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Encyclopedia > Peace of Westphalia
Ratification of the Treaty of Münster.

The Peace of Westphalia refers to the pair of treaties, the Treaty of Münster and the Treaty of Osnabrück, signed on October 24 and May 15 of 1648 respectively, which ended both the Thirty Years' War and the Eighty Years' War. The treaties involved the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III Habsburg, the other German princes, Spain, France, Sweden and representatives of the Dutch Republic. The Treaty of the Pyrenees, signed in 1659, ending the war between France and Spain, is also often considered part of the overall accord. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1222, 190 KB)PD image, by Gerard Terborch (1617-1681) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1222, 190 KB)PD image, by Gerard Terborch (1617-1681) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... , Osnabrück (IPA: ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due west of Hanover. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (Until 1643) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I of... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... The Treaty of the Pyrenees was a treaty signed in 1659 to end the war between France and Spain that had begun in 1635 during the Thirty Years War. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Locations

The peace negotiations were held in the cities of Münster and Osnabrück, which lie about 50 km apart from each other, in the present day German states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. Sweden had favored Osnabrück due to its Protestant background, France chose Munster due to its Catholic background. In any case two locations were required because Protestant and Catholic leaders refused to meet each other. The Catholics used Münster, while the Protestants used Osnabrück. For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... , Osnabrück (IPA: ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due west of Hanover. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...


Delegations

The French delegation was headed by Henri II d'Orléans, duc de Longueville and further comprised the diplomats Claude d'Avaux and Abel Servien. The Swedish plenipotentiaries were Johan Oxenstierna, the son of chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, and Johann Adler Salvius. The head of the delegation of the Holy Roman Empire for both cities was Count Maximilian von Trautmansdorff; in Münster, his aides were Johann Ludwig von Nassau-Hadamar and Isaak Volmar (a lawyer); in Osnabrück, his team comprised Johann Maximilian von Lamberg and Reichshofrat Johann Krane, another lawyer. The Spanish delegation was headed by Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzmán. The nuntius of Cologne, Fabio Chigi, and the Venetian envoy Alvise Contarini acted as mediators. Various Imperial States of the Holy Roman Empire also sent delegations. The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands sent a delegation of eight, and Johann Rudolf Wettstein, the mayor of Basel, represented the Old Swiss Confederacy. Henri II dOrléans, duc de Longueville or Henri de Valois-Longueville (1595 — 1663) a legitimated prince of the blood (of royal descent) and peer of France, was a major figure in the civil war of France, the Fronde. ... Abel Servien, marquis de Sablé et de Boisdauphin, comte de Roche-Servien (1593 - February 17, 1659) was a French diplomat. ... The term plenipotentiary (from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + power) refers to, as a noun, a person who has, or as an adjective that confers, full powers. ... Count Johan Axelsson Oxenstierna (1611-1657), Swedish statesman, son of Axel Oxenstierna, completed his studies at Uppsala in 1631, and was sent by his father on a grand tour through France, the Netherlands and Great Britain. ... Count Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna   listen? or Oxenstjerna (June 16, 1583 - August 28, 1654), Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, was born at FÃ¥nö in Uplandia, and received his education with his brothers at the universities of Rostock, Jena and Wittenberg. ... Karl-Josef Rauber; Nuncio for Belgium Nuncio is an ecclesiastical diplomatic title, derived from the ancient Latin Nuntius, meaning any envoy. ... , For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Alexander VII, né Fabio Chigi (February 13, 1599 – May 22, 1667) was Pope from April 7, 1655 until his death in 1667. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (German singular: Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was an entity in the Holy Roman Empire with a vote in the Reichstag or Imperial Diet. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... 1550 illustration for the Sempacherbrief of 1393, one of the major alliance contracts of the Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy was the precursor of modern-day Switzerland. ...


Results

A simplified map of Europe after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
A simplified map of Europe after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
Holy Roman Empire in 1648.
Holy Roman Empire in 1648.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1900x1378, 181 KB) Summary Map of Europe in 1648 (at the end of the Thirty Years War), based on free map of europe Image:BlankMap-Europe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1900x1378, 181 KB) Summary Map of Europe in 1648 (at the end of the Thirty Years War), based on free map of europe Image:BlankMap-Europe. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Internal political boundaries

The power which Ferdinand III had taken for himself in contravention of the Holy Roman Empire's constitution was stripped, meaning that the rulers of the German states were again able to determine the religion of their lands. [See cuius regio, eius religio, below] Protestants and Catholics were redefined as equal before the law, and Calvinism was given legal recognition. [1] [2] Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... Germany is a federation of 16 states called Länder (singular Land, which may be translated as country) or unofficially Bundesländer (singular Bundesland, German federal state). ...


Tenets

The main tenets of the Peace of Westphalia were:

  • All parties would now recognize the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, by which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio). [1] [2]
  • Christians living in principalities where their denomination was not the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will. [1]

There were also territorial adjustments: The front page of the document. ... Cuius regio, eius religio is a phrase in Latin that means, Whose the region is, his religion. ...

