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Encyclopedia > Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg

In office
12 May 1925 – 2 August 1934
Preceded by Friedrich Ebert
Succeeded by Adolf Hitler
(Führer and Chancellor)

Born 2 October 1847
Posen, Germany
Died 2 August 1934
Neudeck, Germany
Political party None

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 18472 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. Download high resolution version (356x608, 33 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident, formerly Reichspräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... Hitler redirects here. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Posen (Polish: Poznań): is the German name of the city of Poznań, Poland. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Neudeck was the country estate of the Hindenburg family near Rosenberg, East Prussia. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Shoulder boards of a Generalfeldmarschall Generalfeldmarschall ( â–¶(?)) (General Field Marshal, usually translated simply as Field Marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and Austrian Empire. ...


Hindenburg enjoyed a long if undistinguished career in the Prussian army, eventually retiring in 1913. He was recalled at the outbreak of the First World War, and first came to national attention, at the age of sixty-six, as the victor at the Tannenberg. Over the next four years he and his chief of staff, Erich Ludendorff, rose in the German public's esteem until Hindenburg came to eclipse the Kaiser himself. Hindenburg retired again in 1919, but returned to public life one more time in 1925 as the second President of Germany, and the last president before the Third Reich period. A standard of the Prussian Army. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. // Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now PoznaÅ„, Poland). ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident, formerly Reichspräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The famed zeppelin that was destroyed in the Hindenburg disaster in 1937 had been named in his honour, as has the causeway joining the island of Sylt to mainland Schleswig-Holstein, the Hindenburgdamm, built during his time in office. LZ127 Graf Zeppelin, one of the two zeppelins that carried passengers from Germany to the United States. ... LZ 129 Hindenburg was a German zeppelin that was destroyed by fire while landing at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey on May 6, 1937. ... The Hindenburgdamm rail causeway across the Wadden Sea to the island of Sylt in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany In modern usage, a causeway is a road or railway elevated by a bank, usually across a broad body of water or wetland. ... The German island of Sylt is located in the North Sea off the west coast of Germany and Denmark. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Hindenburgdamm on a map of the region. ...

Contents

German army

Hindenburg was born in Posen, Prussia (since 1919 Poznań, Poland) [1] on Podgorna street, the son of Prussian aristocrat Robert von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, and his wife, Luise Schwickart, the daughter of a medical doctor, Karl Ludwig Schwickart, and his wife Julie Moennich. Hindenburg was embarrassed by his mother’s non-aristocratic background, and for this reason hardly mentioned her at all in his memoirs. His younger brothers and sister were Otto, born in Aug 24 1849, Ida, born in Dec 19 1851, and Bernhard, born in Jan 17 1859. His paternal grandparents were Eleonore von Brederlow and her husband Otto Ludwig von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, by whom he was still a remote descendant from the bastard daughter of Heinrich VI, Count of Waldeck. Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... PoznaÅ„ ( ; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... The Livonian Order joined the Teutonic Order in 1237; the Monastic State of the Teutonic Order around 1455 After the partition of the 2nd Peace of Thorn in 1466 The Prussian Homage, Jan Matejko. ...


After his education at the Wahlstatt (now Legnickie Pole) and Berlin cadet schools, he fought in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and the Franco-Prussian War (18701871). Hindenburg remained in the army, eventually being promoted to general in 1903. Meanwhile, he married Gertrud von Sperling, also an aristocrat, by whom he had an only daughter, Annemarie. He retired from the army for the first time in 1911, but was recalled on the outbreak of World War I in 1914 by the Chief of the General Staff, Helmuth von Moltke. Hindenburg was given command of the Eighth Army, then locked in combat with two Russian armies in East Prussia. Assigned as his army Chief of Staff was the staff officer Erich Ludendorff, fresh from the siege of Liege on the Western Front. Legnickie Pole (German Wahlstatt) is a small village near Legnica in Lower Silesia, Poland. ... Legnickie Pole (German Wahlstatt) is a small village near Legnica in Lower Silesia, Poland. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III # Otto Von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000[] 1,200,000[] Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian [] 70,000 dead or wounded 200... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... The German General Staff or Großer Generalstab was the most important German weapon for nearly two centuries. ... Helmuth von Moltke Chief of the General Staff Helmuth Johann Ludwig von Moltke (May 25, 1848–June 18, 1916), also known as Moltke the Younger, was a nephew of Field Marshal Count Moltke and served as the Chief of the German General Staff from 1906 to 1914. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. // Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now PoznaÅ„, Poland). ...


Hindenburg was victorious in the Battle of Tannenberg and the Battle of the Masurian Lakes against the Russian armies. Although historians attach much of the credit to the then little-known staff officer Max Hoffmann, these successes made Hindenburg a national hero. In November 1914, he was promoted to the rank of field marshal, and given the position of Supreme Commander East (Ober-Ost). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... During World War I, there was: First Battle of the Masurian Lakes, September 1914 Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, February 1915 This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Max Hoffmann Max Hoffman (one n) is the name of an Austrian-born car importer in 1950s New York - see Hoffmann for others. ... Shoulder boards of a Generalfeldmarschall Generalfeldmarschall ( â–¶(?)) (General Field Marshal, usually translated simply as Field Marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and Austrian Empire. ...


