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Encyclopedia > Peacekeeping
UN Peacekeepers in Eritrea.
UN Peacekeepers in Eritrea.

Peacekeeping, as defined by the United Nations, is "a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace."[1]. Peacekeepers monitor and observe peace processes in post-conflict areas and assist ex-combatants in implementing the peace agreements they may have signed. Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development. Accordingly UN peacekeepers (often referred to as Blue Helmets because of their light blue helmets) can include soldiers, civilian police officers, and other civilian personnel. Image File history File links Derived from public domain images featured at: http://commons. ... Image File history File links UN_Soldiers_in_Eritrea. ... Image File history File links UN_Soldiers_in_Eritrea. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


The Charter of the United Nations gives the UN Security Council the power and responsibility to take collective action to maintain international peace and security. For this reason, the international community usually looks to the Security Council to authorize peacekeeping operations, and all UN Peacekeeping missions must be authorized by the Security Council. The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


Most of these operations are established and implemented by the United Nations itself with troops serving under UN operational command. In these cases, peacekeepers remain members of their respective armed forces, and do not constitute an independent "UN army," as the UN does not have such a force. In cases where direct UN involvement is not considered appropriate or feasible, the Council authorizes regional organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Economic Community of West African States, or coalitions of willing countries to undertake peacekeeping or peace-enforcement tasks. NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is a regional group of fifteen countries, founded on May 28, 1975 when fifteen West African countries signed the Treaty of Lagos. ...


The United Nations is not the only organization to have authorized peacekeeping missions, although some would argue it is the only group legally allowed to do so. Non-UN peacekeeping forces include the NATO mission in Kosovo and the Multinational Force and Observers on the Sinai Peninsula. Pocket badge of the KFOR The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international force responsible for establishing and maintaining security in Kosovo. ... The Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) is an international peacekeeping force. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


Jean-Marie Guéhenno currently serves as the head of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO). Jean-Marie Guéhenno currently serves as the United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

Contents

Nature of peacekeeping

Peacekeeping is anything that contributes to the furthering of a peace process, once established. This includes, but is not limited to, the monitoring of withdrawal by combatants from a former conflict area, the supervision of elections, and the provision of reconstruction aid. Peacekeepers are often soldiers, but they do not have to be. Similarly, while soldier-peacekeepers are sometimes armed, they do not have to engage in combat. Image File history File links Pictures of peacekeepers for the UN mission to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Image File history File links Pictures of peacekeepers for the UN mission to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


Peacekeepers were not at first expected to ever fight. As a general rule, they were deployed when the ceasefire was in place and the parties to the conflict had given their consent. They were deployed to observe from the ground and reported impartially on adherence to the ceasefire, troop withdrawal or other elements of the peace agreement. This gave time and breathing space for diplomatic efforts to address the underlying causes of conflict.


Thus, a distinction must be drawn between peacekeeping and other operations aimed at peace. A common misconception is that activities such as NATO's intervention in the Kosovo War are peacekeeping operations, when they were, in reality, peace enforcement. That is, since NATO was seeking to impose peace, rather than maintain peace, they were not peacekeepers. The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Peace enforcement is a practice of ensuring peace in an area or region. ...


Process and structure

Formation

Once a peace treaty has been negotiated, the parties involved might ask the United Nations for a peacekeeping force to oversee various elements of the agreed upon plan. This is often done because a group controlled by the United Nations is less likely to follow the interests of any one party, since it itself is controlled by many groups, namely the fifteen-member Security Council and the intentionally-diverse Secretariat. The United Nations Secretariat is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and it is headed by the United Nations Secretary General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. ...


If the Security Council approves the creation of a mission, then the Department of Peacekeeping Operations begins planning for the necessary elements. At this point, the senior leadership team is selected (see below). The department will then seek contributions from member nations. Since the UN has no standing force or supplies, it must form ad hoc coalitions for every task undertaken. Doing so results in both the possibility of failure to form a suitable force, and a general slowdown in procurement once the operation is in the field. Romeo Dallaire, force commander in Rwanda during the genocide there, described the problems this poses by comparison to more traditional military deployments: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Romeo Dallaire Roméo A. Dallaire (born June 25, 1946 in Denekamp, The Netherlands) is a Canadian general, humanitarian, and author. ...

