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Encyclopedia > Pauline Christianity
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Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The (Early) Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... This article covers the events of, reaction to, and historical legacy of Roman Emperor Constantine Is promotion, legitimization, and conversion to Christianity. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) (c. ... For the first Archbishop of Canterbury, see Saint Augustine of Canterbury. ... For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296 - 1359) was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later Archbishop of Thessalonica known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703–March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ...

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"Pauline Christianity" is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. Paul). It is both an internal debate, one form of Christianity against another, and an external debate, non-christian against christian. Paul wrote the bulk of the letters in the New Testament, being its second most prolific contributor. The claim is made that orthodox faith owes more to Paul's writings rather than to the canonical gospels, Acts and the rest of the New Testament, such as the Epistle of James. Orthodox Christianity is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions (which descend through, or alongside of, the Roman Catholic Church) or the Eastern Rite Catholic churches. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ...


The expression came into use first amongst critical scholars who noted the different strands of thought within Early Christianity, wherein Paul was a powerful influence.[1] It has come into widespread use amongst non-Christian scholars and depends on the claim, advanced in different ages, that the form of the faith found in the writings of Paul is radically different from that that found elsewhere in the New Testament, but also that his influence came to predominate. The expression is also used by modern Christian scholars, such as Ziesler[2] and Mount, whose interest is in the recovery of Christian origins and the contribution made by Paul to Christian doctrine. Fourth-century inscription, representing Christ as the Good Shepherd. ...


The critical use of the expression relies in part upon a thesis that Paul's supporters, as a distinct group, had an undue influence on the formation of the canon of scripture, and also that certain bishops, especially the Bishop of Rome, influenced the debates by which the dogmatic formulations known as the Creeds came to be produced, thus ensuring a Pauline interpretation of the gospel. The thesis is founded, however, in a certain interpretation of the New Testament, which postulates differences between the views of Paul and the original church in Jerusalem, and between the picture of Paul in the Acts of the Apostles and his own writings, such that the essential Jewish or Old Testament character of the faith was lost, see also Jewish Christianity. It has arguably been given impetus by the growth in importance of Evangelical Christianity, most especially in the United States, which rely very much on certain of Paul's writings, in particular the Epistle to the Romans. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... This article is about statements of belief; Creed is also the name of a rock band, and a village in Cornwall A creed is a statement of belief—usually religious belief—or faith. ... The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... Jewish Christians (sometimes called also Hebrew Christians or Christian Jews, but see below for differences) is a term which can have two meanings, an historical one and a contemporary one. ... Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ...

Contents

Origins

The claim made that Christian doctrine, i.e. the teachings of Jesus, was subsequently distorted by Paul and the Church of Rome depends, first of all, on a view as to how the canon of Scripture came to be compiled, about which little is known, for details see Biblical canon. The Muratorian Canon, traditionally dated to the late second century, which probably comes from Rome, sets out a list of the New Testament Books, including the 13 letters attributed to Paul, but excluding Hebrews and two apocryphal letters attributed to Marcion; the manuscript itself is damaged and thus is an incomplete list of what was originaly therein contained. Earlier references to Paul's writing are fragmentary: Clement of Rome, writing about AD 95, quotes from Romans; Ignatius of Antioch (d. AD 115) quotes from 1 Corinthians, Romans, and from 1 Timothy and Titus as if authoritative, not merely the opinion of one writer. On the other hand, not everyone agreed with the process of reception: according to Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, writing in the latter half of the second century, the Ebionite Christians rejected Paul as an apostate from the law, using only a version of the Gospel according to St. Matthew. Those books that proved controversial as inclusions were not, however, Paul's, but such pieces as the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas. The first list of the New Testament as it is in most modern Bibles comes from Athanasius's festal epistle of 367 and the Council of Rome in 382 contains the complete list of Old and New Testaments. The biblical canon is a list of books written during the formative periods of the Jewish or Christian faiths. ... The Muratorian fragment is a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of the books of the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... ... Icon of Ignatius being eaten by lions St. ... An engraving of Irenaeus ( 130–202), bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul (now Lyon, France). ... The Ebionites (from Hebrew; Ebionim, the poor ones) were a sect of Judean followers of John the Baptizer and later Jesus (Yeshua in Aramaic) which existed in Judea and Palestine during the early centuries of the Common Era. ... The Epistle of Barnabas is a Greek treatise with some features of an epistle containing twenty-one chapters, preserved complete in the 4th century Codex Sinaiticus where it appears at the end of the New Testament. ... The Shepherd of Hermas is a Christian work of the first or second century which had great authority in ancient times and was considered by some as one of the books of the Bible. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) (c. ... The Council of Rome was a meeting of Western church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I. The previous year, the Emperor Theodosius I had appointed the dark horse candidate Nectarius Patriarch of Constantinople. ...