Hindenburg succeeded Erich von Falkenhayn as Chief of the General Staff in 1916, although real power was exercised by his deputy, Erich Ludendorff. From 1916 onwards, Germany became an unofficial military dictatorship, often called the "Silent dictatorship" by historians. Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. // Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now Poznań, Poland). ...

Paul von Hindenburg (left) and Erich Ludendorff. Painting by Professor Hugo Vogel.
Paul von Hindenburg (left) and Erich Ludendorff. Painting by Professor Hugo Vogel.

In September 1918, Ludendorff advised seeking an armistice with the Allies, but in October, changed his mind and resigned in protest. Ludendorff had expected Hindenburg to follow him by also resigning, but Hindenburg refused on the grounds that in this hour of crisis, he could not desert the men under his command. Ludendorff never forgave Hindenburg for this. Ludendorff was succeeded by Wilhelm Groener, a staff officer who served as Hindenburg's assistant until 1932. In November 1918, Hindenburg and Groener played a decisive role in persuading the Kaiser Wilhelm II to abdicate for the greater good of Germany. Image File history File links Hindenburg-ludendorff. ... Image File history File links Hindenburg-ludendorff. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Wilhelm Groener (November 22, 1867 - May 3, 1939) was a German soldier and politician. ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Frederick William Albert Victor; German: Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor König von Preußen) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and...


Hindenburg, who was a firm monarchist throughout his life, always regarded this episode of his life with considerable embarrassment, and almost from the moment the Kaiser abdicated, Hindenburg insisted that he had played no role in the abdication and assigned all of the blame to Groener. Groener for his part loyally went along with this in order to protect the reputation of his chief.


Aftermath of the war

At the conclusion of the war Hindenburg retired a second time, and announced his intention to retire from public life. In 1919, Hindenburg was called before a Reichstag Commission that was investigating the responsibility for both the outbreak of war in 1914 and for the defeat in 1918. The Reichstag is both an institutional assembly and a specific building. ...


Hindenburg had not wanted to appear before the commission, and had been subpoenaed. The appearance of Hindenburg before the commission was an eagerly waited public event. Ludendorff, who had fallen out with Hindenburg over the decision to continue seeking the armistice in October 1918, was concerned that Hindenburg might reveal that it was he who had advised seeking an armistice in September 1918. Ludendorff wrote a letter to Hindenburg, informing him that he was writing his memoirs and threatened to expose that Hindenburg did not deserve the credit that he had received for his victories. Ludendorff's letter went on to suggest that how Hindenburg testified would determine how favorably Ludendorff would present Hindenburg in his memoirs. A subpoena is a writ commanding a person to appear under penalty (from Latin). ...


When Hindenburg did appear before the commission, he refused to answer any questions about the responsibility for the German defeat, and instead read out a prepared statement that had been reviewed in advance by Ludendorff's lawyer. Hindenburg testified that the German Army had been on the verge of winning the war in the fall of 1918, and that the defeat had been precipitated by a Dolchstoß ("stab in the back") by disloyal elements on the home front and by unpatriotic politicians. Despite being threatened with a contempt citation for refusing to respond to questions, Hindenburg simply walked out of the hearings after reading his statement. Hindenburg's status as a war hero provided him with a political shield and he was never prosecuted. Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstosslegende (German: Dolchstoßlegende, literally Dagger stab legend often translated into English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda theory popular in Germany in the period after World... Contempt of court is a court ruling which, in the context of a court trial or hearing, deems an individual as holding contempt for the court, its process, and its invested powers. ...


Hindenburg's testimony was the first use of the Dolchstoßlegende. The field marshal credited an unnamed British general for first uttering the phrase, and the term was adopted by nationalist and conservative politicians (including Adolf Hitler) who sought to blame the socialist founders of the Weimar Republic for the loss of the war. Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda theory popular in post-World War I Germany. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann  - 1933 Adolf Hitler...


Afterwards, Hindenburg had his memoirs entitled Mein Leben (My Life) ghost-written in 1919-20. Mein Leben was a huge bestseller in Germany, but was dismissed by most military historians and critics as a boring apologia that skipped over the most controversial issues in Hindenburg's life. Afterwards, Hindenburg retired from most public appearances and spent most of his time with his family. A widower, Hindenburg was very close to his only son, Major Oskar von Hindenburg and his granddaughters. Apologia is a junior high and high school curriculum series written by Dr. Jay Wile. ... Oskar von Hindenburg (January 31, 1883 - February 12, 1960) was the politically powerful son and aide-de-camp to Field Marshal and President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg. ...