"He told me the UN was a 'pull' system, not a 'push' system like I had been used to with NATO, because the UN had absolutely no pool of resources to draw on. You had to make a request for everything you needed, and then you had to wait while that request was analyzed...For instance, soldiers everywhere have to eat and drink. In a push system, food and water for the number of soldiers deployed is automatically supplied. In a pull system, you have to ask for those rations, and no common sense seems to ever apply." (Shake Hands With the Devil, Dallaire, pp. 99-100) Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda (ISBN 0786715103 / 0786714875) is a 2003 book by Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire of the Canadian Armed Forces, with help from Major Brent Beardsley. ...

While the peacekeeping force is being assembled, a variety of diplomatic activities are being undertaken by UN staff. The exact size and strength of the force must be agreed to by the government of the nation whose territory the conflict is on. The Rules of Engagement must be developed and approved by both the parties involved and the Security Council. These give the specific mandate and scope of the mission (e.g. when may the peacekeepers, if armed, use force, and where may they go within the host nation). Often, it will be mandated that peacekeepers have host government minders with them whenever they leave their base. This complexity has caused problems in the field. This article describes the military term of the rules of engagement. ...


When all agreements are in place, the required personnel are assembled, and final approval has been given by the Security Council, the peacekeepers are deployed to the region in question.


Cost

Peacekeeping costs, especially since the end of the Cold War, have risen dramatically. In 1993, annual UN peacekeeping costs had peaked at some $3.6 billion, reflecting the expense of operations in the former Yugoslavia and Somalia. By 1998, costs had dropped to just under $1 billion. With the resurgence of larger-scale operations, costs for UN peacekeeping rose to $3 billion in 2001. In 2004, the approved budget was $2.8 billion, although the total amount was higher than that. For the last fiscal year, which ended on June 30, 2006, UN peacekeeping costs were about US$5.03 billion. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ...


All member states are legally obliged to pay their share of peacekeeping costs under a complex formula that they themselves have established. Despite this legal obligation, member states owed approximately $1.20 billion in current and back peacekeeping dues as of June 2004.


Structure

A United Nations peacekeeping mission has three power centers. The first is the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, the official leader of the mission. This person is responsible for all political and diplomatic activity, overseeing relations with both the parties to the peace treaty and the UN member-states in general. They are often a senior member of the Secretariat. The second is the Force Commander, who is responsible for the military forces deployed. They are a senior officer of their nation's armed services, and are often from the nation committing the highest number of troops to the project. Finally, the Chief Administrative Officer oversees supplies and logistics, and coordinates the procurement of any supplies needed. The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ...


History

The history of peacekeeping started in the aftermath of World War II, with the formation of the United Nations. ...

Cold War Peacekeeping

United Nations peacekeeping was initially developed during the Cold War as a means of resolving conflicts between states by deploying unarmed or lightly armed military personnel from a number of countries, under UN command, to areas where warring parties were in need of a neutral party to observe the peace process. Peacekeepers could be called in when the major international powers (the five permanent members of the Security Council) tasked the UN with bringing closure to conflicts threatening regional stability and international peace and security. These included a number of so-called “proxy wars” waged by client states of the superpowers. As of October 2004, there have been 59 UN peacekeeping operations since 1948, with sixteen operations ongoing. Suggestions for new missions arise every year. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Military assets such as the USS Nimitz are one means of power projection on a global scale—a hallmark of a superpower Soviet space station Mir was the worlds most advanced space station until ISS. Global recognition of the Soviet Unions early leadership in space technology represented the... The United Nations has authorized 61 peacekeeping missions as of 2005. ...