As to his influence, there are considerable differences of scholarly opinion concerning how far Paul did in fact influence Christian doctrine. Among the most radical is G.A. Wells, a professor of German, whose view is that Jesus was a mythical figure and that Christianity was in good part invented by Paul. More widely influential is the view of the nineteenth century German theologian F.C. Baur, founder of the Tübingen school, that Paul was utterly opposed to the disciples, based upon his view that Acts was late and unreliable and who contended that Catholic Christianity was a synthesis of the views of Paul and the Judaising church in Jerusalem. Since Harnack, the Tübingen position has been generally abandoned,[3] though the view that Paul took over the faith and transformed the Jewish teacher to the Son of God is still widely canvassed. It depends on a comparison between the books of the New Testament which cannot be made here, but see Paul of Tarsus. George Albert Wells (born 1926) is an Emeritus Professor of German at the Birkbeck College, University of London, but he is more widely known as a New Testament scholar. ... This article is part of the Jesus and history series of articles. ... Ferdinand Christian Baur (June 21, 1792 - December 2, 1860), was a German theologian and leader of the Tübingen school of theology. ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... Judaizers is a pejorative term used by Pauline Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the Law of Moses. ... Adolf von Harnack (1851-1930), theologian Otto Harnack (1857-1914), Literaturhistoriker; Historiker und Goetheforscher Theodosius Harnack Agnes von Harnack (1884-1950), Frauenrechtlerin, siehe: Agnes von Zahn-Harnack Arvid Harnack (1901-1942), Widerstandskämpfer Ernst von Harnack (1888-1945), Widerstandskämpfer Mildred Harnack geb. ... Son of God is a biblical phrase from the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and the New Testament. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ...


On the other side, are those such as Christopher Rowlands, who contends that: "the extent of his influence on Christian thought has been overestimated".[4] Thus, though thirteen letters under his name appear in the New Testament, the great controversies of the third and fourth centuries were about the Person of Christ and the nature of God - the so-called Christological and Trinitarian debates -in which St. Paul does not greatly feature; likewise, the Nicene Creed contains no doctrine of the atonement. Moreover, while the influence of the Church of Rome was very important in the creedal debates, Greek theologians such as Athanasius, the Cappadocian Fathers, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus and Gregory of Nyssa were formidable figures. The resolution of these controversies at the Council of Chalcedon was not dictated by the Bishop of Rome or Latin Christendom, but was made more difficult by the necessary task of translating technical terms between the two languages of Greek and Latin, and not by arguments over Pauline theology. Christology is that part of Christian theology that studies and defines who Jesus Christ is. ... The adjective trinitarian is used in several senses: Ideas or things pertaining to the Holy Trinity A person or group adhering to the doctrine of Trinitarianism, which holds God to subsist in the form of the Holy Trinity The Trinitarian Order is a Catholic monastic order founded in 1198 by... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. ... Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ... Basil (ca. ... Saint Gregory of Nazianzus (329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... Gregory of Nyssa ( 335 – after 394) was a Christian bishop and saint. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ...


As for the New Testament itself, there are evident tensions between the Judaizing party and Paul's views, which are made plain by a comparison between Acts and Paul's letters. How far Paul is to be taken as anti-Jewish (pro-Hellenization or Romanization) is a matter of disagreement, but there has been widespread acknowledgement of the view of W.D. Davies that the essential Jewishness of Paul's Christian perspective has been underplayed.[5] In Davies' view, Paul replaced the Torah, the Jewish Law or Mosaic Law, with Christ [6]. In any case, "the problems with which he wrestles in his letters were probably typical of many which were facing the Christian sect during this period".[7] Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards Jews (not: Semites - see the Misnomer section further on). ... Hellenisation (or Hellenization) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek (Hellenic). ... Romanization was a gradual process of cultural assimilation, in which the conquered barbarians (non-Greco-Romans) gradually adopted and largely replaced their own native culture (which in many cases were quite developed, like the culture of the Gauls or Carthage) with the culture of their conquerors - the Romans. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ...


