors of the peanut were thought to be A. duranensis and A. ipaensis, a view recently confirmed by direct comparison of the peanut's chromosomes with those of several putative ancestors.[1] This domestication might have taken place in Argentina or Bolivia, where the wildest strains grow today. In fact, many pre-Columbian cultures such as the Moche, depicted peanuts in their art. .[2] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 364 pixel Image in higher resolution (1967 × 894 pixel, file size: 210 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A close-up shot of 2 roasted peanuts. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 364 pixel Image in higher resolution (1967 × 894 pixel, file size: 210 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A close-up shot of 2 roasted peanuts. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (436x640, 279 KB) Close up peanuts Image Number: 93cs4034, CD0323-011 USDA Photo by: Alice Welch Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (436x640, 279 KB) Close up peanuts Image Number: 93cs4034, CD0323-011 USDA Photo by: Alice Welch Source: http://www. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ...


Evidence demonstrates that peanuts were domesticated in prehistoric times in Peru. Archeologists have thus far dated the oldest specimens to about 7,600 years before the present.[3] Cultivation spread as far as Mesoamerica where the Spanish conquistadors found the tlalcacahuatl (Nahuatl="cacao", whence Mexican Spanish, cacahuate and French, cacahuète) being offered for sale in the marketplace of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). The plant was later spread worldwide by European traders. Cultivation in the English colonies of North America was popularized by African Americans, who brought the Kikongo word "goober". Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... For the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico, see Mexican Spanish. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Kongo is the Bantu language spoken by the Kongo people living in the tropical forests of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo and Angola. ...


The nut gained Western popularity when it came to the United States from Africa. It had become popular in Africa after being brought there from Brazil by the Portuguese around 1800.


Cultivation

The flower of the Arachis hypogaea is borne above ground and after it withers, the stalk elongates, bends down, and forces the ovary underground. When the seed is mature, the inner lining of the pods (called the seed coat) changes color from white to a reddish brown. The entire plant, including most of the roots, is removed from the soil during harvesting.


The pods begin in the orange veined, yellow petaled, pea-like flowers, which are borne in auxiliary clusters above ground. Following self-pollination, the flowers fade. The stalks at the bases of the ovaries, called pegs, elongate rapidly, and turn downward to bury the fruits several inches in the ground to complete their development. Self-pollination is the activity that arises when a flower has both stamen and pistils. ...


The pods act in nutrient absorption. The fruits have wrinkled shells that are constricted between the two to three seeds. The mature seeds resemble other legume seeds, such as beans, but they have paper-thin seed coats, as opposed to the usual, hard legume seed coats.


Peanuts grow best in light, sandy loam soil. They require five months of warm weather, and an annual rainfall of 500 to 1000 mm (20 to 40 in) or the equivalent in irrigation water. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ...


The pods ripen 120 to 150 days after the seeds are planted. If the crop is harvested too early, the pods will be unripe. If they are harvested late, the pods will snap off at the stalk, and will remain in the soil.


Peanuts are particularly susceptible to contamination during growth and storage. Poor storage of peanuts can lead to an infection by the mold fungus Aspergillus flavus, releasing the toxic substance aflatoxin. The aflatoxin producing molds exist throughout the peanut growing areas and may produce aflatoxin in peanuts when conditions are favorable to fungal growth. This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Binomial name Johann Heinrich Friedrich Aspergillus flavus is a mold fungus. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Chemical structure of aflatoxin B1 Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. ...


Harvesting peanuts occurs in two stages. First a machine is used to cut off the main root of the peanut plant by cutting through the soil just below the level of the peanut pods. Then the same machine lifts the "bush" from the ground and shakes it. Then the machine inverts the bush to leave the plant upside down on the ground to keep the peanuts out of the dirt. This allows the peanuts to slowly dry to a bit less than a third of their original moisture level over a period of 2-3 weeks while they are left upside down on the field.


After the peanuts have dried sufficiently, they will then be threshed. This removes the peanut pods from the rest of the bush.[4]


Cultivation in China

The peanut was introduced to China by Portuguese traders in the 1600s and another variety by American missionaries in the 1800s. They became popular and are featured in many Chinese dishes, often being boiled. During the 1980s peanut production began to increase greatly so that as of 2006 China was the world's largest peanut producer. A major factor in this increase has been China's move away from a communist economic system toward a free market system so that farmers are free to grow and market their crops as they decide.[5][6] This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... An economic system is a particular set of social institutions which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...