The first peacekeeping mission was launched in 1948. This mission, the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), was sent to the newly created State of Israel, where a conflict between the Israelis and the Arab states over the creation of Israel had just reached a ceasefire. The UNTSO remains in operation to this day, although the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict has certainly not abated. Almost a year later, the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) was authorized to monitor relations between the two nations, which were split off from each other following the United Kingdom's decolonization of the Indian Subcontinent. UNTSO is an acronym for United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, an organization founded in 1948 for peacekeeping in the Middle East. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, that both claim the right to sovereignty over the Land... UNMOGIP or United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan was set up in 1949 to supervise the ceasefire between India and Pakistan in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...

Canadian members of UNEF on the Egypt-Israel border in 1962.
Canadian members of UNEF on the Egypt-Israel border in 1962.

When North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, the United States responded by leading a United Nations force aimed at retaking all of the Korean Peninsula. The United Nations forces pushed the North Koreans out of the South, and made it to the Chinese border before the People's Liberation Army intervened and pushed the UN back to the 38th parallel. This conflict is today known as the Korean War, and although that war had a cease-fire in 1953, UN forces remained along the demilitarized zone until 1967, when American and South Korean forces took over. Image File history File links Canadian_members_of_UNEF_on_Egypt-Israel_border_1962. ... Image File history File links Canadian_members_of_UNEF_on_Egypt-Israel_border_1962. ... The United Nations Command (Korea) is the unified command structure for the multinational military forces supporting the Republic of Korea (South Korea or ROK) during and after the Korean War. ... The Korean Peninsula a. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The 38th parallel north is a line of latitude that cuts across Asia, the Mediterranean and the United States. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... Map of the Korean DMZ. The DMZ is given in red. ...


Returning its attention to the conflict between Israel and its Arab neighbors, the United Nations responded to Suez Crisis of 1956, a war between the alliance of the United Kingdom, France, and Israel, and Egypt, which was supported by other Arab nations. When a ceasefire was declared in 1957, Canadian diplomat (and future Prime Minister) Lester Bowles Pearson suggested that the United Nations station a peacekeeping force in the Suez in order to ensure that the ceasefire was honored by both sides. Pearson had initially suggested that the force consist of mainly Canadian soldiers, but the Egyptians were suspicious of having a Commonwealth nation defend them against the United Kingdom and her allies. In the end, a wide variety of national forces were drawn upon to ensure national diversity. Pearson would win the Nobel Peace Prize for this work, and he is today considered a father of modern peacekeeping. Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2... The Right Honourable Lester Bowles Mike Pearson, PC, CC, OM, MA (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was the fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada from April 22, 1963, to April 20, 1968, and also a 1957 Nobel Laureate. ... Northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on map of 1856. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


In 1988 the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the United Nations peacekeeping forces. The press release stated that the forces "represent the manifest will of the community of nations" and have "made a decisive contribution" to the resolution of conflict around the world. Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


Since 1991

United Nations peacekeeping light armed mechanised vehicle in Bovington tank museum, Dorset

The end of the Cold War precipitated a dramatic shift in UN and multilateral peacekeeping. In a new spirit of cooperation, the Security Council established larger and more complex UN peacekeeping missions, often to help implement comprehensive peace agreements between protagonists in intra-State conflicts and civil wars. Furthermore, peacekeeping came to involve more and more non-military elements that ensured the proper functioning of civic functions, such as elections. The UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations was created in 1992 to support this increased demand for such missions. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... British Mark V; one of the few WWI tanks still in working order. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... ...


By and large, the new operations were successful. In El Salvador and Mozambique, for example, peacekeeping provided ways to achieve self-sustaining peace. Some efforts failed, perhaps as the result of an overly optimistic assessment of what UN peacekeeping could accomplish. While complex missions in Cambodia and Mozambique were ongoing, the Security Council dispatched peacekeepers to conflict zones like Somalia, where neither ceasefires nor the consent of all the parties in conflict had been secured. These operations did not have the manpower, nor were they supported by the required political will, to implement their mandates. The failures—most notably the 1995 massacre in Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the 1994 Rwandan genocide—led to a period of retrenchment and self-examination in UN peacekeeping. Srebrenica (Cyrillic: Сребреница; IPA: /srÉ›.brÉ›.ni. ... Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass extermination of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutu sympathizers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War. ...


