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Encyclopedia > Peace of Riga
This article is part
of the series:
Territorial changes of Poland
in 20th century
Poland
History of Poland
Lines
Curzon line
Oder-Neisse line
Areas
Kresy Wschodnie
Kresy Zachodnie
Recovered Territories
Historical Eastern Germany
Zaolzie
See also
History of Poland
Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga
Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga
See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga.

The Peace of Riga (also known as the Treaty of Riga, Polish: Traktat Ryski) signed in Riga on 18 March 1921, between Poland on one side, and Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine on the other, ended the Polish-Bolshevik War. Territorial changes of Poland after World War II have been very extensive. ... Image File history File links Polska_map_blank. ... The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet Communist dominance over the Peoples Republic of Poland in the decades following World War II. These years, while featuring many improvements in the standards of living in Poland, were marred by political instability, social unrest, and... The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) is the border between Germany and Poland. ... The name Kresy (Polish for borderlands, or more correctly Kresy Wschodnie, Eastern Borderlands) is used by Poles, mostly in historical context, to refer to the eastern part of Poland before the II World War. ... Kresy Zachodnie - (Polish: Western Borderlines) - term used used by Poles, mostly in historical context, to refer to the western part of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, that after Partitions of Poland were anexed by Prussia. ... Note: although the term recovered territories has a clear meaning in Poland and Polish historiography, it is not a widely accepted term or concept in Germany or in English-speaking nations. ... Historic Eastern Germany or Ex-German Eastern Territories are terms which can be used to describe collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder–Neisse line which were under the administration of a unified German state from 1871 until 1945 and were recognised as part of Germany by the... Zaolzie (Czech Záolší (Zaolží), Slezsko zaolÅ¡anské, Polish Zaolzie, ÅšlÄ…sk zaolziaÅ„ski meaning Trans-Olza river) was the area disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia West of Cieszyn with approximately 906 km² and 258,000 inhabitants. ... In the first centuries of its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 341 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 341 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Peace of Riga signed on 18th March 1921 between Poland and Soviet Russia ended the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... Riga (Latvian: RÄ«ga), the capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of River Daugava, at 56°58′N 24°8′E. Riga is the largest city in the Baltic states and serves as a major cultural, educational, political, financial, commercial and industrial center... Riga (Latvian: RÄ«ga), the capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of River Daugava, at 56°58′N 24°8′E. Riga is the largest city in the Baltic states and serves as a major cultural, educational, political, financial, commercial and industrial center... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Soviet Russia is sometimes used as a somewhat sloppy synonym to the Soviet Union — although the term Soviet Russia sometimes refers to Bolshevist Russia from the October Revolution in 1917 to 1922 (Although Russian communists officially formed RSFSR in 1918). ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War (also known as the Polish-Bolshevik War or the Polish-Russian War) was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian Soviet Federated...

Contents


Background

For more details on this topic, see Polish-Soviet War.

Amidst the Russian Civil War the Poles were eager to regain all the territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from their historical enemy, Russia. Meanwhile, the Soviets tried to export their revolution to the West, by force if necessary. If the Bolsheviks had occupied Poland they would have been in a position to come to the aid of German Communists, and possibly ensure the success of a Soviet revolution in Germany. The historian J.F.C. Fuller described the Battle of Warsaw as one of the most significant battles ever. After that battle, when Poland turned a looming defeat into a great victory, Soviets were eager to sign a peace treaty. Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at 60,000 The Polish... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... J.F.C. Fuller (September 1, 1878 – February 10, 1966), full name John Frederick Charles Fuller, was a British Major General, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad Wisłą) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ...


The treaty

The peace talks were started on August 17, 1920, in Minsk, but after an incident directed against the Polish negotiators, the talks were moved to Riga, and resumed on September 21. August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Minsk or Miensk (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ) is the capital and a major city of Belarus with a population of 1. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ...


The chief negotiators were Jan Dąbski for Poland, and Adolph Joffe for the Soviets. Jan DÄ…bski (b. ... Adolf Abramovich Joffe (Russian: Адольф Абрамович Йоффе) (October 10, 1883 – November 16, 1927) was a Russian socialist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and a Soviet diplomat. ...