Cultivars

Peanut leaves and freshly dug pods
Peanut leaves and freshly dug pods

Thousands of peanut cultivars are grown, with four major Cultivar Groups being the most popular: Spanish, Runner, Virginia, and Valencia. There are also Tennessee Red and Tennessee White groups. Certain Cultivar Groups are preferred for particular uses because of differences in flavor, oil content, size, shape, and disease resistance. For many uses the different cultivars are interchangeable. Most peanuts marketed in the shell are of the Virginia type, along with some Valencias selected for large size and the attractive appearance of the shell. Spanish peanuts are used mostly for peanut candy, salted nuts, and peanut butter. Most Runners are used to make peanut butter. Download high resolution version (1200x900, 1025 KB)Peanut leaves and freshly dug pods Stuckey, South Carolina Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 17:05, Dec 7, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Download high resolution version (1200x900, 1025 KB)Peanut leaves and freshly dug pods Stuckey, South Carolina Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 17:05, Dec 7, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... This article is a list of diseases of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). ... Peanut butter in a jar. ...


The various types are distinguished by branching habit and branch length. There are numerous varieties of each type of peanut. There are two main growth forms, bunch and runner. Bunch types grow upright, while runner types grow near the ground.


Each year new cultivars of peanuts are bred and introduced somewhere in the peanut belt of the U.S. or in other countries. Introducing a new cultivar may mean change in the planting rate, adjusting the planter, harvester, dryer, cleaner, sheller, and method of marketing.


Spanish group

The small Spanish types are grown in South Africa, and in the southwestern and southeastern U.S. Prior to 1940, 90 % of the peanuts grown in Georgia were Spanish types, but the trend since then has been larger seeded, higher yielding, more disease resistant cultivars. Spanish peanuts have a higher oil content than other types of peanuts and in the U.S. are now primarily grown in Oklahoma and Texas. This article is a list of diseases of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Cultivars of the Spanish group include 'Dixie Spanish', 'Improved Spanish 2B', 'GFA Spanish', 'Argentine', 'Spantex', 'Spanette', 'Shaffers Spanish', 'Natal Common (Spanish)', 'White Kernel Varieties', 'Starr', 'Comet', 'Florispan', 'Spanhoma', 'Spancross', 'OLin', 'Tamspan 90', 'Spanco' and 'Wilco I'.


Runner group

Since 1940, there has been a shift to production of Runner group peanuts in the southeastern U.S. Runners are found in Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and South Carolina. This shift is due to good flavor, better roasting characteristics and higher yields when compared to Spanish types leading to food manufacturers' preference for use in peanut butter and salting. This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...


Cultivars of Runners include 'Southeastern Runner 56-15', 'Dixie Runner', 'Early Runner', 'Virginia Bunch 67', 'Bradford Runner', 'Egyptian Giant' (also known as 'Virginia Bunch' and 'Giant'), 'Rhodesian Spanish Bunch' (Valencia and Virginia Bunch), 'North Carolina Runner 56-15', 'Georgia Green', 'Flavor Runner 458', 'Tamrun OL01', 'Tamrun OL02' and 'AT-108'.

Roasted peanuts as snack food
Roasted peanuts as snack food

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1948 KB) Roasted Peanuts author: Flyingdream I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1948 KB) Roasted Peanuts author: Flyingdream I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Virginia group

The large seeded Virginia Group peanuts are grown in Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and parts of Georgia. They are increasing in popularity due to demand for large peanuts for processing, particularly for salting, confections, and roasting in the shells. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...


Virginia Group peanuts are either bunch or running in growth habit. The bunch type is upright to spreading. It attains a height of 45 to 55 cm (18 to 22 inches), and a spread of 70 to 80 cm (28 to 30 in), with 80 to 90 cm (33 to 36 in) rows that seldom cover the ground. The pods are borne within 5 to 10 cm of the base of the plant.


Cultivars of Virginia type peanuts include NC 7, NC 9, NC 10C, NC-V 11, VA 93B, NC 12C, VA-C 92R, Gregory, VA 98R, Perry, Wilson, Hull, VC-2 and Shulamit


Valencia group

Valencia Group peanuts are coarse, and they have heavy reddish stems and large foliage. In the U.S. large commercial production is primarily in Eastern New Mexico, especially in and around Portales, New Mexico, but they are grown on a small scale elsewhere in the South as the best flavored and preferred type for boiled peanuts. They are comparatively tall, having a height of 125 cm (50 inches) and a spread of 75 cm (30 inches). Peanut pods are borne on pegs arising from the main stem and the side branches. Most of the pods are clustered around the base of the plant, and only a few are found several inches away. Valencia types are three seeded and smooth, with no constriction between the seeds. Seeds are oval and tightly crowded into the pods. There are two strains, one with flesh and the other with red seeds. Typical seed weight is 0.4 to 0.5 g. Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Portales is a municipality in Roosevelt County, New Mexico, with a total population of 11,131 (as of the 2000 census). ... Boiled peanuts are popular in many places where beer is. ...