Presidency

1925 election

In 1925, Hindenburg had no interest in running for public office. In the first round of the 1925 presidential elections, no candidate had emerged with a majority and a run-off election had been called. The Social Democratic candidate, Prime Minister Otto Braun of Prussia, had agreed to drop out of the race and had endorsed the Catholic Center Party's candidate, Wilhelm Marx. Since Karl Jarres, the joint candidate of the two conservative parties, the German People's Party (DVP) and German National People's Party (DNVP) was regarded as too dull, it seemed likely that Marx would win. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, one of the leaders of the DNVP, visited Hindenburg and urged him to run. SPD redirects here. ... Otto Braun to the left, 1932 Otto Braun (28 January 1872 - 14 December 1955) was a German Social Democratic politician, who was Prime Minister of Prussia. ... The Livonian Order joined the Teutonic Order in 1237; the Monastic State of the Teutonic Order around 1455 After the partition of the 2nd Peace of Thorn in 1466 The Prussian Homage, Jan Matejko. ... The factual accuracy of this article is Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Wilhelm Marx (January 15, 1863–August 5, 1946) was a German Catholic politician and a member of the Centre Party. ... This page is about the German Peoples Party which existed between 1918 and 1933. ... 1924 electoral poster, using the Admiral Tirpitz as a figurehead The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... Alfred von Tirpitz Alfred von Tirpitz (March 19, 1849 – March 6, 1930) was a German Admiral, Minister of State and Commander of the Kaiserliche Marine in World War I from 1914 until 1916. ...


Hindenburg initially demurred, but under strong pressure from Tirpitz applied over several meetings, broke down and agreed to run. Though Hindenburg ran during the second round of the elections as a non-party independent, he was generally regarded as the conservative candidate. Largely because of his status as Germany's greatest war hero, Hindenburg won the election. He was aided by the support of the Bavarian People's Party (BVP), which switched its support from Marx,and the refusal of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) to withdraw its candidate, Ernst Thälmann. Conservatism is a political philosophy that usually favors traditional values and strong foreign defense. ... The Bavarian Peoples Party (Bayerische Volkspartei) was the Bavarian branch of the Centre Party, which broke off from the rest of the party in 1919 to pursue a more conservative, Bavarian particularist, course. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... Ernst Thälmann memorial in Weimar. ...


First term

For the first five years after taking office, Hindenburg fulfilled his duties of office with dignity and decorum. For the most part, Hindenburg refused to allow himself to be drawn into the maelstrom of German politics in the period, and sought to play the role of a republican equivalent of a constitutional monarch. Although often referred to as the Ersatzkaiser (substitute Emperor), Hindenburg made no effort to restore the monarchy and took his oath to the Weimar Constitution seriously. The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ...


In private, Hindenburg often complained that he missed the quiet of his retirement and bemoaned that he had allowed himself to be pressured into running for President. Hindenburg carped that politics was full of issues such as economics that he did not, and did not want to, understand. He was surrounded, however, by a coterie of advisers antipathetic to the Weimar constitution. These advisers included his son, Oskar, Otto Meissner, General Wilhelm Groener, and General Kurt von Schleicher. This group were known as the Kamarilla. The younger Hindenburg served as his father's aide-de-camp and controlled politicians' access to the President. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Oskar von Hindenburg (January 31, 1883 - February 12, 1960) was the politically powerful son and aide-de-camp to Field Marshal and President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg. ... Otto Meißner (born March 13, 1880 in Bischweile (today: Bischwiller) in Alsace - died May 27, 1953 in Munich) was head of the Office of the Reich President during the entire period of the Weimar Republic under Friedrich Ebert and Paul von Hindenburg and, finally, at the beginning of the... Wilhelm Groener (November 22, 1867 - May 3, 1939) was a German soldier and politician. ... Kurt von Schleicher (4 April 1882–30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... A camarilla is a group of courtiers or favorites which surround a king or ruler. ... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ...


Schleicher was a close friend of Oskar and came to enjoy privileged access to Hindenburg. It was he who came up with the idea of Presidential government based on the so-called "25/48/53 formula". Under a "Presidential" government the head of government (in this case, the chancellor), is responsible to the head of state, and not a legislative body. The "25/48/53 formula" referred to the three articles of the Constitution that could make a "Presidential government" possible: The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ...

  • Article 25 allowed the President to dissolve the Reichstag.
  • Article 48 allowed the President to sign into law emergency bills without the consent of the Reichstag. However, the Reichstag could cancel any law passed by Article 48 by a simple majority within sixty days of its passage.
  • Article 53 allowed the President to appoint the Chancellor.

Schleicher's idea was to have Hindenburg appoint a man of Schleicher's choosing as chancellor, who would rule under the provisions of Article 48. If the Reichstag should threaten to annul any laws so passed, Hindenburg could counter with the threat of dissolution. Hindenburg was unenthusiastic about these plans, but was pressured into going along with them by his son along with Meissner, Groener and Schleicher. The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Dissolution can have the following meanings : In chemistry, it is the process of dissolving a substance into a liquid. ...