The Treaty of Riga was controversial from the very beginning. Many argued that much of what Poland had won during the Polish-Bolshevik War, was lost in the peace negotiations that were characterized by many, as short-sighted and narrow-minded. They were lacking what brought Poland independence: Józef Piłsudski's combination of far-reaching predictions, and understanding, with his soul and body of a fighter; also, his integrity. By 1921, Piłsudski was not the head of state, and only participated as an observer during the Riga negotiations, which he called an act of cowardice (Davies, 1972, p.399). Due to their military setbacks, the Bolsheviks offered the Polish peace delegation substantial territorial concessions in the contested border areas. However, to many observers it looked like the Polish side was conducting the Riga talks as if Poland had not won, but lost the war. The exhausted Poles, pressured by the League of Nations, decided to sign the Peace of Riga on March 18, 1921, splitting the disputed territories in Belarus and Ukraine, between Poland and Russia. Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War (also known as the Polish-Bolshevik War or the Polish-Russian War) was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian Soviet Federated... Office Chief of State Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of death May... Riga (Latvian: RÄ«ga), the capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of River Daugava, at 56°58′N 24°8′E. Riga is the largest city in the Baltic states and serves as a major cultural, educational, political, financial, commercial and industrial center... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The Ukrainians led by Symon Petliura had been fighting shoulder-to-shoulder with Poles, but in Riga the Soviet negotiators were able to talk Poles into 'betraying' them — to the peril of both Poles and Ukrainians. Piłsudski felt the agreement was a shameless and short-sighted political calculation. Allegedly, having walked out of the room, he told the Ukrainians waiting there for the results of the Riga Conference: "Gentlemen, I deeply apologize to you".[citation needed] Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. ...


The treaty violated Poland's military alliance with Ukraine, which had explicitly prohibited a separate peace. It worsened relations between Poland and its Ukrainian minority, who felt Ukraine had been betrayed by its Polish ally, a feeling that would be exploited by Soviet propaganda and result in the growing tensions and eventual violence in the 1930s and 1940s. By the end of 1921, the majority of Ukrainian, Belarusian and White Russian forces had either crossed the Polish border and laid down their arms or had been annihilated by the Soviets. The Massacre of Poles in Volhyn was an ethnic cleansing conducted in Volhyn (Polish: Wołyń) during World War II. In the course of it, up to 80,000 Poles are thought to have been massacred by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya, or UPA). ...


However, Józef Piłsudski's dream of creating an Eastern Europe alliance (Międzymorze) of independent countries was thwarted by this treaty, as Poland was unable to fulfill the obligations of its alliance with Ukraine and support its independence, and Polish-Lithuanian relations deteriorated as well as a result of Poland's annexation of the city of Vilnius, which the Lithuanians claimed as their capital. Office Chief of State Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of death May... Current division of Europe into five (or more) regions: one definition of Eastern Europe is marked in orange Eastern Europe as a region has several alternative definitions, whereby it can denote: the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Central Europe and Russia. ... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... Location Ethnographic region DzÅ«kija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 20 Coordinates 54°40′N 25°19′E General information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population (rank) 540,318 in 2005 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights...

Poland after the Treaty of Riga with the pre-partitions border of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth marked
Enlarge
Poland after the Treaty of Riga with the pre-partitions border of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth marked
Second page of the treaty, Polish version
Second page of the treaty, Polish version

On the other hand, the Treaty of Riga led to the stabilization of the eastern border of Poland. The new Polish state surrendered most of land lost in 1st and 2nd partition to Russia by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during partitions of Poland, with a sizeable Polish minority (less than 1 million) especially around Słuck and Żytomierz. This would allow Soviets to carry out harsh reprisals against those Poles - begun with confiscation immense property (land, forests), persecution of religion (bishop Cieplak 1923) and eventually full scale deportation of Poles to Kazakhstan 1931-1934. Population living on the Polish side of the Riga border, including Poles and (approx. 6 million citizens) minorities of Ukrainians, Belarusians, Lithuanians and Jews were largely spared from communist dictatorship, and guaranteed freedom of property and religious faith - for the next 17 years until 1938. However, this didn't protect them from ethnic conflicts, especially during the Great Depression from 1929 on. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 220 KB) The map shows the borders in Central Europe after the Polish-Bolshevik War (as of 1922). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 220 KB) The map shows the borders in Central Europe after the Polish-Bolshevik War (as of 1922). ... The Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, commonly known as the Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x826, 79 KB) Summary 2nd page of the w:Treaty of Riga ending the Polish-Bolshevik War of 1919-1920 The treaty was never secret and thus could not be copyrighted. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x826, 79 KB) Summary 2nd page of the w:Treaty of Riga ending the Polish-Bolshevik War of 1919-1920 The treaty was never secret and thus could not be copyrighted. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, commonly known as the Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... SÅ‚ucak or Slutsk (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ) is a predominantly jewish town in Belarus, located on the Sluč river, 105 km south of Minsk. ... Motto: Oblast Zhytomyr Oblast Mayor Area 61 kм² Population  - city  - density 277,900 (2005) 4,555 /km² Founded 8th Century Latitude Longitude 50°15′N 28°40′E Area code +380 412 [Municipal Website] Zhytomyr (Ukrainian and Russian: Житомир, Polish: Å»ytomierz) is the capital of the Zhytomyrska oblast in Ukraine. ... It has been suggested that Dictator be merged into this article or section. ... Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age 32, in Nipomo, California, March 1936. ...