Tennessee Red and Tennessee White groups

These are alike, except for the color of the seed. The plants are similar to Valencia types, except that the stems are green to greenish brown, and the pods are rough, irregular, and have a smaller proportion of kernels.


Uses

Peanuts are found in a wide range of grocery products.
Peanuts are found in a wide range of grocery products.

Edible peanuts account for two-thirds of the total peanut use in the United States. Popular confections include salted peanuts, peanut butter (sandwiches, candy bars, and cups), peanut brittle, and shelled nuts (plain/roasted). Salted peanuts are usually roasted in oil and packed in retail size, plastic bags or hermetically sealed cans. Dry roasted, salted peanuts are also marketed in significant quantities. The primary use of peanut butter is in the home, but large quantities are also used in the commercial manufacture of sandwiches, candy, and bakery products. Boiled peanuts are a preparation of raw, unshelled green peanuts boiled in brine and typically eaten as a snack in the southern United States where most peanuts are grown. USDA photo by Scott Bauer. ... USDA photo by Scott Bauer. ... Peanut butter in a jar. ... PB&J redirects here. ... A Twix bar, broken in half Candy bar is the most popular term in the U.S. for confectionery usually packaged in a bar or log form, often coated with chocolate, and sized as a snack for one person. ... A peanut butter cup is a chocolate candy with a peanut butter filling inside. ... Peanut brittle is a popular hard candy made of peanuts and syrup. ... Boiled peanuts are popular in many places where beer is. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ...


Peanuts are common ingredients in Peruvian Creole cuisine reflecting the marriage of native ingredients and ingredients introduced by Europeans. In one example peanuts are roasted along with hot peppers (both native to South America) and blended with roasted onions, garlic, and oil (all of European origin) to make a smooth sauce poured over boiled potatoes. This dish is especially famous in the city of Arequipa and is known as "papas con ocopa". Another example combines a similar mixture with sautéed seafood or boiled and shredded chicken in the form of a fricassee. These dishes are generally known as "Ajis" such as "Aji de Pollo" "Aji de Mariscos". One may find that not all cooks use peanuts in seafood "ajis". The combination of ground roasted peanuts suggests some Moorish and Middle Eastern influence in modern Peruvian cuisine, presumably through the Spanish conquistadores. It is well documented that Middle Eastern cuisine makes extensive use of ground and pastes of almonds, pine nuts and other nuts combined with rice, meats and vegetables to arrive to dishes like Rice Pilaf. In the Levantine and Catalan cuisine there is also a wide use of ground nuts. Although the peanut is not a nut it may be argued that the Spanish used the peanut along with local Peruvian ingredients to emulate their ancestral cuisine in the absence of almonds and pine nuts. Peanuts are also widely used in South-East Asian cuisine, particularly Indonesia, where it is typically made into a spicy sauce. Peanuts originally came to Indonesia from the Philippines, where the legume came from Mexico in times of Spanish colonization. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Peanut sauce (also called satay sauce) is initially an oriental sauce and widely use in Indonesian cuisine (known as kacang sambal). ...

Groundnut output in 2005.
Groundnut output in 2005.

Common Indonesian peanut-based dishes include gado-gado, pecel, karedok and ketoprak, all vegetable salads mixed with peanut sauce, and the peanut-based dipping sauce for satay. Boiled peanuts are a popular Chinese snack and appetizer. Peanuts are also used in the Mali meat stew maafe. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of groundnut output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 14,410,500 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of groundnut output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 14,410,500 tonnes). ... This article is about peanut, the food. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Gado-gado Gado-gado is a traditional dish in Indonesian cuisine, and comprises a vegetable salad served with a peanut sauce dressing. ... Pecel is an Indonesian sauce based on peanuts. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Karedok Karedok is a raw vegetable salad from Indonesia. ... Grilled beef satay. ... Boiled peanuts are popular in many places where beer is. ... Maafe is a stew made from lamb, beef or chicken with a peanut-based sauce[1] originating from Mali. ...