Non-United Nations Peacekeeping

Norwegian Peacekeeper during the Siege of Sarajevo, 1992 - 1993, photo by Mikhail Evstafiev.
Norwegian Peacekeeper during the Siege of Sarajevo, 1992 - 1993, photo by Mikhail Evstafiev.

Not all peacekeeping forces have been directly controlled by the United Nations. In 1981, an agreement between Israel and Egypt formed the Multinational Force and Observers which continues to monitor the Sinai Peninsula. Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-sarajevo-un-holds-head. ... Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-sarajevo-un-holds-head. ... Combatants ARBiH (1992-95) NATO Air Force (1995) JNA (1992) VRS (1992-95) Commanders Jovan Divjak Mustafa Hajrulahović Vahid Karavelić Nedžad Ajnadžić Stanislav Galić (1992-94) Dragomir Milošević (1994-95) Strength 40,000 badly-armed soldiers (1992) 30,000-50,000 heavily-armed troops (1992) The Siege... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) is an international peacekeeping force. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


Six years later, an Indian peacekeeping force, IPKF, entered Sri Lanka to help maintain peace. The situation became a quagmire, and India was asked to withdraw in 1990 by the Sri Lankan Prime Minister having formed a pact with the Tamil Tiger rebels. Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military unit peforming a peacekeeping operation that was formed to oversee the peace accord signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1987. ...


On 20 December 1995, under a UN mandate, a NATO-led force (IFOR) entered Bosnia in order to implement The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In a similar manner, a NATO operation (KFOR) continues in the Serbian province of Kosovo. The acronym IFOR may also refer to the International Fellowship of Reconciliation. ... Motto none Anthem Intermeco Bosnia and Herzegovina() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Sarajevo Official languages Bosnian Croatian Serbian Government Parliamentary democracy  -  Presidency members NebojÅ¡a Radmanović1 Haris Silajdžić2 Željko KomÅ¡ić3  -  Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola Å pirić  -  High Representative 4 Independence... Pocket badge of the KFOR The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international force responsible for establishing and maintaining security in Kosovo. ... For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ...


The NATO-led mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina has since been replaced by a European Union peacekeeping mission, EUFOR. EUFOR former Commander General David Leakey Soldier of the EUFOR participating in operation Spring Lift, as part of Althea The EUFOR or European Union Force is an international military force under the supervision of the European Council. ...


The African Union has also had some limited involvement in peacekeeping within Africa since 2003. Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together Administrative center Largest city Cairo, Egypt Leaders  -  Chairperson John Kufuor  -  Alpha Oumar Konaré Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Membership 53 African states Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st2)  sq mi  Population  -  2005...


Participation

The UN Charter stipulates that to assist in maintaining peace and security around the world, all member states of the UN should make available to the Security Council necessary armed forces and facilities. Since 1948, close to 130 nations have contributed military and civilian police personnel to peace operations. While detailed records of all personnel who have served in peacekeeping missions since 1948 are not available, it is estimated that up to one million soldiers, police officers and civilians have served under the UN flag in the last 56 years. As of November 2005, 107 countries were contributing a total of more than 70,000 uniformed personnel—the highest number since 1995. The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ...