Further, by contrast one of the common features of Protestant churches, certainly in English-speaking countries and those influenced by Luther and Calvin, is their use of formulations other than the ancient Creeds, such as the Westminster Confession, in which Pauline formulations play a much greater part. Ideas such as justification by faith, which, though not absent from Catholic formulations, play a much less important role than in Protestant thinking, in which they are fundamental, but see also Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Westminster Confession of Faith is the chief doctrinal product of the Protestant Westminster Assembly. ... Sola fide (by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine held by some Protestant denominations of Christianity, which asserts that it is on the basis of their faith that believers are forgiven their transgressions of the Law of God, rather than on the basis... The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification [1] is a document created by and agreed to by clerical representatives of the Roman Catholic Church and the Lutheran World Federation as a result of extensive ecumenical dialogue, apparently resolving the conflict over the nature of Justification which was at the...


As to the conclusion that Paul distorted rather than spelt out the faith in the age of the church, this depends upon a judgement as to wherein lies the right path. Henry Chadwick, former Oxford don, commented about a later controversy: "It was not that the heretics departed from the road; it was that they took a path along which the road was not subsequently built." Catholics and Protestants contend that Paul's writings were a legitimate interpretation of the Gospel. Those who disagree with them either argue that Paul distorted the original and true faith or claim that Christianity is, largely, his invention. The former include such secular commentators as the philosphersFriedrich Nietzsche and Bertrand Russell, whose criticisms are based upon their moral objections to Paul's thought. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a German philologist and philosopher. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, and mathematician. ...


Characteristics of 'Pauline Christianity'

The characteristics of "Pauline Christianity" can best be deduced from the writings its proponents. They are partly political and partly theological. Robert Eisenman sees Pauline Christianity as a method of taming a dangerous sect among radical Jews and making it palatable to Roman authorities. Pauline Christianity was essentially based on Rome and made use of the administrative skills, which the Rome had honed. Its system of organisation with a single bishop for each town was, on this view, the means by which it obtained its hegemony.[8]. Dr. Robert H. Eisenman is a Professor of Middle East Religions and Archaeology and Director of the Institute for the Study of Judeo-Christian Origins at California State University, Long Beach; and Visiting Senior Member of Linacre College, Oxford University. ...


The theological aspect is the claim that Paul transmuted Jesus the Jewish Messiah into the universal Saviour. Paul's thought, it is claimed, draws mostly from Stoic and Cynic sources and his knowledge of rabbinic thought was very imperfect. He was much influenced by mystery religions on this view and invented the Eucharist, echoing the communion meal of the mystery religions. Paul's new religion had the advantage over other salvation-cults of being attached to the Hebrew Scriptures, which Paul now reinterpreted as forecasting the salvation-death of Jesus. This gave Pauline Christianity an awesome authority that proved attractive to Gentiles thirsting for salvation.[9] Jesus did not intend to found a new religion, for which reason Paul's creative role was played down in, for instance, the Acts of the Apostles so that it appeared that there was greater continuity than was, in fact, the case. G.A. Wells (above) contends that Christianity is a Pauline invention and that Christ is a mythological figure. Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ...


Those who characterise the tenets of Catholic Christianity as "Pauline" also compare it with its alternatives, beliefs that Christian theologians called heresies. Other among them was Gnosticism, itself a complex set of beliefs but which, for instance, regarded evil, not as being a moral issue as Jesus did, but as related to bodily pain. They pursued, not holiness, but certain forms of inner knowledge.[10] Ebionite Christianity has also been mentioned as a non-Pauline alternative by those who contend that 'Pauline Christianity' is inauthentic. Notice has been taken of Nazarene Christians in Syria who were another very early group and who survived until at least the fourth century. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Again it is argued that the Paulines were responsible for the marginalisation of James, the leader of the Jerusalem church, in favour of Peter. (The small scatteredJewish Jerusalem Church was disbanded in 135 with the banishment of the Jews from the region by the Romans) having been decimated during the Jewiush revolt of 66-70AD). The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