Peanut oil is often used in cooking, because it has a mild flavor and burns at a relatively high temperature. Under the name Plumpy'nut 100 g (3.5 ounces), two small bags per day are given by the World Health Organization as a surviving base to many children in Africa. Peanuts are often a major ingredient in mixed nuts because of their inexpensiveness compared to Brazil nuts, cashews, walnuts, and so on. The U.S. airline industry used to be a relatively large purchaser of peanuts for serving during flights (6 million lb / 3 million kg annually) before the nuts were removed from flights by many airlines (largely due to allergy concerns, but also due to cost).[7] A bottle of peanut oil Peanut oil is an organic oil derived from peanuts, noted to have the slight aroma and taste of its parent legume. ... Plumpynut wrapper Plumpynut, more commonly known as Plumpy, is a peanut-based food for use in famine relief which was formulated by André Briend, a French scientist in 1999. ... WHO redirects here. ... Mixed nuts Mixed nuts are a snack food consisting of any mixture of nuts in the culinary sense, particularly peanuts, almonds, walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, filberts, and pecans. ... Binomial name Bertholletia excelsa Humb. ... Binomial name L. The Cashew (Anacardium occidentale; syn. ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ...


Peanuts are also very widely sold for garden bird feeding. Low grade or culled peanuts not suitable for the edible market are used in the production of peanut oil, seed and feed, although some owners of pet hookbills avoid these kinds for that reason. For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Hookbill is an informal name some pet owners use to refer to members of the parrot family (typically anything larger than a parakeet) based on the shape of the bill, distinguishing them from softbills and other birds such as doves and finches. ...


Peanuts have a variety of industrial end uses. Paint, varnish, lubricating oil, leather dressings, furniture polish, insecticides, and nitroglycerin are made from peanut oil. Soap is made from saponified oil, and many cosmetics contain peanut oil and its derivatives. The protein portion of the oil is used in the manufacture of some textile fibers. Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... Saponification of a lipid with potassium hydroxide. ...


Peanut shells are put to use in the manufacture of plastic, wallboard, abrasives, and fuel. They are also used to make cellulose (used in rayon and paper) and mucilage (glue).


Peanut plant tops are used to make hay. The protein cake (oilcake meal) residue from oil processing is used as an animal feed and as a soil fertilizer. For other uses, see Hay (disambiguation). ...


Peanuts can also be used like other legumes and grains to make a lactose-free milk-like beverage, Peanut milk Peanut milk in a blender before filtering. ...


Nutritional value

Peanut, valencia, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 570 kcal   2390 kJ
Carbohydrates     21 g
- Sugars  0.0 g
- Dietary fiber  9 g  
Fat 48 g
- saturated  7 g
- monounsaturated  24 g  
- polyunsaturated  16 g  
Protein 25 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.6 mg   46%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.3 mg   20%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  12.9 mg   86%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  1.8 mg  36%
Vitamin B6  0.3 mg 23%
Folate (Vit. B9)  246 μg  62%
Vitamin C  0.0 mg 0%
Calcium  62 mg 6%
Iron  2 mg 16%
Magnesium  184 mg 50% 
Phosphorus  336 mg 48%
Potassium  332 mg   7%
Zinc  3.3 mg 33%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ...

Health benefits

Peanuts are a rich source of protein (roughly 30 grams per cup after roasting). Prior to 1990 the PER method of protein evaluation considered peanut protein along with soy protein an incomplete protein, containing relatively low amounts of the essential amino acids, cystine, and methionine (but high in lysine), and it was advised to be sure that a diet or meal with peanuts as a staple also include complementary foods such as whole grains like corn and wheat, which are adequate in methionine but limited by lysine. Protein combining has been largely discredited. Since 1990 the gold standard for measuring protein quality, is the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) and by this criterion peanut protein and other legume proteins such as soy protein is the nutritional equivalent of meat and eggs for human growth and health.[8]. An example of an extremely nutritious peanut-based food to restore health in starving-malnourished children is Plumpy'nut. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) is based on the weight gain of a test subject divided by its intake of a particular food protein during the test period. ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... Chemical structure of cystine formed from L-cysteine (under biological conditions) 3D representation of cystine with the disulfide bond shown in yellow Cystine is a conditionally non-essential crystalline, sulfur-containing amino acid. ... Methionine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3. ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Protein combining (also protein complementing) is the theory, now largely discredited (citation needed), that vegetarians must eat foods such as beans and rice together, or at least on the same day, so the different amino acids in the foods combine to form a complete protein, containing all eight essential amino... Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on the amino acid requirements of humans. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... This article is about modern humans. ... Plumpynut wrapper Plumpynut, more commonly known as Plumpy, is a peanut-based food for use in famine relief which was formulated by André Briend, a French scientist in 1999. ...