Presidential government

The first attempt to establish a "presidential government" had occurred in 19261927, but foundered for lack of political support. During the winter of 19291930, however, Schleicher had more success. After a series of secret meetings attended by Meissner, Schleicher, and Heinrich Brüning, the parliamentary leader of the Catholic Center Party (Zentrum), Schleicher and Meissner were able to persuade Brüning to go along with the plan for "presidential government". How much Brüning knew of Schleicher's ultimate plans to abolish democratic governance altogether is unclear.Schleicher then set about making worse a bitter dispute within the "Grand Coalition" government between the Social Democrats and the German People’s Party over whether the unemployment insurance rate should be raised by a half a percentage point or a full percentage point. The end result of these intrigues by Schleicher was the fall of Müller’s government in March 1930 and Brüning being named Chancellor by Hindenburg. Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Dr. Heinrich Brüning (November 26, 1885–March 30, 1970) was a German politician and Chancellor of Germany. ... The factual accuracy of this article is Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... SPD redirects here. ... This page is about the German Peoples Party which existed between 1918 and 1933. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ...


Brüning's first act as Chancellor was to introduce a budget calling for steep spending cuts and sharp tax increases. When the budget was defeated in July 1930, Brüning had Hindenburg sign the budget into law via Article 48. When the Reichstag voted to cancel the budget, Brüning had Hindenburg dissolve Reichstag only two years into its mandate, and had the budget passed again by Article 48. The September 1930 elections saw the Nazis making an electoral breakthrough, going from 2% of the vote in 1928 to 17% in 1930. Also making striking, though not as dramatic gains in the 1930 elections was the Communist Party of Germany. National Socialism redirects here. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ...


After the 1930 elections, Brüning continued to govern largely through Article 48; his government was kept afloat by the support of the Social Democrats who voted not to cancel his Article 48 bills in order not to have another election that could only benefit the Nazis and the Communists. Hindenburg for his part grew increasingly annoyed at Brüning, complaining that he was growing tired of using Article 48 all the time to pass bills. Hindenburg also found the detailed notes that Brüning submitted explaining the economic necessity of each of his bills to be incomprehensible. Brüning continued with his policies of raising taxes and cutting spending in order to deal with the Great Depression; the only areas where government spending rose was in the area of defense and in the subsidies for Junkers in the so-called Osthilfe (Eastern Aid) program. Both of these spending increases reflected Hindenburg's concerns. The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn which started in October of 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. ...


In October 1931, Hindenburg and Hitler had their first meeting. The Hindenburg-Hitler meeting was a disaster as both men took an immediate and immense dislike to one another. In private, Hindenburg disparagingly referred to Hitler as "that Austrian corporal", "the Bohemian corporal" and sometimes just simply as "the corporal". Hitler in turn, often described Hindenburg as "that old fool" and "the old reactionary". Right up until January 1933, Hindenburg often stated that he would never appoint Hitler as Chancellor under any circumstances. On 26 January 1933, Hindenburg told a group of his friends: "Gentlemen, I hope you will not hold me capable of appointing this Austrian corporal to be Reich Chancellor".[1] Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


January 1932 - January 1933: A year of decisions

Although Hindenburg was now lapsing in and out of senility, he was persuaded to run for re-election in 1932, as the only candidate who could defeat Adolf Hitler. Hindenburg had wanted to leave office in 1932, but was urged by the Kamarilla to run again in order to keep Hitler out of office. Hitler redirects here. ...


Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to stay in office, but wanted to avoid an election. The only way this was possible was for the Reichstag to vote to cancel the election with a two-thirds supermajority. Since the Nazis were the second-largest party, their co-operation was vital if this was to be done. The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level or type of support which exceeds a simple majority in order to have effect. ...


Brüning met with Hitler in January 1932 to ask if he would agree to the President's demand to forgo the election. Hitler stated he would only if Brüning would fulfill a set of impossible demands.


Brüning rejected Hitler's demands as totally outrageous and unreasonable. By this time, Schleicher had decided that Brüning had become an obstacle to his plans and was already plotting Brüning's downfall. Schleicher convinced Hindenburg that the reason why Hitler had rejected Brüning's offer was because Brüning had deliberately sabotaged the talks to force the elderly president into a grueling re-election battle.


During the election campaign of 1932, Brüning had campaigned hard for Hindenburg's re-election. As Hindenburg was in bad health and a poor speaker anyhow, the task of travelling the country and delivering speeches for Hindenburg had fallen upon Brüning. Hindenburg’s campaign appearances usually consisted simply of appearing before the crowd and waving to them without speaking.


In the first round of the election held in March 1932, Hindenburg emerged as the frontrunner, but failed to gain a majority. In the runoff election of April 1932, Hindenburg defeated Hitler for the Presidency. An example of runoff voting. ...


After the presidential elections had ended, Schleicher held a series of secret meetings with Hitler in May 1932, and thought that he had obtained a "gentleman's agreement" in which Hitler had agreed to support the new "presidential government" that Schleicher was building. At the same time, Schleicher, with Hindenburg's complicit consent, had set about undermining Brüning's government.


The first blow occurred in May 1932, when Schleicher had Hindenburg sack Groener as Defense Minister in a way that was designed to humiliate both Groener and Brüning. On 31 May 1932, Hindenburg sacked Brüning as Chancellor and replaced him with the man that Schleicher had suggested, Franz von Papen. May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German noble Catholic statesman, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ...