Despite the large number of contributors, the greatest burden continues to be borne by a core group of developing countries. The 10 main troop-contributing countries to UN peacekeeping operations as of March 2007 were Pakistan (10,173), Bangladesh (9,675), India (9,471), Nepal (3,626), Jordan (3,564), Uruguay (2,583), Italy (2,539),Ghana, Nigeria and France.[2]

San Martin Camp in Cyprus. The Argentine contingent includes troops from other Latin American countries
San Martin Camp in Cyprus. The Argentine contingent includes troops from other Latin American countries

Not all peacekeeping forces have been directly controlled by the United Nations. In 1981, an agreement between Israel and Egypt formed the Multinational Force and Observers which continues to monitor the Sinai Peninsula. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 517 pixel Image in higher resolution (892 × 576 pixel, file size: 232 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Skouriotissa. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 517 pixel Image in higher resolution (892 × 576 pixel, file size: 232 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Skouriotissa. ... José Francisco de San Martín Matorras, also known as José de San Martín (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South Americas successful struggle for independence from Spain. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) is an international peacekeeping force. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


About 4.5% of the troops and civilian police deployed in UN peacekeeping missions come from the European Union and less than one percent from the United States (USA). The biggest contributor from a western European country is Poland with 707 peacekeepers, in 21st place. The USA ranks 31st with 393 peacekeepers.


The head of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Under-Secretary-General Jean-Marie Guéhenno, has reminded Member States that “the provision of well-equipped, well-trained and disciplined military and police personnel to UN peacekeeping operations is a collective responsibility of Member States. Countries from the South should not and must not be expected to shoulder this burden alone”. Jean-Marie Guéhenno currently serves as the United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


As of May 2004, in addition to military and police personnel, more than 3,400 international civilian personnel, 1,500 UN Volunteers and nearly 6,500 local civilian personnel worked in UN peacekeeping missions.


Until the end of 2005, 2,226 people from over 100 countries have been killed while serving on peacekeeping missions, 1,789 of them being soldiers. Many of those came from India (115), Canada (113) and Ghana (108). Thirty percent of the fatalities in the first 55 years of UN peacekeeping occurred in the years 1993-1995.


Developing nations participate in peacekeeping more because such countries appear more neutral in conflict situations, and do not carry post-colonial stigma.[citation needed] Forces from these countries appear less threatening to a nation than ones from the United States or Russia would. For example, in December of 2005, Eritrea expelled all American, Russian, European, and Canadian personnel from the peacekeeping mission on their border with Ethopia. It is also telling that an economic incentive comes along with a contribution, as countries are reimbursed by the UN at the rate of $1000 per soldier per month, plus equipment, which can be a significant source of revenue for a developing country. A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Look up Ethiopia on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Relief Organizations The Denan Project - Provides Qualified Medical Relief For The People Of Denan Government Embassy of Ethiopia in Washington DC information about the Ethiopian government Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ethiopia Ministry of Information of Ethiopia The Crown Council of Ethiopia... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


United States participation

The United States provided 26% of the UN peacekeeping budget in 2006.[3] As of February, 2006, there were 372 US personnel (8 troops, 347 civilian police, and 17 observers)[2] in worldwide UN peace operations, accounting for 0.5% of the total UN peacekeepers. Current deployments include the Balkans, East Timor, and the Sinai Peninsula. As commander-in-chief, the President of the United States never gives up command authority over US troops. When large numbers of US troops are involved and when the risk of combat is high, operational control of US forces will remain in American hands, or in the hands of a trusted military ally such as a NATO member—though the US Department of State insists that the US must "allow temporary foreign operational control of US troops when it serves US interests." The United States is a charter member of the United Nations and one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


The lack of US involvement in UN peacekeeping operations has drawn criticism from other member states. The comparatively small investment of personnel in UN peacekeeping operations is attributed to "the Mogadishu factor"—a deep reluctance by US administrations to incur casualties in military operations that do not serve US strategic interests, a lesson supposedly learned in the Battle of Mogadishu in Somalia. Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ), is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... Combatants USSOF, UNOSOM II Somali National Alliance-affiliated militias Commanders William F. Garrison Mohamed Farrah Aidid Strength 160 2,000+ Casualties U.S. 18 killed 73 wounded 1 captured Malaysia 1 killed 7 wounded Pakistan 2 wounded Militia and civilians 1,000+ killed 3,000+ wounded Task Force Ranger achieved...


