FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
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Encyclopedia > Pawnee
Pawnee
Total population

5,500 Pawnee are an American tribe. ... Image File history File links Pawnee_flag. ...

Regions with significant populations
Oklahoma, Flag of the United States United States
Languages
Caddoan, Pawnee
Religion
Christianity, other
Related ethnic groups
other Caddoan peoples

The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte, Loup and Republican Rivers in present-day Nebraska and in Northern Kansas. They refer to themselves as "Chaticks-si-Chaticks", meaning "Men of men". For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Caddoan languages are a family of Native American languages. ... Pawnee language The Pawnee language is a Caddoan language spoken today by the Pawnee people in Oklahoma in the United States. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... This article is about the Platte River in Nebraska. ... The Loup River in Nebraska, showing the North and South Loup rivers This article is on the Loup River in Nebraska, USA; for information on the Loup River in southeast France, see Loup River (France). ... The Republican River rises on the high plains of eastern Colorado in the United States. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


In the 18th century, they were allied with the French and played an important role in halting Spanish expansion onto the Great Plains by defeating the Villasur expedition decisively in battle in 1720. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... The Villasur expedition (1720) was a Spanish military expedition intended to check the growing French presence on the Great Plains of central North America. ...


In the 19th century, epidemics of smallpox and cholera wiped out most of the Pawnee, reducing the population to approximately 600 by the year 1900; as of 2005, there are approximately 2,500 Pawnee. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the disease. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...

Contents

Social structure

Overview

Descended from Caddoan linguistic stock. The Caddo are a nation, or group of tribes, of Native Americans who, in the 16th century, inhabited much of what is now East Texas, Western Louisiana and portions of southern Arkansas and Oklahoma. ...

Pawnee area
Pawnee area

They were an agricultural people who grew maize, beans, pumpkins and squash. They ate it with fat bacon and pork greased with oil. With the coming of the horse culture to the Great Plains they did begin to take on some of the cultural attributes of their cousins, but the buffalo culture remained secondary to the maize culture. Image File history File links Pawnee_lang. ... Image File history File links Pawnee_lang. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... This article is on the plant. ... Pumpkins A pumpkin is a gourd (Cucurbitaceae), most commonly orange in colour when ripe, that grows from a trailing vine. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... For other uses, see Bacon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... The term Horse culture is used to define a tribal group or community whose day to day life revolves around the herding and breeding of horses. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Historically, the Great Plains were the range of the bison and of the Great Plains culture of the Native American tribes of the Blackfeet, Crow, Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Comanche, and others. ...


The Pawnee Confederacy was divided into the following four bands:

  • Chaui (Grand)
  • Kitkehahki (Republican)
  • Pitahauerat (Tappage)
  • Skidi (Wolf)

The Chaui are generally recognized as being the leading band although each band was autonomous and, as was typical of many Indian tribes, each band saw to its own, although with outside pressures from the Spanish, French and Americans, as well as neighboring tribes saw the Pawnee drawing closer together.


Lodges

Pawnee lodges near Genoa, Nebraska (1873)
Pawnee lodges near Genoa, Nebraska (1873)
geophysical image depicting the subsurface archaeological footprint of Pawnee earth lodges and associated features
geophysical image depicting the subsurface archaeological footprint of Pawnee earth lodges and associated features

The Pawnee lodges tended to be oval in shape; the frame was constructed of 10-15 posts set some ten feet apart which outlined the floor of the lodge. Lodge size varied based on the number of poles placed in the center of the structure. Most lodges had 4, 8 or 12 center poles. A common feature in Pawnee Lodge's were four painted poles which represented the four semi-cardinal directions and the four major star gods (not to be confused with the Creator.) The framework was then covered with willow branches, earth and sod which inhibited erosion. A hole was left in the center which served as a combined chimney and skylight. The lodge itself was semi subterranean and the floor was approximately three feet below ground level. A buffalo-skin door on a hinge could be closed at night and wedged shut. Image File history File links Pawnee_lodge. ... Image File history File links Pawnee_lodge. ... Genoa is a city located in Nance County, Nebraska. ... Earth houses are old architectural style for eco-friendly housing. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison in winter. ...