Peanut oil is a mainly monounsaturated fat, much of which is oleic acid, the healthful type of fat that has been implicated for skin health. Some say peanuts are an unbalanced source of fat because they have only trace amounts of required Omega-3 fats.[9] Some brands of peanut butter are fortified with Omega-3 in the form of flaxseed oil to balance the ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6. In nutrition, monounsaturated fats are dietary fats with one double-bonded carbon in the molecule, with all of the others single-bonded carbons. ... Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... See Nomenclature of essential fatty acids for terms and discussion of ω (omega) nomenclature. ... See Nomenclature of essential fatty acids for terms and discussion of ω (omega) nomenclature. ... Linseed oil is a yellowish drying oil derived from the dried ripe seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum, Linaceae). ... See Nomenclature of essential fatty acids for terms and discussion of ω (omega) nomenclature. ... Omega-6 fatty acids are fatty acids where the term omega-6 signifies that the first double bond in the carbon backbone of the fatty acid, counting from the end opposite the acid group, occurs in the sixth carbon-carbon bond. ...


Niacin

Peanuts are a good source of niacin and thus contributes to brain health, brain circulation and blood flow.[10] Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ...


Peanuts and antioxidants

Recent research on peanuts and nuts in general has found antioxidants and other chemicals that may provide health benefits.[11] New research shows peanuts rival the antioxidant content of many fruits. Roasted peanuts rival the antioxidant content of blackberries and strawberries, and are far richer in antioxidants than apples, carrots or beets. Research conducted by a team of University of Florida scientists, published in the journal Food Chemistry, shows that peanuts contain high concentrations of antioxidant polyphenols, primarily a compound called p-coumaric acid, and that roasting can increase peanuts' p-coumaric acid levels, boosting their overall antioxidant content by as much as 22%.[12] An antioxidant is a chemical that prevents the oxidation of other chemicals. ... Polyphenols are a group of vegetable chemical substances, characterized by the presence of more than one phenolic group. ... Coumaric acids are organic compounds that are hydroxy derivatives of cinnamic acid. ...


Peanuts as a source of resveratrol

Peanuts are a significant source of resveratrol, a chemical studied for potential anti-aging effects and also associated with reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced cancer risk. A new [date?] study by French researchers, Dr. Johan Auwerx and colleagues from the Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology in Illkirch, France, recently conducted an animal study to test the effects of high doses of resveratrol on exercise endurance in mice. The results showed that the mice treated with resveratrol were found to have energy-charged muscles and a lower heart rate, much like trained athletes--they could run twice as far as the mice that were not supplemented. The conductor of the research, Dr. Johan Auwerx has said that "Resveratrol makes you look like a trained athlete without the training".[13] The cis-isomer of resveratrol Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


It has recently [date?] been found that the average amount of resveratrol in one ounce of commonly eaten peanuts without the skin (15 whole peanut kernels) is 73 μg 4,5. This means that ounce for ounce, peanuts contain almost 30 times as much resveratrol as grapes, which often are touted as being one of the few good sources of the antioxidant.[14]


Peanuts and coenzyme Q10

Peanuts are a source of Coenzyme Q10 along with oily fish, beef, soybeans and spinach.[15] Coenzyme Q (CoQ), also known as ubiquinone or ubiquinol, is a biologically active quinone with an isoprenoid side chain, related in structure to vitamin K and vitamin E. The oxidized structure of CoQ, or Q, is given here: The various kinds of Coenzyme Q can be distinguished by the number... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fish oil. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... Soy redirects here. ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Health concerns

Allergies

Main article: Peanut allergy
Shelled Peanuts with skin
Shelled Peanuts with skin

Although many people enjoy foods made with peanuts, some people have severe allergic reactions. For people with peanut allergy, exposure can cause fatal anaphylactic shock. For these individuals, eating a single peanut or just breathing the dust from peanuts can cause a fatal reaction. An allergic reaction also can be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed peanuts, making the avoidance of such foods difficult. Peanut allergy is a type of food allergy, distinct from nut allergies. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixel Image in higher resolution (1194 × 798 pixel, file size: 357 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peanut Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixel Image in higher resolution (1194 × 798 pixel, file size: 357 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peanut Metadata This... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. ...