Criticism

Hypocrisy

Some peacekeeping powers have been accused of being hypocritical and pursuing peacekeeping in order to increase their own international power and prestige. Countries such as Sweden, Italy, United States, Belgium, and the Netherlands have especially been criticized for being major arms suppliers while at the same time pursuing peacekeeping, often in the same areas as they are selling weapons. The arms industry is a massive global industry. ...


Neocolonialism

Some critics have argued that peacekeeping is a return to the paternalistic ideals of colonialism's "white man's burden." They criticize the UN Charter's call for a global village and the adoption of Western ideals as tactics to justify intervention throughout the globe for the purpose of "keeping the peace". Authors such as Jayan Nayar argue that the UN's global vision is primarily responsible for colonial violence throughout the globe. It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The White Mans Burden is a Eurocentric view of the world used to encourage powerful nations to adopt an imperial role. ...


Potential for harm to troops

Peacekeeping can be extremely stressful. There are higher rates of mental health problems, suicide, and substance abuse among former peacekeepers than among the general population. A good example of this is Canadian general Dallaire, who attempted suicide several times following the release of his command of UNAMIR. UN peacekeepers in the field have also suffered from attacks on humanitarian workers. As a result, peacekeeping has been viewed by critics as potentially harmful to individual military participants. Those critics have expressed their concerns that participation in peacekeeping operations will erode the combat ability of troops, and thus make it more difficult for military personnel to fight effectively in an all-out war. Mental states redirects here. ... Suicide (Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of intentionally taking ones own life. ... Substance abuse refers to the overindulgence in and dependence on a psychoactive leading to effects that are detrimental to the individuals physical health or mental health, or the welfare of others. ... Roméo Dallaire Lieutenant-General The Honourable Roméo A. Dallaire, OC, CMM, GOQ, CSM, CD, B.Sc, LL.D (born June 25, 1946, in Denekamp, The Netherlands) is a Canadian senator, humanitarian, author and retired general. ... The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) was a relief mission instituted by the United Nations. ... Humanitarian aid workers belonging to UN organisations, PVOs / NGOs or the Red Cross / Red Crescent have traditionally enjoyed both international legal protection, and de facto immunity from attack by belligerent parties. ...


Long-term problems

Some have criticized peacekeeping for leaving conflicts unresolved. Peacekeeping can have the effect of maintaining an unstable status quo that will inevitably collapse in the long run. However, it is not the job of peacekeepers as presently defined to create a permanent solution. The goal is to stabilize a situation so as to give the politicians and diplomats the opportunity to establish a permanent peace. Relatively new to the UN's peace department are the Peace-building and Peacemaking factions. These have been developed to work in co-ordination with peacekeeping operations; while peacekeepers create a stable environment the peace-builders and peacemakers focus on longer-term, diplomatic aspects, helping to create the conditions for sustainable peace.


Cultural barriers

Because UN Peacekeeping troops are contributed by many nations, some have argued that there are cultural incompatibilities amongst peacekeeping troops, which must be overcome in order to effectively complete their assigned task. Additionally, when Navy and Air Force troops are integrated into peacekeeping forces, they must adapt to the largely ground-based atmosphere of peacekeeping operations. Military troops involved in peacekeeping operations must adapt to the more civilian lifestyle of peacekeeping operations, which are vastly different from the atmosphere of their military training.