There could be as many as 30-50 people living in each lodge. A village could consist of as many as 300-500 people and 10-15 households. Each lodge was divided in two (north and south), and each section had a head who oversaw the daily business; each section was further subdivided into three families. The membership of the lodge was actually quite flexible. The tribe went on buffalo hunts in summer and winter. Upon their return, the inhabitants of the lodges would often move into another lodge, although they generally remained within the village.


Political structure

The Pawnee are a matrilineal people; ancestral descent was through the mother and a young couple would traditionally move into the bride's parents' lodge. Both women and men are active in political life, with both taking decision-making responsibilities. Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ...


Within the lodge the abovementioned sections were designated for the three classes of women.

  • Mature women who did most of the labor
  • Young single women just learning their responsibilities
  • Older women who looked after the young children

Amongst the collection of lodges, the political designations for men were essentially between:

  • the Warrior Clique
  • the Hunting Clique

Women tended to be responsible for decisions about resource allocation, trade, and inter-lodge social negotiations. Men were responsible for decisions which pertained to hunting, war, and spiritual/health issues.


Women tended to remain within a single lodge, while men would typically move between lodges taking multiple sexual partners in serially-monogamous relationships.


Religion

The Pawnee placed great significance on Sacred Bundles, which formed the basis of many religious ceremonies maintaining the balance of nature and the relationship with the gods and spirits. The Pawnee were not however part of the Sun Dance tradition although they did partake in the Ghost Dance movement of the 1890s. Sketch of a Siouan Sun Dance by George Catlin The Sun Dance is a ceremony practiced by a number of native americans. ... For other uses, see Ghost Dance (disambiguation). ...


Pawnee equated the stars with the gods and planted their crops according to the position of the stars. Like many tribal units they sacrificed maize and other crops.


The Morning Star ritual

The Skidi practiced human sacrifice (the "Morning Star ritual") until the 1840s.[1] Typically, a young girl was captured from another tribe, based on a dream by a Skidi elder. The girl was well treated for several days, and an elaborate scaffold was built for the sacrifice. The preparations took four days. Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... Scaffold may refer to: scaffolding as used in construction A gallows The Scaffold, UK musical group Scaffold - GNOME Development Environment Scaffold (Protein ECM) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


When the morning star was due to rise, the girl was placed on the scaffold, and at the moment the star appeared above the horizon, the girl's chest was cut open, after which her body was shot with arrows. Wikipedia articles with Morning Star, morning star or morningstar in the title include: Morning star (weapon), a spiked mace Morning Star (chief), a Cheyenne leader, also known as Dull Knife The Morning Star, a newspaper published in the U.K. since 1930 The Morning Star (19th century U.S. newspaper...


In her The Lost Universe (1965), Gene Weltfish makes note of a young Lakota captive who was tied to a tree and shot with arrows. She was thought to be the last human sacrifice performed by the Pawnee; Weltfish attributes this peculiarity to their Aztec kin to the south. However, this posited connection to Aztec sacrifice has been disputed [2] Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ...


History

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado visited the neighboring Wichita in 1541 where he encountered a Pawnee chief from Harahey, north of Kansas or Nebraska. Nothing much is mentioned of the Pawnee until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries when successive incursions of Spanish, French and English settlers attempted to enlarge their possessions. The tribes however tended to make alliances as and when it suited them. An interesting point to note being that different Pawnee subtribes could make treaties with warring European powers without disrupting the underlying unity; the Pawnee were masters at unity within diversity. Coronado Sets Out to the North, by Frederic Remington, 1861-1909 Francisco Vázquez de Coronado (c. ... Tribal flag Wichita camp, 1904 For other uses, see Wichita (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Historian Marcel Trudel has documented close to 2,000 Pawnee (in French, Panis) slaves who lived in Canada until the abolition of slavery at the end of the 18th century, making up close to half of the known slaves in French Canada. Marcel Trudel (born May 29, 1917) is a Canadian historian and author. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Pawnee father and son, 1912
Pawnee father and son, 1912