"The Government of Barons" as von Papen's government was known, openly had as its objective the destruction of German democracy. Like Brüning's government, von Papen's government was a "presidential government" that governed through the use of Article 48.


Unlike Brüning, von Papen ingratiated himself to Hindenburg and his son through the use of the most oleaginous flattery. von Papen's easy charm and his sense of humour made him Hindenburg's favorite Chancellor. Much to Schleicher's annoyance, von Papen quickly replaced him as Hindenburg's favorite advisor.


The French Ambassador André François-Poncet reported to his superiors in Paris that "It's he [Papen] who is the preferred one, the favorite of the Marshal; he diverts the old man through his vivacity, his playfulness; he flatters him by showing him respect and devotion; he beguiles him with his daring; he is in [Hindenburg's] eyes the perfect gentleman"".[2] André François-Poncet (June 13, 1887–January 8, 1978) was a French politician and diplomat whose post as French ambassador to Germany allowed him to witness first-hand the rise to power of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, and Germanys preparations for war. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


In accordance with Schleicher's "gentleman's agreement", Hindenburg dissolved the Reichstag and set new elections for July 1932. Schleicher and von Papen both believed that the Nazis would win the majority of the seats and would support von Papen's government. Hitler staged an electoral comeback, with his Nazi party winning a solid plurality of seats in the Reichstag. National Socialism redirects here. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ...


Following the Nazi electoral triumph in the Reichstag elections held on 31 July 1932, there were widespread expectations that Hitler would soon be appointed Chancellor. Moreover, Hitler repudiated the "gentleman's agreement" and declared that he wanted the Chancellorship for himself. In a meeting between Hindenburg and Hitler held on 13 August 1932, in Berlin, Hindenburg firmly rejected Hitler's demands for the Chancellorship. July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


The minutes of the meeting were kept by Otto Meissner, the Chief of the Presidential Chancellery. According to the minutes: Otto Meißner (born March 13, 1880 in Bischweile (today: Bischwiller) in Alsace - died May 27, 1953 in Munich) was head of the Office of the Reich President during the entire period of the Weimar Republic under Friedrich Ebert and Paul von Hindenburg and, finally, at the beginning of the...


"Herr Hitler declared that, for reasons which he had explained in detail to the Reich President that morning, his taking any part in cooperation with the existing government was out of the question. Considering the importance of the National Socialist movement, he must demand the full and complete leadership of the government and state for himself and his party.


The Reich President in reply said firmly that he must answer this demand with a clear, unyielding No. He could not justify before God, before his conscience, or before the Fatherland the transfer of the whole authority of government to a single party, especially to a party that was biased against people who had different views from their own. There were a number of other reasons against it, upon which he did not wish to enlarge in detail, such as fear of increased unrest, the effect on foreign countries, etc.


Herr Hitler repeated that any other solution was unacceptable to him.


To this the Reich President replied: "So you will go into opposition?"


Hitler: "I have now no alternative".[3]


After refusing Hitler’s demands for the Chancellorship, Hindenburg had a press release issued of his meeting with Hitler that implied that Hitler had demanded absolute power and had his knuckles rapped by the President for making such a demand. Hitler was enraged by this press release. A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ...


However, given Hitler’s determination to take power legally, Hindenburg’s refusal to appoint Chancellor was an impassable quandary for Hitler.


When the Reichstag convened in September 1932, its first and only act was to pass a massive vote of no-confidence in von Papen’s government. In response, von Papen had Hindenburg dissolve the Reichstag for elections in November 1932.


The second Reichstag elections saw the Nazi vote drop from 37% to 32%, though the Nazis once again remained the largest party in the Reichstag. After the November elections, there ensued another round of fruitless talks between Hindenburg, von Papen, von Schleicher on the one hand and Hitler and the other Nazi leaders on the other.


The President and the Chancellor wanted Nazi support for the "Government of the President's Friends"; at most they were prepared to offer Hitler the meaningless office of Vice-Chancellor. On 24 November 1932, during the course of another Hitler-Hindenburg meeting, Hindenburg stated his fears that " ... a presidential cabinet led by Hitler would necessarily develop into a party dictatorship with all its consequences for an extreme aggravation of the conflicts within the German people".[4] November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ...


Hitler for his part, remained adamant that Hindenburg give him the Chancellorship and nothing else. These demands were incompatible and unacceptable to both sides and the stalemate continued. To break the political stalemate, von Papen proposed that Hindenburg declare martial law and do away with democracy via a presidential putsch. For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...


von Papen won over Oscar Hindenburg with this idea and the two persuaded Hindenburg for once to forgo his oath to the Constitution and go along with this plan. Schleicher, who had come to see von Papen as a threat, blocked the martial law move by unveiling the results of a war games exercise that showed if martial law was declared, the Nazi SA and the Communist Red Front Fighters would rise up, the Poles would invade and the Reichswehr would be unable to cope. The seal of SA The   or SA (German for Storm Division, usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... Rotfrontkämpferbund (RFB, other variants: Rote Frontkämpferbund, Roter Frontkämpferbund) (English: Red Front Fighters League, Red Front Fighters Association) was a paramilitary organization of the Communist Party of Germany, created on July 18, 1924 in Germany of the Weimar Republic period. ... The Reichswehr (help· info) (literally National Defense or Imperial Defense) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when the government rebranded it as the Wehrmacht (Defence Force). ...