Poland also was to receive monetary compensation (30 million rubles) for its economic input into the Russian Empire during the times of partitions of Poland. Russians were also to surrender arts and other Polish national treasures pillaged after 1772 (like the Załuski Library). Both sides renounced claims to war compensation. The ruble or rouble (Russian: рубль, plural рубли; see note on spelling below) is the name of the currencies of the Russian Federation and Belarus (and formerly, of the Soviet Union and the Russian Empire). ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, commonly known as the Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... ZaÅ‚uski Library ZaÅ‚uski Library (Zalusciana, Biblioteka ZaÅ‚uskich) - the ZaÅ‚uski Library has been built 1747 - 1795 by Józef Andrzej ZaÅ‚uski and his brother, Andrzej StanisÅ‚aw ZaÅ‚uski. ...


External links

  • Photocopies of the treaty: pages 1-8, pages 9-16, pages 17-23, appendices and additional protocol

See also

  • Aftermath of the Polish-Soviet War

Main article: Polish-Soviet War The Aftermath According to the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, the Polish-Bolshevik War Certainly the Bolsheviks defeat in the war prevented Poland from becoming another Soviet republic and likely saved Germany, Czechoslovakia and other nearby states from suffering a similar fate. ...

References

  • Davies, Norman, White Eagle, Red Star: the Polish-Soviet War, 1919-20, Pimlico, 2003, ISBN 0712606947. (First edition: New York, St. Martin's Press, inc., 1972.)
Polish peace treaties

BautzenKalisz • Toruń (1411) • Toruń (1466) • StettinJam ZapolskiDeulino • Polanów • Bila TserkvaHadiachOliwaAndrusovoBuczaczEternal PeaceKarlowitzViennaRiga Prof. ... The permanent settlement of wars Poland with Germany in Bautzen, Budziszyn in 1018, which left Sorbian Meissen and Lusatia in Polish hands. ... The Treaty of Kalisz in 1343 was signed by Casimir III the Great and the Teutonic Order. ... Peace of ToruÅ„ 1411 or the First Peace of ToruÅ„ was a peace treaty signed on 1 February 1411 in ToruÅ„ between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Order ending the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War (1409-1411) (see the Battle of Grunwald). ... The Second Treaty of ToruÅ„, Zweiter Friede von Thorn, (also referred to as Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanse city of Thorn/ToruÅ„ on October 19, 1466 between the Polish king, the Prussian cities, and duke of Pomerania on one side, and the Teutonic... The Treaty of Stettin (nowaday Szczecin) brings The Northern Seven Years War to and end on December 13, 1570. ... The Peace of Jam Zapolski was a treaty of peace which, following the Siege of Pskov, concluded the lengthy Livonian war (1558-82). ... Truce of Deulino (also known as Peace or Treaty of Dywilino), was signed in December 1618 and concluded the Dymitriad wars (also known as Polish-Muscovy War of 1605-1618) between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy. ... Treaty of Polanów (Polyanov, Eternal Treaty of Polanov) was signed in Polanów nad WiaźmÄ…, between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy on 14 June 1634 as a consequence of the Smolensk War (Polish-Muscovy War of 1632-1634) The peace treaty confirmed the pre-war status quo... The Treaty of Bila Tserkva was a peace treaty between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ukrainian Cossacks in the aftermath of the Battle of Berestechko. ... This is a 19th century design for a COA of a proposed Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth which never came into being. ... Treaty of Oliwa. ... Treaty of Andrusovo, 1667 (Polish Rozejm w Andruszowie, Russian Андрусовское перемирие, Ukrainian Андрусівське перемиря), a truce for 13,5 years between Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which were at war since 1654 over the territories of modern day Ukraine and Belarus. ... The Peace of Buczacz was signed on October 12, 1672 in Buczacz between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. ... The Eternal Peace Treaty of 1686 (Polish Pokój wieczysty or Pokój Grzymułtowskiego, Russian Вечный мир) was a treaty between Russia and Poland, signed by Polish envoys: voivod of Poznań Krzysztof Grzymułtowski and chancellor of Lithuania Marcjan Ogiński and Russian knyaz Vasily Golitsyn on May 6, 1686 in Moscow. ... The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed in 1699 in Sremski Karlovci (a city in modern-day Serbia and Montenegro) (German: Karlowitz, Turkish:Karlofça), concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman side was defeated. ... The Treaty of Vienna was signed on November 18, 1738. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Peace of Riga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (892 words)
The Peace of Riga (also known as the Treaty of Riga, Polish: Traktat Ryski) signed in Riga on 18 March 1921, between Poland on one side, and Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine on the other, ended the Polish-Bolshevik War.
The peace talks were started on August 17, 1920, in Minsk, but after an incident directed against the Polish negotiators, the talks were moved to Riga, and resumed on September 21.
The exhausted Poles, pressured by the League of Nations, decided to sign the Peace of Riga on March 18, 1921, splitting the disputed territories in Belarus and Ukraine, between Poland and Russia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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