A perhaps more positive attitude towards 'Pauline Christianity' is that of Messianic Jews, who see themselves as manifesting a modern version of this teaching. They believe that Jesus was the manifest "Son of God" and the Messiah, but they identify themselves as Jews. In their view, Paul, as the "Apostle to the Gentiles", was trying to take the teachings of Jesus and make them relevant and interesting to the polytheistic gentiles. In order for the fledgling Christianity to gain attention in the popular culture, the religion had to obtain certain characteristics common to the other gods and religions of that time. Messianic Judaism is any of a group of loosely related religious movements, all claiming a connection with Judaism but predominantly evangelical Christian in their beliefs, believing Jesus to be the Messiah, and using the New Testament as scripture. ... This article should be merged with: History of Christianity Christianity developed in a world of highly syncretistic religion; Alexander the Great and thereby Hellenic culture had overrun much of the civilised Near Eastern world and influenced many local religions. ...


The use of the term by Christian scholars, such as John Ziesler,[11] is altogether different. Pauline Christianity is the development of thinking about Jesus in a gentile missionary context; Christopher Rowlands (above) concludes that Paul did not materially alter the teachings of Jesus. Much turns on this view on the significance of the Council of Jerusalem. According to this view, James decreed that Christianity was for the Gentiles and not just for the Jews, and quoted the prophet Amos in support of this position (the Apostolic Decree is found in Acts 15). He entrusted Paul among others with bringing their decision to Antioch. Council of Jerusalem is a name applied in retrospect to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter 15. ...


Christians themselves disagree as to how far there was tension between Paul and the Jerusalem Church. Thus many scholars question the supposed division between Paul and James the Just despite the tension between both groups recorded in Acts (in particular,Acts 21) and in the Pauline Epistles (for example, in 2 Cor 11:5 and 12:11 he calls his opponents eminent apostles, in 1 Cor 7:10–16 he gives his own teachings on divorce: "I say—I and not the Lord"). Romans 11 is cited as evidence of harmony rather than strife between the two parties. In contemporary usage Paul made the division between those circumcised and those not circumcised, for example, in Gal 2:7–9. These terms are generally interpreted to mean Jews and Greeks, who were predominant. However, it is an oversimplification as 1st-century Iudaea Province also had some Hellenized Jews who were no longer circumcised, and there were also some Greeks (called proselytes or Judaizers) and others such as Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Arabs who were. The Pauline Privilege (Privilegium Paulinum) is a Christian concept drawn from the apostle Pauls instructions in the First Epistle to the Corinthians. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea was a Roman province that extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... Circumcision, when practiced as a rite, has its foundations in the Bible, in the Abrahamic covenant, such as Genesis 17, and is therefore practiced by Jews and Muslims and some Christians, those who constitute the Abrahamic religions. ... Proselyte, from the Greek proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for stranger (1 Chronicles 22:2), i. ... Judaizers is a pejorative term used by Pauline Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the Law of Moses. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Hans Lietzmann (1875-1942)in his History of the Early Church Vol 1 p.206
  2. ^ Ziesler John, Pauline Christianity (OUP 2001) Zielsler comments "Pauline Christianity is the earliest for which we have direct documentary evidence..."
  3. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church ed. F.L. Cross
  4. ^ Rowlands Christopher, Christian Origins (SPCK 1985) p. 194
  5. ^ See also Ed. Sanders Paul and Palestinian Judaism
  6. ^ see also Replacement theology
  7. ^ [Rowlands, Christopher, ibid. p.196
  8. ^ Ehrmann,Bart: Lost Christianities (OUP) p 175.- Ehrmann relies very much on Baur(qv)
  9. ^ MacCoby, Hyam, The Mythmaker, Paul and the Invention of Christianity (ISBN 0-06-015582--5)
  10. ^ Pagels, Elaine The Gnostic GospelsPenguin 1979
  11. ^ Ziesler, John Pauline Christianity

The New Perspective on Paul is the name given to a significant shift in how New Testament scholars interpret the writings of Paul of Tarsus, particularly in regard to Judaism and the later Protestant understanding of Justification by Faith. ... Supersessionism is the traditional Christian belief that Christianity is the fulfillment of Biblical Judaism, and therefore that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Jewish Messiah fall short of their calling as Gods Chosen people. ...

