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Encyclopedia > Paul the Apostle
St. Paul

St. Paul, by El Greco
Apostle to the Gentiles, Martyr
Born no scholarly consensus on date,  in Tarsus (Acts 22:3)
Died AD 64-67,  in Rome during Nero's Persecution (EH 3.1)
Major shrine Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
Feast January 25 (The Conversion of Paul)

One of four saints with two feast days February 10 (Feast of Saint Paul's Shipwreck in Malta) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (633x823, 79 KB) Summary St. ... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... 68. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... Basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura — known in English as the Basilica of St Paul Outside the Walls or St Paul-without-the-Walls — is one of five churches considered to be the great ancient basilicas of Rome. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


June 29 (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul) is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


November 18 (Feast of the dedication of the basilicas of Saints Peter and Paul) is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Attributes sword
Saints Portal

St. Paul the Apostle (Hebrew: שאול התרסיŠaʾul HaTarsi, meaning "Saul of Tarsus", Ancient Greek: Σαῦλος Saulos and Παῦλος Paulos[1]), the "Apostle to the Gentiles"[2] was, together with Saint Peter, the most notable of Early Christian missionaries. Unlike the Twelve Apostles, there is no indication that Paul ever met Jesus prior to Jesus' crucifixion.[3] According to Acts, his conversion took place as he was traveling the road to Damascus, and experienced a vision of the resurrected Jesus[4]. He stressed that his apostolic authority was based on Jesus' appointment of him during that vision[citation needed](1 Cor 15:8-9?). Paul asserts that he received the Gospel not from man, but by "the revelation of Jesus Christ".[5] Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... 68. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... “St Peter” redirects here. ... The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... An illumination depicting the Conversion of Saint Paul from Livre dHeures dÉtienne Chevalier (c. ... In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus The Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ...


Fourteen epistles in the New Testament are traditionally attributed to Paul, though in some cases the authorship is disputed. Paul had often employed an amanuensis, only occasionally writing himself.[6][7] As a sign of authenticity, the writers of these epistles[8] sometimes employ a passage presented as being in Paul's own handwriting. These epistles were circulated within the Christian community. They were prominent in the first New Testament canon ever proposed (by Marcion), and they were eventually included in the orthodox Christian canon. They are believed to be the earliest-written books of the New Testament. A nineteenth century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus, thirteen of which are explicitly ascribed to Paul, and one, Hebrews, is anonymous. ... A secretary is a person who performs routine, administrative, or personal tasks for a superior. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ...


Paul's influence on Christian thinking arguably has been more significant than any other New Testament author.[9] His influence on the main strands of Christian thought has been demonstrable: from St. Augustine of Hippo to the controversies between Gottschalk and Hincmar of Reims; between Thomism and Molinism; Martin Luther, John Calvin and the Arminians; to Jansenism and the Jesuit theologians, and even to the German church of the twentieth century through the writings of the scholar Karl Barth, whose commentary on the Letter to the Romans had a political as well as theological impact. St. ... There were or are the following people named Gottschalk: Gottschalk, Prince of Vends (Slavic), 11th century Gottschalk, German monk, 9th century Gottschalk, Bishop of Freising, beneficiary of the 996 Ostarrîchi document Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829–1869) American composer and pianist Thomas Gottschalk, German entertainer and actor (born 1950... Hincmar (c. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... Molinism, named after 16th Century Jesuit theologian Luis de Molina, is a religious doctrine which attempts to reconcile the omniscience of God with human free will. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Arminianism is a Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. ... Jansenism was a branch of Catholic thought tracing itself back to Cornelius Otto Jansen (1585 – 1638), a Flemish theologian. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Karl Barth Karl Barth (May 10, 1886 – December 10, 1968) (pronounced bart) a Swiss Reformed theologian, was one of the most influential Christian thinkers of the 20th century. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ...