  • Sweden received an indemnity, as well as control of Western Pomerania and the Prince-Bishoprics of Bremen and Verden. It thus won control of the mouth of the Oder, Elbe, and Weser Rivers, and acquired three voices in the Council of Princes of the German Reichstag.
  • The succession to the Dukes of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, who had died out in 1609, was clarified. Jülich, Berg, and Ravenstein were given to the Count Palatine of Neuburg, while Cleves, Mark, and Ravensberg went to Brandenburg.
  • It was agreed that the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück would alternate between Protestant and Catholic holders, with the Protestant bishops chosen from cadets of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
  • The independence of the city of Bremen was clarified.
  • Barriers to trade and commerce erected during the war were abolished, and 'a degree' of free navigation was guaranteed on the Rhine. [3]

The coat of arms of a Cardinal are indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual Cardinal). ... Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... The (Roman Catholic) Diocese of Metz is an territorial subdivision of the catholic church in France. ... The Diocese of Toul was a Roman Catholic diocese seated at Toul in present-day France. ... The Diocese of Verdun is a territorial subdivision of the Roman Catholic Church in France. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lorraine (province). ... The Décapole (Zehnstädtebund in German) was an alliance of ten towns in Alsace, France in a league founded in 1354, and discontinued in 1679. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Notre-Dame de Strasbourg, seat of the archbishop of Strasbourg The Archbishopric of Strasbourg (French Diocèse dAlsace, German Erzbistum Straßburg, Latin Archidioecesis Argentoratensis o Argentinensis) is a Roman Catholic diocese at Strasbourg, Alsace, and is as immediate bishopric a direct subject to the Holy See in Rome... Mulhausen can refer to: Mülhausen, the German name of Mulhouse, a commune of the Haut-Rhin département in France Mulhausen, Bas-Rhin, a commune of the Bas-Rhin département in France This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Swedish Pomerania (Swedish: Svenska Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from the 17th to the 19th century, situated on the German Baltic Sea coast. ... The Archbishopric of Bremen was an ecclesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. ... Verden (Aller), or Verden (IPA: ), is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, on the River Aller. ... The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Year 1623 (MDCXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charles I Louis, engraving by Christoph Le Blon, 1652 Charles Louis, (German: ), Elector Palatine (22 December 1617 – 28 August 1680) was the second son of Frederick V, the Winter King, and his wife, Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of King James I of England. ... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Farther Pomerania (Hinterpommern) in yellow. ... The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire lying around Magdeburg along the Elbe River. ... The Bishopric of Halberstadt was a Roman Catholic diocese from 804 until 1648 and a state of the Holy Roman Empire from the late Middle Ages until around 1800. ... The Bishopric of Minden was a Roman Catholic diocese and a state of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Jülich-Cleves-Berg was a combination of states of the Holy Roman Empire. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Jülich is a medium-size town in the district of Düren, in the federal state of Nordrhein-Westfalen, in Germany. ... Map of the duchies of Jülich, Cleves, and Berg circa 1477. ... Ravenstein (population: 8,466) is a city and former municipality in the southern Netherlands, in the province of North Brabant. ... Castle of Neuburg Palatinate-Neuburg (German: ) was a in 1505 originated part of the Holy Roman Empire with the capital in Neuburg an der Donau. ... The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... County of Mark in 1477. ... Ravensberg, historical county in eastern Westphalia, Germany. ... This article is mostly on the Prince-Bishopric as a pre-1803 state of the Holy Roman Empire, for the Roman Catholic diocese with which it was entwined see Diocese of Osnabrück The Diocese of Osnabrück was erected in 772 and is is certainly the oldest see founded... Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... Bremen, see Bremen (disambiguation). ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Karl I Ludwig, Elector Palatine (22 December 1617 - 28 August 1680) was the second son of Friedrich V, the Winter King, and his wife, Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of King James I of England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Rhineland-Palatinate (German Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of 16 Bundesländer of Germany. ... The Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Treaty of Munich 1648
  2. ^ a b Barro, RJ and McCleary, RM 'Which Countries have State Religions? Page 5. http://economics.uchicago.edu/download/state_religion_03-03.pdf - URL Accessed 7 November 2006
  3. ^ Gross, Leo 'The Peace of Westphalia' The American Journal of International Law Vol. 42 Issue 1 (Jan 1948) pp.20-41

See also

Adam Adami (1603, Mülheim upon Rhine - 19 February 1663, Hildesheim) was a German archbishop and diplomat. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... This is a chronological list of international treaties, historic agreements, peaces, edicts, pacts, etc. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (Until 1643) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I of... It has been suggested that Westphalianism be merged into this article or section. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
::The Peace of Westphalia:: (632 words)
The Thirty Years War was ended by the Peace of Westphalia which was referred to as the "Peace of Exhaustion" by contemporaries.
The Peace of Westphalia was not one specific treaty but rather a collection of treaties commonly linked by the fact that they brought the Thirty Years War to an end.
The French persuaded Ferdinand III to exclude Spain from the peace negotiations but the United Provinces and Spain did sign a peace settlement at Munster in 1648 thus bringing to an end 80 years of hostility between the Spanish government and the Dutch commonly known as the Revolt of the Netherlands.
Westphalia - LoveToKnow 1911 (1513 words)
Thus the former duchy of Westphalia and the bishoprics of Munster and Paderborn which remained in ecclesiastical hands are almost entirely Roman Catholic, while the secularized bishopric of Minden and the former counties of Ravensberg and Mark, which fell or had fallen to Brandenburg, and the Siegen district, which belonged to Nassau, are predominantly Protestant.
Westphalia, "the western plain" (in early records Westfalahi), was originally the name of the western province of the early duchy of Saxony, including the western portion of the modern province and extending north to the borders of Friesland.
Brandenburg laid the foundations of her dominion in Westphalia by obtaining the counties of Mark and Ravensberg in 1614 (confirmed 1666), to which the bishopric of Minden was added by the peace of Westphalia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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