A tribal delegation visited President Jefferson and in 1806 Lieutenant Zebulon Pike, Major G. C. Sibley, Major S. H. Long, amongst others began visiting the Pawnee villages. The Pawnee ceded territory to the American government in treaties in 1818, 1825, 1833, 1848, 1857, and 1892; in 1857, they settled on a reservation along the Loup River in present-day Nance County, Nebraska. Continual raids from Lakota from the north and west and encroachment from American settlers to the south and east lead to the abandonment of their Nebraska reservation. In 1875 they moved to Indian Territory, (Oklahoma), a large territory that had served as a 'dumping ground' for tribes displaced from the east and elsewhere. Many Pawnee men joined the United States Cavalry as scouts rather than face the ignominy of reservation life and the inevitable loss of their freedom and culture. In the 20th century, Christianity supplanted the older religion. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 599 pixels Full resolution (595 × 874 pixel, file size: 55 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Illustration from 1912 book KANSAS: A Cyclopedia of State History, Embracing Events, Institutions, Industries, Counties, Cities, Towns, Prominent Persons, Etc Source URL: http://skyways. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 599 pixels Full resolution (595 × 874 pixel, file size: 55 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Illustration from 1912 book KANSAS: A Cyclopedia of State History, Embracing Events, Institutions, Industries, Counties, Cities, Towns, Prominent Persons, Etc Source URL: http://skyways. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Zebulon Pike Jr. ... Stephen Harriman Long (December 30, 1784 - September 4, 1864) was a U.S. engineer, explorer, and military officer. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about Native Americans. ... Nance County is a county located in the state of Nebraska. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... The United States Cavalry was a horse-mounted cavalry force that existed in various forms between 1775 and 1942. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


In 1780 the Pawnee are thought to have numbered around 10,000, but by the 19th century, epidemics of smallpox and cholera wiped out most of the Pawnee, reducing the population to approximately 600 by the year 1900; as of 2005, there are approximately 2,500 Pawnee. 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the disease. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Recent history

The Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936 established the Pawnee Business Council, the Nasharo (Chiefs) Council, and a tribal constitution, bylaws, and charter. An out of court settlement in 1964 awarded the Pawnee Nation $7,316,096.55 for undervalued ceded land from the previous century. Bills such as the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 have gone some way to address the mistakes of the past and help the Pawnee Nation regain some of their pride and culture. Today the Pawnee are still celebrating their culture and meet twice a year for the inter-tribal gathering with their kinsmen the Wichita Indians and the four day Pawnee Homecoming for Pawnee veterans in July. Many Pawnee return to their traditional lands to visit relatives, craft shows and take part in powwows. The Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936, also known as the Thomas-Rogers Act, was an extension of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 which sought to return some form of tribal government to the many tribes in Indian Territory. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wichita Indians formed a loose confederation on the Southern Plains, including such tribes as Panis Piques, Taovayas, Guichitas, Tawakonis, Kichais, and Wacos, and they lived in fixed villages notable for domed-shaped and grass-covered dwellings. ... This article is about a Native American gathering. ...


In popular culture

In Kevin Costner's movie "Dances with Wolves," the Pawnee are the main Indian antagonists to the Lakota/Sioux Indians befriended by the main character. In the words of one reviewer, the Pawnee "are identified as a blood seeking race . . ." [3]. After the Pawnee had lost to a battle against the Lakota, they allied with the americans against them. Dances with Wolves is a 1990 epic film which tells the story of a United States cavalry officer from the Civil War who travels into the Dakota Territory, near a Sioux tribe. ...


See also

This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... It has been suggested that List of Native American tribes be merged into this article or section. ... The one-drop rule is a historical colloquial term in the United States that holds that a person with any trace of sub-Saharan ancestry (however small or invisible) cannot be considered white[1] and so unless said person has an alternative non-white ancestry they can claim, such as... The Pawnee are a tribe of Native Americans originally located in Nebraska, United States. ... Pawnee language The Pawnee language is a Caddoan language spoken today by the Pawnee people in Oklahoma in the United States. ...

External links

DjVu (pronounced déjà vu) is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned images, especially those containing text and line drawings. ...

Bibliography

The Lost Universe by Gene Weltfish


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pawnee - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1154 words)
The Pawnee lodges tended to be oval in shape, the frame was constructed of 10-15 posts set some ten feet apart which formed the floor of the lodge.
In 1780 the Pawnee are thought to have numbered around 10,000, but by the 19th century, epidemics of smallpox and cholera wiped out most of the Pawnee, reducing the population to approximately 600 by the year 1900; as of 2002, there are approximately 2500 Pawnee.
Today the Pawnee are still celebrating their culture and meet twice a year for the inter-tribal gathering with their kinsmen the Wichita Indians and the four day Pawnee Homecoming for Pawnee veterans in July.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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