Contents

Sources of information

In trying to reconstruct the events of Paul's life, the main sources are Paul's own letters and the Acts of the Apostles, traditionally attributed to St. Luke.[10] Different views are held as to the reliability of the latter. Some scholars, such as Hans Conzelmann and twentieth-century theologian John Knox (not the 16th century John Knox), dispute the historical accuracy of Acts.[11][12] Even allowing for omissions in Paul's own account, which is found particularly in Galatians, there are many differences between his account and that in Acts.[13] (Please see the full discussion in Acts of the Apostles). The Acts of Paul and the Clementine literature also contain information about Paul. Hans Conzelmann (October 27, 1915 – June 20, 1989) was a German scholar who made many significant contributions to New Testament research in the twentieth century, including his book on Luke-Acts and Lukan theology , which triggered much of the serious discussion on Lukan theology, according to Luke Timothy Johnsons... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... The Acts of Paul and Thecla (Acta Pauli et Theclae) is an apocryphal story of St Pauls influence on the young virgin, Thecla. ... Clementine literature (also called Clementia, Pseudo-Clementine Writings, The Preaching of Peter etc. ...


Early life

Saint Paul's conversion, by Jean Fouquet.
Saint Paul's conversion, by Jean Fouquet.

According to Acts,[14] Paul was born in Tarsus, Cilicia in Asia Minor, or modern-day Turkey, under the name Saul, "an Israelite of the tribe of Benjamin, circumcised on the eighth day" (Philippians 3:5). However, Paul's own letters never mention this as his birthplace, nor is the name "Saul" alluded to. Acts records that Paul was a Roman citizen — a privilege he used a number of times in his defence, appealing against convictions in Judaea to Rome (Acts 22:25 and Acts 27–28). According to Acts 22:3, he studied in Jerusalem under the Rabbi Gamaliel, well known in Paul's time. He described himself as a Pharisee (Acts 23:6). He supported himself during his travels and while preaching — a fact he alludes to a number of times (e.g., 1 Cor. 9:13-15). According to Acts 18:3 he worked as a tentmaker. Image File history File links Saint_Paul. ... Image File history File links Saint_Paul. ... Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (c. ... 68. ... In the Roman Republic and later in the Roman Empire, all men could be very roughly divided into three classes. ... Gamaliel the Elder, or Rabbi Gamaliel I, was the grandson of the great Jewish teacher Hillel the Elder. ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ...


He first appears in the pages of the New Testament as a witness to the martyrdom of Stephen (Acts 7:57-8:3). He was, as he described himself, a persistent persecutor of the Church (1 Corinthians 15:9, Galatians 1:13) (almost all of whose members were Jewish or Jewish proselytes), until his experience on the Road to Damascus which resulted in his conversion. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... St. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Proselyte, from the Greek proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for stranger (1 Chronicles 22:2), i. ... The Road to Damascus is a Biblical reference to the conversion of a persecutor of Christians named Saul on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus in the Roman province of Syria in AD 36. ...

The house of St. Ananias in Damascus
The house of St. Ananias in Damascus

Paul himself is very disinclined to talk about the precise character of his conversion (Galatians 1:11–24) though he uses it as authority for his independence from the apostles. In Acts there are three accounts of his conversion experience: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1440x1080, 1649 KB) Inside the alleged house of St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1440x1080, 1649 KB) Inside the alleged house of St. ... Ananias was one of the Seventy Apostles sent out by Jesus in Luke 10. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...

  • The first is a description of the event itself (Acts 9:1–20) in which he is described as falling to the ground, as a result of a flash of light from the sky, hearing the words "Saul, Saul why are you persecuting me?"
  • The second is Paul's witness to the event before the crowd in Jerusalem (Acts 22:1–22).
  • The third is his testimony before King Agrippa II (Acts 26:1–24).

In the accounts, he is described as being led, blinded by the light, to Damascus where his sight was restored by a disciple called Ananias and he was baptized. Agrippa II (AD 27–100), son of Agrippa I, and like him originally named Marcus Julius Agrippa. ... Ananias was one of the Seventy Apostles sent out by Jesus in Luke 10. ... Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ...


Mission

Bab Kisan, where Paul is said to have escaped from Damascus
Bab Kisan, where Paul is said to have escaped from Damascus

Following his stay in Damascus after his conversion, where he was baptized,[15] Paul says that he first went to Arabia, and then came back to Damascus (Galatians 1:17). According to Acts, his preaching in the local synagogues got him into trouble there, and he was forced to escape, being let down over the wall in a basket (Acts 9:23). He describes in Galatians, how three years after his conversion, he went to Jerusalem, where he met James, and stayed with Simon Peter for fifteen days (Galatians 1:13–24). According to Acts, he apparently attempted to join the disciples and was accepted only owing to the intercession of Barnabas — they were all understandably afraid of him as one who had been a persecutor of the Church (Acts 9:26–27). Again, according to Acts, he got into trouble for disputing with "Hellenists" (Greek speaking Jews and Gentile "God-fearers") and so he was sent back to Tarsus. Image File history File links Damascus, Syria - Bab Kisan, now Greek Catholic Chapel of St. ... Image File history File links Damascus, Syria - Bab Kisan, now Greek Catholic Chapel of St. ... ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Barnabas was an early Christian mentioned in the New Testament. ... The Godfearers or Sebioi in Greek (Arabic: Sabieen/Sabioon, Hebrew: Toshavim) are messianic Non-Jews who from the earliest of times have worshipped The Name of the Hebrew Elohim. ...