A theory of the development of peanut allergy has to do with the way that peanuts are processed in North America versus other countries like China and India. Peanuts are widely eaten in China and India but peanut allergies are almost unheard of there. According to a 2003 study, roasting peanuts, as more commonly done in North America, causes the major peanut allergen Ara h2 to become a stronger inhibitor of the digestive enzyme trypsin, making it more resistant to digestion.[16] Additionally, this allergen has also been shown to protect Ara h1, another major peanut allergen, from digestion - a characteristic further enhanced by roasting.[16] Trypsin (EC 3. ...


Though the allergy can last a lifetime, another 2003 study indicates that 23.3% of children will outgrow a peanut allergy.[17]


Peanut allergy has been associated with the use of skin preparations containing peanut oil among children, but the evidence is not regarded as conclusive.[18] Peanut allergies have also been associated with family history and intake of soy products.[19]


Some school districts have banned peanuts, and there is now an experimental drug being tested to combat this allergy, called TNX-901. School districts are a form of special-purpose district in the United States (amongst some other places) which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools. ... TNX-901 is a drug being tested at National Jewish Medical and Research Center and other locations across America. ...


As the peanut is a member of the legume family unrelated to other nuts, individuals with peanut allergies may not be allergic to the other types of nuts, and vice-versa. This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ...


Some people mistakenly believe that peanut oil will not trigger allergies in peanut-allergic people. However, crude (unrefined) peanut oils are strongly flavoured, and have been shown to contain protein.[20]


In a randomised, double-blind, crossover study, 60 people with proven peanut allergy were challenged with both crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. The authors conclude that “Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided.” They also state that, “Refined peanut oil does not seem to pose a risk to most people with peanut allergy.” However, they point out that refined peanut oil can still pose a risk to peanut-allergic individuals if oil that has previously been used to cook foods containing peanuts is reused.[21] The double blind is ray charles is ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesof the scientific method, used to prevent research... A crossover trial is one where patients are given all of the medications to be studied in random order. ...


Peanuts and Aflatoxin

Peanuts may be contaminated with the mold Aspergillus flavus which produces a carcinogenic substance called aflatoxin. While this substance quickly causes liver cancer in rats, humans are far more resistant. Lower quality specimens, particularly where mold is evident, are more likely to be contaminated.[22] This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... Binomial name Johann Heinrich Friedrich Aspergillus flavus is a mold fungus. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... Chemical structure of aflatoxin B1 Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ...


U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) program

George Washington Carver is often credited with inventing 300 different uses for peanuts[23](which, contrary to popular belief, did not include peanut butter but did include salted peanuts). Carver was one of many USDA researchers[24][25][26][27][28][29][30] who encouraged cotton farmers in the South to grow peanuts instead of, or in addition to cotton, because cotton had depleted so much nitrogen from the soil, and one of the peanut's properties as a legume is to put nitrogen back into the soil (a process known as nitrogen fixation). Rising demand for peanuts in the early 1900s was not due to Carver's products but to a shortage of plant oils during World War I and the growing popularity of peanut butter, roasted peanuts and peanut candies.[31] Peanut products originating around the early 1900s include many brands still sold today such as Cracker Jack (1893), Planters peanuts (1906), Oh Henry! candy bar (1920), Baby Ruth candy bar (1920), Butterfinger candy bar (1923), Mr. Goodbar candy bar (1925), Reese's Peanut Butter Cup (1925), Peter Pan (peanut butter) (1928) and Skippy peanut butter (1932). George Washington Carver, 1906 George Washington Carver (c. ... Peanut butter in a jar. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... For other uses, see Crackerjack (disambiguation). ... Planters Peanuts Planters is an American snack food company, best known for its peanuts and the Mr. ... An Oh Henry! bar. ... Baby Ruth wrapped Baby Ruth opened Baby Ruth is a candy bar that is made of chocolate-covered peanuts and nougat, though the nougat found in it is more like fudge than is found in many other American candy bars. ... For the Canadian band, see Butterfinger (Canadian band). ... For the song Mr. ... Reeses Peanut Butter Cups are peanut butter-filled chocolate cups. ... Peter Pan is a brand of peanut butter produced by ConAgra Foods and named after the J.M. Barrie character. ... Skippy peanut butter is a commercial brand of peanut butter made in the United States. ...