References

  • Adams, Edward and Horrell, David G. Christianity at Corinth: The Quest for the Pauline Church 2004
  • Bockmuehl, Markus N.A. Revelation and Mystery in Ancient Judaism and Pauline Christianity
  • Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament 1997 ISBN 0-385-24767-2
  • Brown, Raymond E. Does the NT call Jesus God? Theological Studies #26, 1965
  • Bruce, Frederick Fyvie. Peter, Stephen, James and John: Studies in Early Non-Pauline Christianity
  • Bruce, F.F. Men and movements in the primitive church: Studies in early non-Pauline Christianity
  • Dunn, James D.G. The Incident at Antioch (Gal 2:11-18) JSNT 18, 1983, pg 95-122
  • Dunn, James D.G. Jesus, Paul and the Law: Studies in Mark and Galatians 1990 ISBN 0-664-25095-5
  • Dunn, James D.G. The Theology of Paul's Letter to the Galatians 1993 ISBN 0-521-35953-8
  • Dunn, James D.G. The Theology of Paul the Apostle Eerdmans 1997 ISBN 0-8028-3844-8
  • Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities: The Battle for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew 2003
  • Eisenman, Robert. James the Brother of Jesus : The Key to Unlocking the Secrets of Early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls 1997 ISBN 0-670-86932-5
  • Elsner, Jas. Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph: Oxford History of Early Non-Pauline Christianity 1998 ISBN 0-19-284201-3
  • Gaus, Andy. The Unvarnished New Testament, A new translation from the original Greek free of doctrines and dogmas, ISBN 0-933999-99-2
  • Holland, Tom. Contours of Pauline Theology: A Radical New Survey on the Influences of Paul's Biblical Writings 2004 ISBN 1-85792-469-X
  • Kehl, Robert Christentum oder Paulinismus, 1961
  • Kim, Seyoon. Paul and the New Perspective : Second Thoughts on the Origin of Paul's Gospel 2001 ISBN 0-8028-4974-1
  • Martin, Dale. Slavery as Salvation: The Metaphor of Slavery in Pauline Christianity 1990
  • Maccoby, Hyam. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity 1986 ISBN 0-06-015582-5
  • MacDonald, Dennis Ronald. The Legend and the Apostle : The Battle for Paul in Story and Canon Philadelphia: Westminster Press 1983
  • Mount, Christopher N. Pauline Christianity: Luke-Acts and the Legacy of Paul 2001
  • Müller, Ulrich B. Zur frühchristlichen Theologiegeschichte. Judenchristentum und Paulinismus in Kleinasien an der Wende vom 1. zum 2. Jahrhundert nach Christus, Mohn, Gütersloh 1976 ISBN 3-579-04085-5
  • Pietersen, Lloyd K. Polemic of the Pastorals: A Sociological Examination of the Development of Pauline Christianity 2004
  • Rowlands, Christopher, Chrstian Origins SPCK 1985
  • Sanders, E.P. Jesus and Judaism 1987 ISBN 0-8006-2061-5
  • Sanders, E.P. Paul the Law and the Jewish People 1983
  • Sanders, E.P. Paul and Palestinian Judaism: A Comparison of Patterns of Religion 1977 ISBN 0-8006-1899-8
  • Schneider, Georg. Kernprobleme des Christentums. Eine Studie zu Paulus, Evangelium und Paulinismus, Klotz, Stuttgart 1959.
  • Theissen, Gerd. The Social Setting of Pauline Christianity: Essays on Corinth 2004
  • Westerholm, Stephen. Perspectives Old and New on Paul: The "Lutheran" Paul and His Critics 2003 ISBN 0-8028-4809-5
  • Wright, N.T. What Saint Paul Really Said: Was Paul of Tarsus the Real Founder of Christianity? 1997 ISBN 0-8028-4445-6
  • Ziesler, John A. Pauline Christianity, Revised 1990 ISBN 0-19-826459-3