Whether this was the honest result of a war games exercise or just a fabrication by von Schleicher to force von Papen out of office is a matter of some historical debate. The opinion of most leans towards the latter, for in January 1933 von Schleicher would tell Hindenburg that new war games had shown the Reichswehr would crush both the SA and Red Front Fighters and defend the eastern borders from a Polish invasion.


The results of the war games forced von Papen to resign in December 1932 in favor of von Schleicher. Hindenburg was most upset at losing his favorite Chancellor, and suspecting that the war games were faked to force von Papen out, came to bear a grudge against Schleicher.



von Papen for his part, was determined to get back into office and on 4 January 1933, von Papen met with Hitler to discuss how they could bring down Schleicher’s government, though the talks were inconclusive largely because von Papen and Hitler each coveted the Chancellorship for himself. January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


However, von Papen and Hitler agreed to keep talking. Ultimately, von Papen came to believe that he could control Hitler from behind the scenes and decided to support him for Chancellor. von Papen then persuaded Meissner and the younger Hindenburg of the merits of his plan, and the three then spent the second half of January pressuring Hindenburg into naming Hitler as Chancellor. Hindenburg was most loath to consider Hitler as Chancellor and preferred that von Papen hold that office instead.


However, the pressure from Meissner, von Papen and the younger Hindenburg was relentless and by the end of January, the President had decided to appoint Hitler Chancellor. On the morning of 30 January 1933, Hindenburg swore Hitler in as Chancellor at the Presidential Palace. January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


The Machtergreifung

German stamps of Hindenburg with the mention "Elsass" produced in 1940

Hindenburg played a supporting but key role in the Nazi Machtergreifung (Seizure of Power) in 1933. In the "Government of National Concentration" headed by Hitler, the Nazis were in the minority. Besides Hitler, the only other Nazi ministers were Hermann Göring and Wilhelm Frick. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2235x2039, 525 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Paul von Hindenburg Alsace Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2235x2039, 525 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Paul von Hindenburg Alsace Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Hindenburg may refer to: Paul von Hindenburg (1847 – 1934), German general in World War I and president of Germany (1925 – 1934) Oskar von Hindenburg (1883 – 1960), son of the former Carl Hindenburg, mathematician Named after Paul von Hindenburg: Hindenburg in Oberschlesien, from 1915 to 1945 the name of the city... Machtergreifung is a German word meaning seizure of power. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... Dr. Wilhelm Frick (March 12, 1877 â€“ October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official. ...


Most of the other ministers were hold-overs from the von Papen and von Schleicher governments, and the ones who were not, such as Alfred Hugenberg of the D.N.V.P., were not Nazis. Alfred Hugenberg (June 19, 1865 - March 12, 1951) was an influential German businessman and politician. ... 1924 electoral poster, using the Admiral Tirpitz as a figurehead The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ...


This had the effect of assuring Hindenburg that the room for radical moves on the part of the Nazis was limited. Moreover, Hindenburg's favorite politician, von Papen, was the Vice-Chancellor and the Reich Commissioner for Prussia. Reichskommissar (rendered as Commissionary of the Empire or Reich Commissioner; plural Reichskommissare) was an official title of authorized representative of the Second and Third German Reichs (Kaiser viz. ...


Hitler's first act as Chancellor was to ask Hindenburg to dissolve the Reichstag so that the Nazis and D.N.V.P. could increase their number of seats and pass the Enabling Act. Hindenburg agreed to this request. The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ...


In early February 1933, von Papen asked for and received an Article 48 bill signed into law that sharply limited the freedom of press. After the Reichstag fire, Hindenburg signed into law the Reichstag Fire Decree. Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... A German newspapers final issue, announcing its own prohibition (Verbot) by the police authorities on the basis of the Reichstag fire decree The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung in German) is the common name of the decree issued by German president Paul von Hindenburg in direct response to the Reichstag...


At the opening of the new Reichstag on 21 March 1933, at the Kroll Opera House, the Nazis staged an elaborate ceremony, in which Hindenburg played the leading part, that was meant to mark the continuity between the Prussian-German tradition and the new Nazi state. March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


The ceremony at the Kroll Opera House had the effect of reassuring many Germans, especially conservative Germans, that life would be fine under the new regime. On 23 March 1933, Hindenburg signed the Enabling Act into law. March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in leap years). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Though Hindenburg was in increasingly bad health, the Nazis made sure that whenever Hindenburg did appear in public it was in Hitler’s company. During these appearances, Hitler always made a point of showing the utmost respect and reverence for the President.


In private, Hitler continued to detest Hindenburg, and expressed the hope that "the old reactionary" would die as soon as possible, so that Hitler could merge the offices of Chancellor and President into one.