Peanuts were designated by the U.S. Congress to be one of America's basic crops. In order to protect domestic industry by keeping prices artificially high, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a Program for Peanuts. Two USDA programs for domestic peanuts are the Price Support Program and the Production Adjustment Program (National Poundage Quota). The Price Support Program consists of a two-tier price support system that is tied to a maximum weight quota. Domestic peanuts produced subject to the weight quota are supported at the higher of two prices, while peanuts over quota or those produced on farms not having a quota are supported at the lower rate. The quota support price acts as a floor price for domestic edible peanuts. For producers who fail to fill their quota in any given year, there is a maximum 10 % over marketing allowance for the subsequent year. Pursuant to the program, producers may place peanuts under nonrecourse loan with the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) at the designated support price or they may privately contract for the sale of their crop. This program was replaced by a market loan program similar to other commodities in 2002. Congress in Joint Session. ... USDA redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Non-recourse debt be merged into this article or section. ...


Trade

The major producers/exporters of peanuts are the United States, Argentina, Sudan, Senegal, and Brazil. These five countries account for 71 % of total world exports. In recent years, the United States has been the leading exporter of peanuts. The major peanut importers are the European Union (EU), Canada, and Japan. These three areas account for 78 % of the world's imports. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


Although India and China are the world's largest producers of peanuts, they account for a small part of international trade because most of their production is consumed domestically as peanut oil. Exports of peanuts from India and China are equivalent to less than 4% of world trade. A bottle of peanut oil Peanut oil is an organic oil derived from peanuts, noted to have the slight aroma and taste of its parent legume. ...


Ninety percent of India's production is processed into peanut oil. Only a nominal amount of hand-picked select-grade peanuts are exported. India prohibits the importation of all oil seeds, including peanuts.


The European Union is the largest consuming region in the world that does not produce peanuts. All of its consumption is supplied by imports. Consumption of peanuts in the EU is primarily as food, mostly as roasted-in-shell peanuts and as shelled peanuts used in confectionery and bakery products.


The average annual U.S. imports of peanuts are less than 0.5 % of U.S. consumption. Two thirds of U.S. imports are roasted, unshelled peanuts. The major suppliers are Taiwan, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Canada. The principal suppliers of shelled peanut imports are Argentina and Canada. Most of Canada's peanut butter is processed from Chinese peanuts. Imports of peanut butter from Argentina are in the form of a paste and must be further processed in the U.S. Other minor suppliers of peanut butter include Malawi, China, India, and Singapore. ...


Approximately 50 % of all peanuts produced in the United States are grown within a 160 km (100 mile) radius of Dothan, Alabama. Dothan is home to the National Peanut Festival established in 1938 and held each fall to honor peanut growers and celebrate the harvest. Dothan is a city located in the southeastern corner of the U.S. state of Alabama. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Seijo, Guillermo et al.. Genomic relationships between the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Leguminosae) and its close relatives revealed by double GISH. Retrieved on 2008-02-11.
  2. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru: Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
  3. ^ Dillehay, Tom D. Earliest-known evidence of peanut, cotton and squash farming found. Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  4. ^ How peanuts are Grown - Harvesting - PCA, retrieved 2007-04-25.
  5. ^ Yao, G (2004), Peanut Production and Utilization in the People's Republic of China, University of Georgia, <http://www.lanra.uga.edu/peanut/download/china.pdf>
  6. ^ Butterworth, J (2004-01-03), China, Peoples Republic of Oilseeds and Products China's Peanut Sector, USDA Foreign Agricultural Service GAIN Report, <http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200404/146106011.pdf>
  7. ^ Removal of peanuts from U.S. airlines
  8. ^ Protein Quality-Report of Joint FAO’/WHO Expert Consultation, Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome, FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 51, 1991.
  9. ^ Essential Fats in Food Oils, NIH page - http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/esstable.html
  10. ^ Peanuts at the World's Healthiest Food. Retrieved on 2007-11-18.
  11. ^ Health benefits of consuming peanuts
  12. ^ Peanuts: Wolds Healthiest Foods
  13. ^ Resveratrol Article
  14. ^ Peanuts and Your Health!
  15. ^ Coenzyme Q10. American Cancer Society (2007-07-20). Retrieved on 2007-11-18.
  16. ^ a b Soheila J. Maleki, Olga Viquez, Thomas Jacks, Hortense Dodo, Elaine T. Champagne, Si-Yin Chung and Samuel J. Landry. "The major peanut allergen, Ara h 2, functions as a trypsin inhibitor, and roasting enhances this function." Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 112.1 (July 2003): 190-195.
  17. ^ David M. Fleischer, Mary Kay Conover-Walker, Lynn Christie, A.Wesley Burks and Robert A. Wood. "The natural progression of peanut allergy: Resolution and the possibility of recurrence." Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 112.1 (July 2003): 183-189.
  18. ^ Lack G, Fox D, Northstone K, Golding J. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348:977–985 on-line
  19. ^ ibid. (for "family history" and "use of soy products")
  20. ^ Hoffman DR, Collins-Williams C. Cold-pressed peanut oils may contain peanut allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994; 93:801-2.
  21. ^ Hourihane JO, Bedwani SJ, Dean TP, Warner JO. Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts. British Medical Journal 1997 314: 1084 (12 April) online
  22. ^ Morinaga & Co., Proportion of aflatoxin B1 contaminated kernels and its concentration in imported peanut samples 2001 Aug;42(4):237-42. (PMID 11817138)
  23. ^ List of By-Products From Peanuts By George Washington Carver (as compiled by the Carver Museum)
  24. ^ Handy, R.B. 1895. Peanuts: Culture and Uses. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 25.
  25. ^ Newman, C.L. 1904. Peanuts. Fayetteville, Arkansas: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station.
  26. ^ Beattie, W.R. 1909. Peanuts. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 356.
  27. ^ Ferris, E.B. 1909. Peanuts. Agricultural College, Mississippi: Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station.
  28. ^ Beattie, W.R. 1911. The Peanut. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 431.
  29. ^ Rich, J.P. 1915. Uses of the Peanut on the Home Table. Farmer's Bulletin 13. University of Texas, Austin.
  30. ^ Carver, G.W. 1916. How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption. Tuskegee Institute Experimental Station Bulletin 31. on-line
  31. ^ Pages 412-413 of "Crop Production: Evolution, History, and Technology." by C. Wayne Smith, 1995. (ISBN 0-471-07972-3)

