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Pea
Peas are contained within a pod
Peas are contained within a pod
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Vicieae
Genus: Pisum
Species: P. sativum
Binomial name
Pisum sativum
L.

A pea, although treated as a vegetable in cooking, is botanically a fruit; the term is most commonly used to describe the small spherical seeds or the pods of the legume Pisum sativum.[1] The name is also used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae like the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and the seeds from several species of Lathyrus. Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1344x680, 255 KB) peas in pod http://visualsonline. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families Fabaceae (legumes) Quillajaceae Polygalaceae (milkwort family) Surianaceae The Fabales are an order of flowering plants, included in the rosid group of dicotyledons. ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... Tribes Abreae Adesmieae Aeschynomeneae Amorpheae Bossiaeeae Brongniartieae Carmichaelieae Cicereae Crotalarieae Dalbergieae Desmodieae Dipterygeae Euchresteae Galegeae Genisteae Hedysareae Indigofereae Liparieae Loteae Millettieae Mirbelieae Phaseoleae Podalyrieae Psoraleeae Robinieae Sophoreae Swartzieae Thermopsideae Trifolieae Vicieae Faboideae is a subfamily of the flowering plant family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. ... Species See text Pisum is a genus of the family Fabaceae, native to southwest Asia and northeast Africa. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This writeup is about biological seeds; for other meanings see Seed (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... Binomial name (L.) Millsp. ... Binomial name Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ... Species See text. ...


P. sativum is an annual plant, with a lifecycle of one year. It is a cool season crop grown in many parts of the world; planting can take place from winter through to early summer depending on location. The average pea weighs between 0.1 and 0.36 grams.[2] The species is used as a fresh vegetable, frozen or canned, but is also grown to produce dry peas like the split pea. These varieties are typically called field peas. Peas are an annual plant. ... A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... Split peas are a split form of certain peas which are commonly used to make pea soup. ...


P. sativum has been cultivated for thousands of years. The sites of cultivation have been described in southern Syria and southeastern Turkey, and some argue that the cultivation of peas with wheat and barley seems to be associated with the spread of Neolithic agriculture into Europe.[3]

Contents

Description

Raw Green Pea
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 80 kcal   340 kJ
Carbohydrates     14.5 g
- Sugars  5.7 g
- Dietary fiber  5.1 g  
Fat 0.4 g
Protein 5.4 g
Vitamin A equiv.  38 μg  4%
- β-carotene  449 μg  4%
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.3 mg   23%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.1 mg   7%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  2.1 mg   14%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.1 mg  2%
Vitamin B6  0.2 mg 15%
Folate (Vit. B9)  65 μg  16%
Vitamin C  40.0 mg 67%
Calcium  25.0 mg 3%
Iron  1.5 mg 12%
Magnesium  33.0 mg 9% 
Phosphorus  108 mg 15%
Potassium  244 mg   5%
Zinc  1.2 mg 12%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Pea plant
Pea plant

The pea is a green, pod-shaped fruit, widely grown as a cool-season vegetable crop. The seeds may be planted as soon as the soil temperature reaches 10°C, with the plants growing best at temperatures of 13°C to 18°C. They do not thrive in the summer heat of warmer temperate and lowland tropical climates but do grow well in cooler high altitude tropical areas. Many cultivars reach maturity about 60 days after planting. Generally, peas are to be grown outdoors during the winter, not in greenhouses. Peas grow best in slightly acidic, well-drained soils. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... For the similarly spelled pyrimidine, see Thymine Thiamin or thiamine, also known as vitamin B1 and aneurine hydrochloride, is one of the B vitamins. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Fe redirects here. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1278x1704, 346 KB) Picture taken by myself: (nl:Doperwt rijserwt peulen)Pisum sativum pods; Pisum sativum File links The following pages link to this file: Pea ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1278x1704, 346 KB) Picture taken by myself: (nl:Doperwt rijserwt peulen)Pisum sativum pods; Pisum sativum File links The following pages link to this file: Pea ...


Peas have both low-growing and vining cultivars. The vining cultivars grow thin tendrils from leaves that coil around any available support and can climb to be 1-2 m high. A traditional approach to supporting climbing peas is to thrust branches pruned from trees or other woody plants upright into the soil, providing a lattice for the peas to climb. Branches used in this fashion are called pea brush. Metal fences, twine, or netting supported by a frame are used for the same purpose. In dense plantings, peas give each other some measure of mutual support. Pea plants do not need pollination from other plants as they have special properties that allow them to pollinate themselves and make more genetic copies. This is the reason Gregor Mendel experimented on these fascinating plants. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In botany, a tendril is a specialized stem, leaf or petiole with a threadlike shape that is used by climbing plants for support and attachment, generally by twining around whatever it touches. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ...