Hitler was always very conscious of the fact that the President was the Supreme Commander-In-Chief of the German armed forces, and that given that Hindenburg was a revered figure in the German Army, that if the President decided to sack Hitler as Chancellor, there was little doubt that the Reichswehr would side with Hindenburg. Thus, as long as Hindenburg lived, Hitler was always very careful to avoid offending him. The German Army (German: Heer, [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


The only time Hindenburg ever objected to a Nazi bill occurred in early April 1933. The Reichstag had passed a Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service that called for the immediate sacking of all Jewish civil servants at the Reich, Land, and municipal levels. The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (in German: Gesetze zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums or short: Berufsbeamtengesetz), also known as Civil Service Law, Civil Service Restoration Act, and Law to Re-establish the Civil Service, was a law which was passed by the National Socialist regime on... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ...


Hindenburg refused to sign this bill into law until it had been amended to exclude all Jewish veterans of World War One, Jewish civil servants who served in the civil service during the war and those Jewish civil servants whose fathers were veterans. Hitler, who believed that the Jews had actually sought to undermine Germany during the great war, amended the bill to meet Hindenburg’s objections.


Hindenburg remained in office until his death at the age of 86 from lung cancer at his home in Neudeck, East Prussia on 2 August 1934 (exactly two months short of his 87th birthday). Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for up to 3 million deaths annually. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


One day before Hindenburg's death, Hitler flew to Neudeck and visited him. Hindenburg, old and senile, thought he was meeting Kaiser Wilhelm II, and called Hitler "Your Majesty". Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ...

Hindenburg's image on a German postage stamp overprinted for use in Nazi-occupied Poland.
Hindenburg's image on a German postage stamp overprinted for use in Nazi-occupied Poland.

He would be Germany's last president until 1945, when Karl Dönitz became president, as following Hindenburg's death, Hitler declared the office of President to be permanently vacant, effectively merging it with the office of Chancellor under the title of Leader and Chancellor (Führer und Reichskanzler), making himself Germany's Head of State and Head of government, thereby completing the progress of Gleichschaltung. Download high resolution version (600x701, 77 KB)Hindenburg German postage stamp, overprinted OSTEN for use in Nazi-occupied Poland This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (600x701, 77 KB)Hindenburg German postage stamp, overprinted OSTEN for use in Nazi-occupied Poland This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ); September 16, 1891–December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, famous for his command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and for his twenty-day term as President of Germany after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ...


Weimar's Constitution implied that in case of a president's death or inability to hold office, the chancellor would replace him until new presidential elections could be held. Hitler, though, with the Enabling Act in force, never asked for them. The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ...


Instead, Hitler had a plebiscite held on 19 August 1934, in which the German people were asked if they approved of Hitler merging the two offices. The Ja (Yes) vote amounted to 90% of the vote. August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Hindenburg himself was said to be a monarchist who favored a restoration of the German monarchy. Though he hoped one of the Prussian princes would be appointed to succeed him as Head of State, he did not attempt to use his powers in favour of such a restoration, as he considered himself bound by the oath he had sworn on the Weimar Constitution. Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... The German Monarchy existed formally from 1871 to 1918. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ...


It has been alleged that Hindenburg’s will asked for Hitler to restore the monarchy. However, the truth of this story cannot be established as Oskar von Hindenburg destroyed the portions of his father’s will relating to politics.


It has been argued that the political testament of Hindenburg’s will that was made public in 1934, in which Hindenburg expresses the greatest thanks for Hitler was forged by Oskar von Hindenburg as a way of ingratiating himself with Hitler.


Burial

Hindenburg was buried in the Tannenberg memorial near Tannenberg, East Prussia (today: Stębark, Poland) against the wishes he had expressed during his life. Hindenburg always said he wanted to be buried next to his beloved wife. In 1945, German troops removed his and his wife's coffins, to save them from the approaching Soviets, to Marburg an der Lahn in western Germany (Hindenburg was an Honorary Citizen of this town). The caskets of Hindenburg and his wife were found in an abandoned salt mine on 27 April 1945 by U.S. Army Ordnance troops. Later that month, he and his wife were interred anew in the famous Elisabeth Church in the North Tower Chapel. The Tannenberg memorial was a German memorial remembering the fallen soldiers from the Battle of Tannenberg in 1914. ... Marburg is a town in Hessen, Germany, on the Lahn river. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... An old painting showing the Elisabeth Church The Elisabeth Church in Marburg was built by the Order of the Teutonic Knights in honor of Elisabeth of Hungary. ...


He still rests there, although the church chapter recently voted to keep the lights switched off at his tomb. Will Lang Jr., correspondent of Life, wrote an article (6 March, 1950) about how the United States Army Ordnance troops found the coffins. His tombstone simply states "Paul von Hindenburg 1847-1934". Will Lang Jr. ... Edward Steichens portrait of Greta Garbo. ...


Evaluation

Although he was widely esteemed in his time, his biographers John Wheeler-Bennett and Andreas Dorpalen have argued that beneath Hindenburg's façade of strength and power was a weak-willed and not particularly intelligent man who, while well-meaning, was highly dependent upon the advice of others to make decisions. Sir John Wheeler Wheeler-Bennett, GCVO, MCG, OBE, FRSL, FBA, (October 13, 1902-December 9, 1975) was a conservative British historian of German and diplomatic history. ...