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a medical organization with a corporate attitude in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikispecies has information related to:
Arachis hypogaea
Look up peanut in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The BBCH-scale (peanut) identifies the phenological development stages of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). ... Binomial name Bemisia argentifolii The silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii, formerly referred to as sweetpotato whitefly-strain B Bemisia tabaci) is one of several whiteflies that are currently important agricultural pests. ... Rachel and the Malian Peanut Sheller Uganda, 2005 The Full Belly Project Ltd is a non-profit organization based out of Wilmington, North Carolina, which designs labor saving devices to improve the lives of people in developing countries. ... The Malian Peanut/Groundnut Sheller is a simple hand-operated machine capable of shelling 50 kg of raw, sun-dried nuts per hour. ... A variety of species can provide edible seeds: Almonds Amaranthus Beans/Legumes, including Chickpeas Broad beans Lentils Peas Peanuts Phaseolus beans Soybeans Sweet peas (Lathyrus) Cocoa Carob tree Cereals, including Barley Buckwheat Kamut Maize Oats Rice Rye Sorghum Spelt Triticale Teff Wild rice Wheat Coconuts Common Hazel Coriander Ginkgo Monkey... George Washington Carver, 1906 George Washington Carver (c. ... BEER NUTS is a brand of snack foods building on the original product, peanuts with a unique sweet-and-salty glazing made to a secret recipe. History The official company history starts in 1937 when Edward Shirk and his son Arlo took over the Caramel Crisp confectionary store in Bloomington... For other uses, see Peanut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... Charles Monroe Schulz (November 26, 1922[1] – February 12, 2000) was a 20th-century American cartoonist best known worldwide for his Peanuts comic strip. ... The Peanut is a neighbourhood in northeastern Toronto, Ontario, named for a peanut-shaped bend in Don Mills Rd. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... The African Groundnut Council is a state-level organization designed to promote groundnuts produced in the countries of The Gambia, Mali, Niger, Senegal, the Sudan and Nigeria. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Straight Dope Staff Report: How they salt peanuts in the shell, and other peanut facts (1145 words)
What we can be fairly sure of is that peanuts were used as food in Peruvian settlements as early as 700-800 BC (reference 1), due to the presence of pots with carved peanut shell motifs in burial sites of the Moche people of Peru.
The peanuts are then divided into different batches based on their size by passing them over screens--peanuts that are smaller than the holes fall through, while larger ones are carried to the next set of screens.
You want the peanut to be large enough that the shell cracks open when it passes between the drums but not so large that the nut is crushed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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