Varieties

Many varieties of P. sativum have been bred. Widely cultivated variations include:

  • Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon is commonly known as the snow pea
  • Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon ser. cv. is known as the sugar or snap pea or mange-tout

Both of these are eaten whole before the pod reaches maturity. The snow pea (often erroneously called "mange tout") pod is eaten flat. In sugar snap peas, the pod becomes cylindrical but is eaten before the seeds inside develop while the pod is still crisp, hence the 'snap' term used. This article lacks an appropriate taxobox. ... Snap peas are a Cultivar Group of edible-podded peas that differ from snow peas in that their pods are round as opposed to flat. ...


Diseases

Main article: List of pea diseases

This article is a list of diseases of peas (Pisum sativum). ...

Culinary use

In early times peas were grown mostly for their dry seeds. In modern times however peas are usually boiled or steamed which breaks down the cell walls and makes the taste sweeter and the nutrients more bio-available. Along with broad beans and lentils, these formed an important part of the diet of most people in Europe during the Middle Ages (Bianchini 1975 p 40). By the 1600s and 1700s it had became popular to eat peas "green", that is, while they are immature and right after they are picked. This was especially true in France and England, where the eating of green peas was said to be "both a fashion and a madness" (OSU 2006). New cultivars of peas were developed by the English during this time which became known as garden peas and English peas. The popularity of green peas spread to North America. Thomas Jefferson grew more than 30 cultivars of peas on his estate (Kafka 2005 p 297). With the invention of canning and freezing of foods, green peas became available year-round, and not just in the spring as before. Steaming is cooking by steam. ... Binomial name Vicia faba The fava bean, Vicia faba, is also known as the broad bean in the United Kingdom, horse bean or field bean. ... Binomial name Lens culinaris Medikus Red lentils Lentils (Lens culinaris, Fabaceae) are lens-shaped pulses that grow on an annual, bushlike plant. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...

Frozen green peas
Frozen green peas

Fresh peas are often eaten boiled and flavored with butter and/or spearmint as a side dish vegetable. Salt and pepper are also commonly added to peas when served. Fresh peas are also used in pot pies, salads and casseroles. Pod peas (particularly sweet cultivars called mange tout and sugar peas, or the flatter "snow peas," called hé lán dòu, 兰豆 in Chinese) are used in stir-fried dishes, particularly those in American Chinese cuisine.[1] Pea pods do not keep well once picked, and if not used quickly are best preserved by drying, canning or freezing within a few hours of harvest. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Mentha spicata Crantz Spearmint (Mentha spicata, syn ) is a species of mint native to central and southern Europe, where it grows in wet soils. ... American Chinese cuisine refers to the style of food served by Chinese restaurants in the United States. ... For other uses, see Canning (disambiguation). ... In physics and chemistry, freezing is the process whereby a liquid turns to a solid when cold enough. ...


In India, fresh peas are used in various dishes such as aloo matar (curried potatoes with peas) or matar paneer (paneer cheese with peas), though they can be substituted with frozen peas as well. Peas are also eaten raw as they are sweet when fresh off the bush. Making paneer Paneer (Hindi: पनीर , from Persian پنير sometimes spelled Panir or Paner), is the most common Indian form of cheese. ...

Dry, yellow split peas
Dry, yellow split peas

Dried peas are often made into a soup or simply eaten on their own. In Japan, China, Taiwan and some South-east Asian countries, including Thailand and Malaysia, the peas are roasted and salted, and eaten as snacks. In the UK, dried yellow split peas are used to make pease pudding (or "pease porridge"), a traditional dish. In North America a similarly traditional dish is split pea soup. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1194 × 797 pixel, file size: 516 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1194 × 797 pixel, file size: 516 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Split peas are a split form of certain peas which are commonly used to make pea soup. ... For other uses, see Soup (disambiguation). ... A snack food is seen in Western culture as a type of food that is not meant to be eaten as part of one of the main meals of the day (breakfast, lunch, supper). ... Pease pudding is sometimes also known as pease pottage or pease porridge. ... Dutch pea soup Pea soup is soup made, typically, from dried peas. ...


Ärtsoppa is a traditional Scandinavian food which predates the Viking era. This food was made from a fast-growing pea that would mature in a short growing season. Ärtsoppa was especially popular among the many poor who traditionally only had one pot and everything was cooked together for a dinner using a tripod to hold the pot over the fire. When pork was available it was known as Ärtsoppa och fläsk and this tradition has continued to the present day. After the Christian conversion this soup was served on Thursday evening because Friday was a fasting day. Swedish cuisine tends to be hearty, practical and sustaining. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the... Fast Day is an obsolete American holiday, A day of public fasting and prayer, which was traditionally observed in the New England states. ...


In Chinese cuisine, pea sprouts (豆苗; dòu miáo) are commonly used in stir-fries and its price is relatively high due to its agreeable taste. Pea leaves are often considered a delicacy as well. Chinese cuisine (Chinese: 中國菜) originated from different regions of China and has become widespread in many other parts of the world — from East Asia to North America, Australasia and Western Europe. ...


In Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, and other parts of the Mediterranean, peas are made into a stew with meat and potatoes. In Greek this stew is called arakas, whilst in Cyprus and Turkey it is called mpizeli or mpizelia.


In the United Kingdom, dried, rehydrated and mashed marrowfat peas, known by the public as mushy peas, are popular, originally in the north of England but now ubiquitously, and especially as an accompaniment to fish and chips or meat pies, particularly in fish and chip shops. Sodium bicarbonate is sometimes added to soften the peas. In 2005, a poll of 2,000 people revealed the pea to be Britain's 7th favorite culinary vegetable. Processed peas are mature peas which have been dried, soaked and then heat treated (processed) to prevent spoilage — in the same manner as pasteurising. A British meal of fish and chips served with mushy peas in the ramekin on the right. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A serving of fish and chips Fish and chips (sometimes written fish n chips), a popular take-away food with British origins, consists of deep-fried fish in batter or breadcrumbs with deep-fried chipped (slab-cut) potatoes. ... A meat pie is a savoury pie that covers or contains a savoury filling of meat and other savoury ingredients. ... Flash point Non-flammable. ...

Canadian wasabi peas.
Canadian wasabi peas.

Cooked peas are sometimes sold dried and coated with wasabi as a spicy snack. Image File history File links Canada-wasabi-green-peas. ... Image File history File links Canada-wasabi-green-peas. ... Binomial name Matsum. ...


Some forms of etiquette require that peas be only eaten with a fork and not pushed onto the fork with a knife [2][3].-1... For other uses, see Fork (disambiguation). ... This article is about the tool. ...


Peas in science

Pea flowers
Pea flowers

In the mid-1800s, Gregor Mendel's observations of pea pods led to the principles of Mendelian genetics, the foundation of modern genetics. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 627 KB) Pea flowers, taken on Jan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 627 KB) Pea flowers, taken on Jan. ... “Mendel” redirects here. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets that underlie much of genetics developed by Gregor Mendel in the latter part of the 19th century. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


Etymology

According to etymologists, the term was taken from the Latin pisum and adopted into English as the noun pease (plural peasen), as in pease pudding. However, by analogy with other plurals ending in -s, speakers began construing pease as a plural and constructing the singular form by dropping the "s", giving the term "pea". This process is known as back-formation. Etymologies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... Pease pudding is sometimes also known as pease pottage or pease porridge. ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In etymology, the process of back-formation is the creation of a neologism by reinterpreting an earlier word as a compound and removing the spuriously supposed affixes. ...


The name marrowfat pea for mature dried peas is recorded by the OED as early as 1733. The fact that an export cultivar popular in Japan is called Maro has led some people to assume mistakenly that the English name marrowfat is derived from Japanese. The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ...


See also

The black pea (Lathyrus niger) is the main ingredient in the dish Black Peas (also called Parched Peas or Maple Peas) that is a traditional Lancashire dish served often on or around Bonfire Night (5th November). ... Split peas are a split form of certain peas which are commonly used to make pea soup. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum A pea (Pisum sativum) is the small, edible round green seed which grows in a pod on a leguminous vine, hence why it is called a legume. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary - Pea
  2. ^ Pea
  3. ^ Zohary, Daniel and Hopf, Maria (2000). Domestication of Plants in the Old World, third edition. Oxford: University Press. ISBN 0-19-850356-3 p. 106
  • Bianchini, F. & Corbetta, F., 1976, The Complete Book of Fruits and Vegetables. New York : Crown Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-517-52033-8.
  • European Association for Grain Legume Research (AEP). Pea. [4].
  • Hernández Bermejo, J. E. & León, J., (1992). Neglected crops: 1492 from a different perspective, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO)[5]
  • Kafka, B., 2005, Vegetable Love, New York : Artisan, ISBN 978-1-57965-168-8
  • Muehlbauer, F. J. and Tullu, A., (1997). Pisum sativum L. Purdue University[6].
  • Oelke, E. A., Oplinger E. S., et al. (1991). Dry Field Pea. University of Wisconsin[7].
  • Oregon State University (OSU). (2006). Green Peas, Garden Peas, Peas. [8].

External links

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Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
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Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
[email protected] (2512 words)
Peas grow in pods on vines, and some varieties (sweet peas, sugar peas, sugar snap peas, snow peas) are eaten in the pod.
Peas in the pod are eaten raw or stir-fried, while loose peas are almost always cooked, either steamed or boiled and eaten alone, sometimes with butter, or put in soup.
Peas travelled early to the Mediterranean, China and India and the Greeks and Romans were noted consumers of the pulse.
eMedicine - Pulseless Electrical Activity : Article by Sumit Verma (2798 words)
PEA is most frequently the end result of a major cardiac insult and commonly is caused by respiratory failure with hypoxia.
PEA is caused by the inability of cardiac muscle to generate a sufficient force despite an electrical depolarization.
Postdefibrillation PEA is characterized by the presence of organized electrical activity, occurring immediately after electrical cardioversion and in the absence of palpable pulse.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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