Peacekeeping, human trafficking, and forced prostitution

Reporters witnessed a rapid increase in prostitution in Cambodia, Mozambique, Bosnia, and Kosovo after UN and, in the case of the latter two, NATO peacekeeping forces moved in. In the 1996 U.N. study The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children, former first lady of Mozambique Graça Machel documented: "In 6 out of 12 country studies on sexual exploitation of children in situations of armed conflict prepared for the present report, the arrival of peacekeeping troops has been associated with a rapid rise in child prostitution." [4] There was one highly publicised case where members of the UN peacekeeping force were accused of direct involvement in the procurement of sex slaves for a local brothel in Bosnia. The use of agents for procurement and management of brothels has allowed the military to believe itself shielded from the issue of sexual slavery and human trafficking. Some NATO troops have been linked to prostitution and forced prostitution in Bosnia and Kosovo, as have some UN employees in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where they were accused of the sexual abuse of underage girls. Proponents of peacekeeping argue that the actions of a few should not incriminate the many participants in the mission, yet NATO and the UN have come under criticism for not taking the issue of forced prostitution linked to peacekeeping missions seriously enough.[5][6][7] Most recently, UN troops in Haiti and Sudan have been accused of sexual abuse of children [8][9] Motto none Anthem Intermeco Bosnia and Herzegovina() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Sarajevo Official languages Bosnian Croatian Serbian Government Parliamentary democracy  -  Presidency members NebojÅ¡a Radmanović1 Haris Silajdžić2 Željko KomÅ¡ić3  -  Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola Å pirić  -  High Representative 4 Independence... For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... Trafficking in human beings (or human trafficking) involves the movement of people (mostly women and children) against their will by means of force for the purpose of sexual or labor exploitation. ... For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Proposed reform

Brahimi analysis

In response to criticism, particularly of the cases of sexual abuse by peacekeepers, the UN has taken steps toward reforming its operations. The Brahimi Report was the first of many steps to recap former peacekeeping missions, isolate flaws, and take steps to patch these mistakes to ensure the efficiency of futures peacekeeping missions. The UN has vowed to continue to put these practices into effect when performing peacekeeping operations in the futures.


Rapid reaction force

Many United Nations administrators believe that the ad-hoc style of peacekeeping operations inevitably fails because of deployment and mandate delay when global crises occur. For example, during the Rwandan genocide, the United Nations was unable to garner international support for aid to the country, and 800,000 people were slaughtered. One suggestion to account for these delays is a rapid reaction force: a standing group, administered by the UN and deployed by the UN Security Council, that receives its troops and support from current Security Council members and is ready for quick deployment in the event of future genocides. Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass extermination of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutu sympathizers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


See also

Portal:United Nations
United Nations Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
United Nations peacekeeping missions

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1150x1150, 77 KB) Summary square version of Image:Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... UN refugee camp in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. ... UN refugee camp in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. ... In most wars some territory is placed under the martial law of a hostile army. ... The Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) is an international peacekeeping force. ... The United Nations has authorized 61 peacekeeping missions as of 2005. ... Military operations other than war is a United States military concept that encompass the use of military capabilities across the range of military operations short of war. ... It has been suggested that Strategic Corporal be merged into this article or section. ... Peacekeeping is a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace. ... Official logo of the White Helmets. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/faq/q1.htm
  2. ^ a b Monthly Summary of Contributors to UN Peacekeeping Operations. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  3. ^ http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/factsheet.pdf
  4. ^ The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children
  5. ^ Nato force 'feeds Kosovo sex trade'
  6. ^ Bosnia: Sex Slave Recounts Her Ordeal
  7. ^ Conflict, Sexual Trafficking, and Peacekeeping
  8. ^ Fears over Haiti child 'abuse'
  9. ^ UN Staff Accused of Raping Children in Sudan

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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In this section, "peacekeeping" and "peacekeeping operation" are used as blanket terms to cover all impartial, multinational, military-based interventions into areas of conflict.
In the early years, Australia's peacekeepers were generally unarmed military observers, promoting peace indirectly by ensuring that neither side in a conflict could violate a ceasefire or commit atrocities without the United Nations and the world community knowing about it.
Today the media can fill a similar role, but military observers with a peacekeeping operation are more impartial and can use their military training to assess a situation more accurately.
The United Nations Peacekeeping Forces - Nobel Lecture (3117 words)
The essence of peacekeeping is the use of soldiers as a catalyst for peace rather than as the instruments of war.
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Peacekeeping operations would be an important visible symbol and monitor of such a system, although, as I have said, we must also preserve some collective capacity to deal with aggression.
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