In Wheeler-Bennett's phrase, Hindenburg was the "Wooden Titan"; a man who looked impressive on the outside but who was hollow and empty on the inside.


Popular culture

In F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, Gatsby is rumoured to be related to von Hindenburg. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an Irish American Jazz Age author of novels and short stories . ... The Great Gatsby is a novel by the American author F. Scott Fitzgerald. ...


References

  1. ^ Jäckel, Eberhard Hitler in History page 8.
  2. ^ Turner, Henry Hitler's Thirty Days to Power page 41.
  3. ^ Noakes, Jeremy & Pridham, Geoffrey (editors) Nazism 1919-1945 Volume 1 The Rise to Power 1919-1934 pages 104-105.
  4. ^ Jäckel, Eberhard Hitler in History page 8.

Sources

  • Asprey, Robert The German High Command at War: Hindenburg and Ludendorff Conduct World War I, New York, New York, W. Morrow, 1991.
  • Bracher, Karl Dietrich Die Aufloesung der Weimarer Republik; eine Studie zum Problem des Machtverfalls in der Demokratie Villingen: Schwarzwald, Ring-Verlag, 1971.
  • Dorpalen, Andreas Hindenburg and the Weimar Republic, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1964.
  • Eschenburg, Theodor "The Role of the Personality in the Crisis of the Weimar Republic: Hindenburg, Brüning, Groener, Schleicher" pages 3-50 from Republic to Reich The Making Of The Nazi Revolution edited by Hajo Holborn, New York: Pantheon Books, 1972.
  • Feldman, G.D. Army, Industry and Labor in Germany, 1914-1918, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1966.
  • Görlitz, Walter Hindenburg: Ein Lebensbild, Bonn: Athenäeum, 1953.
  • Görlitz, Walter Hindenburg, eine Auswalh aus Selbstzeugnissen des Generalfeldmarschalls und Reichpräsidenten, Bielefeld: Velhagen & Klasing, 1935.
  • Hiss, O.C. Hindenburg: Eine Kleine Streitschrift, Potsdam: Sans Souci Press, 1931.
  • Jäckel, Eberhard Hitler in History, Hanover N.H.: Brandeis University Press, 1984.
  • Kershaw, Sir Ian, Hitler. 1889-1936: Hubris New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1998; German edition, Munich, 1998, p. 659.
  • Kitchen, Martin The Silent Dictatorship: The Politics of the High Command under Hindenburg and Ludendorff, 1916-1918, London: Croom Helm, 1976.
  • Maser, Werner Hindenburg: Eine politische Biographie, Rastatt: Moewig, 1990.
  • Noakes, Jeremy & Pridham, Geoffrey (editors) Nazism 1919-1945 Volume 1 The Rise to Power 1919-1934, Department of History and Archaeology, University of Exeter, United Kingdom, 1983.
  • Wheeler-Bennett, Sir John Hindenburg: the Wooden Titan, London : Macmillan, 1967; New York, Morrow, 1936.
  • Turner, Henry Ashby Hitler's thirty days to power : January 1933, Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1996.

Karl Dietrich Bracher (March 13, 1922-) is a German historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. ... Eberhard Jäckel (June 29, 1929-) is a Social Democratic German historian, noted for his studies of Adolf Hitlers role in German history. ... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ... Sir John Wheeler Wheeler-Bennett, GCVO, MCG, OBE, FRSL, FBA, (October 13, 1902-December 9, 1975) was a conservative British historian of German and diplomatic history. ... Henry Ashby Turner, Jr. ...

See also

The presidential election (Reichspräsidentenwahl) of 1925 was the first direct election to the office of Reichspräsident (Reich President), Germanys head of state during the 1919-1933 Weimar Republic. ... The presidential election (Reichspräsidentenwahl) of 1932 was the second and final direct election to the office of President (Reichspräsident), Germanys head of state during the 1919-1934 Weimar Republic. ...

External links

  • http://www.rosenberg-wpr.de/Hindenburg/Hindenburg.htm (German only, with many photos)
  • http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/HindenburgPaul/index.html (German only, some photos)
Preceded by
Erich von Falkenhayn
Chief of the General Staff
1916 – 1919
Succeeded by
Wilhelm Groener
Preceded by
Friedrich Ebert
President of Germany
1925 – 1934
Succeeded by
Adolf Hitler
(Führer and Chancellor)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Paul von Hindenburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5486 words)
Hindenburg was victorious in the Battle of Tannenberg (1914) and the 1914 Battle of the Masurian Lakes against the Russian army.
Hindenburg who was a firm monarchist throughout his life, always regarded this episode of his life with considerable embarrassment, and almost from the moment the Kaiser abdicated, Hindenburg insisted that he played no role in the abdication and assigned all of the blame to Groener.
Though Hindenburg ran during the second round of the elections as a non-party independent, he was generally regarded as the conservative candidate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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