Father Raymond Edward Brown, S.S., (born May 22, 1928, died of aids August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest appointed in 1972 and in 1996 to the Pontifical Biblical Commission, which advises the pontiff on scriptural matters, and professor emeritus at the Protestant Union Theological Seminary in... Father Raymond Edward Brown, S.S., (born May 22, 1928, died of aids August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest appointed in 1972 and in 1996 to the Pontifical Biblical Commission, which advises the pontiff on scriptural matters, and professor emeritus at the Protestant Union Theological Seminary in... James D. G. (Jimmy) Dunn was for many years the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in the Department of Theology at the University of Durham. ... James D. G. (Jimmy) Dunn was for many years the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in the Department of Theology at the University of Durham. ... James D. G. (Jimmy) Dunn was for many years the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in the Department of Theology at the University of Durham. ... James D. G. (Jimmy) Dunn was for many years the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in the Department of Theology at the University of Durham. ... Bart D. Ehrman is an historian of religions. ... Hyam Maccoby (1924-2004) was a British scholar, dramatist, and Orthodox Jew specializing in the study of the Jewish and Christian religious tradition. ... Ed Parish Sanders (born 1937) is a leading New Testament theologian (Th. ... Ed Parish Sanders (born 1937) is a leading New Testament theologian (Th. ... Ed Parish Sanders (born 1937) is a leading New Testament theologian (Th. ... Tom (N.T.) Wright is the Bishop of Durham of the Anglican Church and a leading British New Testament scholar. ...

See also

Christian anarchism is the belief that the only source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable is God, embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ... Fourth-century inscription, representing Christ as the Good Shepherd. ... The Ebionites (from Hebrew; אביונים, Ebyonim, the poor ones) were an early sect of mostly Jewish followers of Jesus, which flourished in the early centuries of the Common Era, one of several ancient Jewish Christian groups that co-existed from the 1st to the 5th century CE in and around the... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... The New Perspective on Paul is the name given to a significant shift in how New Testament scholars interpret the writings of Paul of Tarsus, particularly in regard to Judaism and the later Protestant understanding of Justification by Faith. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Council of Jerusalem is a name applied in retrospect to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter 15. ... Hyper-dispensationalism (or sometimes ultra-dispensationalism), as opposed to traditional (or classic) Dispensationalism, views the start of the Christian church as beginning with the ministry of Paul sometime late in the book of Acts. ... The Pauline Privilege (Privilegium Paulinum) is a Christian concept drawn from the apostle Pauls instructions in the First Epistle to the Corinthians. ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ...

External links

  • Early Christian Writings
  • "Paul and the Origins of Christianity"
  • PAUL...TRUE FOLLOWER OF JESUS...OR SUBVERTER OF THE FAITH OF JESUS
  • Yahshua(Jesus) & Judaism vs. Paul & Christianity
  • YAHOWSHUA OR PAUL?
  • Church Myths - Church of Christ or Paul?
  • Catholic Encylopedia entry on Judaizers
  • New Perspective on Paul

  Results from FactBites:
 
History of Christianity - encyclopedia article about History of Christianity. (7387 words)
Christianity continued to use the Jewish scriptures (the Tanakh became their Old Testament) and accept such fundamental doctrines of Judaism as monotheism, (and thus, in turn, Judaism's sole deity YHWH) and the belief in a moshiach (Hebrew term usually rendered messiah in English, which is equivalent to the term, Christ — Christos in Greek).
Christianity was not restricted to the Mediterranean basin and its hinterlands; at the time of Jesus a large proportion of the Jewish population lived in Mesopotamia outside the Roman Empire, especially in the city of Babylon, where much of the Talmud was developed.
The Baptism of Kiev in the 988 spread Christianity throughout Kievan Rus', establishing the Eastern Christian identity of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.
Pauline Christianity - definition of Pauline Christianity in Encyclopedia (250 words)
In opposition to this Pauline tradition, the forerunners of mainstream Christianity, there were various rival philosophies and formalized churches evolving in the first couple of centuries after the Crucifixion.
An important figure excluded from Pauline Christianity was James, the brother of Jesus according to the Gospels (Mark 6:3; Matthew 13:55-56) and Paul himself (Galatians 1:18), the head of the Jewish Christians in Jerusalem, a "pillar of the church" according to Paul.
Pauline Christianity was organized by Paul, who declared himself the "Apostle to the Gentiles," and his circle.
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