Paul's narrative in Galatians states that fourteen years after his conversion he went again to Jerusalem.[16] It is not known exactly what happened during these so-called "unknown years," but both Acts and Galatians provide some details.[17] At the end of this time, Barnabas went to find Paul and brought him back to Antioch (Acts 11:26). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ...


When a famine occurred in Judaea, around 45–46,[18] Paul, along with Barnabas and a Gentile named Titus, journeyed to Jerusalem to deliver financial support from the Antioch community.[19] According to Acts, Antioch had become an alternative centre for Christians, following the dispersion after the death of Stephen. It was at this time in Antioch, Acts reports, the followers of Jesus were first called "Christians."[20]


First missionary journey

Paul’s first missionary journey begins in Acts 13 in Antioch in approximately AD 47. During this period the Christian church here grew in prominence partially due to Jewish Christians fleeing from Jerusalem.[21] After ministering to the Lord, the Holy Spirit speaking through one of the prophets listed in Acts 13:1 identifies Barnabas and Saul to be appointed “for the work which I have called them to.” The group then lays hands on the pair to release them from the church to spread the Gospel into the predominantly Gentile mission field. The significance of the Holy Spirit selecting him can be seen in Galatians 1:1 when Paul states that he is made an apostle “not through man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father.” It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Traveling via the port of Seleucia, Barnabas and Saul’s initial destination is the island of Cyprus of which Barnabas had intimate knowledge about as he grew up there Acts 4:36. Preaching throughout the island, it is not until reaching the last city of Paphos that they meet the magician and false prophet named Bar-Jesus, described by Luke as “full of deceit and all fraud”. The two rebuke the magician causing him to become blind and upon seeing this Sergius Paulus is astonished at the teaching of the Lord. Seleucia Pieria (Greek Σελεύκεια Πιερία, later Suedia ) was a town in antiquity, the capital of Seleucis, in Syria Prima. ... Barnabas was an early Christian mentioned in the New Testament. ... Barnabas was an early Christian mentioned in the New Testament. ... District Paphos Government  - Mayor Savvas Vergas Population (2001)  - City 47,300 Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: http://www. ...


Once having left Cyprus, Saul exchanges his Hebrew name for the more appropriate Greco-Roman name of Paul for ministering to the Gentiles. It is also here that their helper John Mark departs them - an act which later becomes a source of much tension between Paul and Barnabas and ultimaely leading to their split in Acts 15:36-41. The two then set about strategically preaching to major cities as they make their way across the provinces of Asia Minor. A noticeable pattern begins to develop: after successfully speaking to the people in an area, the local Jews become apprehensive resulting in hostility which eventually forces them to move on. Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; asked for) is identified in the Books of Samuel, 1 Chronicles and the Quran as the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... Look up Paul in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Barnabas was an early Christian mentioned in the New Testament. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to...


An example of this can be seen in Antioch of Pisidia. Paul’s preaching in the local synagogue spreads quickly to ensure that almost the entire city turns out to hear him speak the following week. So radical is Paul’s message of salvation for both Jews and Gentiles through the justification of the death and resurrection of Jesus, the two are expelled from the city by the jealous Jewish chief men of the city. Likewise in the subsequent city of Iconium their message splits the town population in two. Ultimately they are compelled to flee due to rising Jewish violence against them. Antioch is a city in the Turkish Lake District, which is at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, Aegean and Central Anatolian regions. ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ...


Traveling on to Lystra where no mention is made of any God fearing gentiles, it can be assumed that there was most likely no synagogue here.[22] With no formal place to preach in they come across a man who has been crippled from birth. Seeing that the man has faith enough to be healed at the instruction of Paul he gets up and walks. In spite of this the Lystrians are now convinced that the two are the human incarnation of Zeus and Hermes and proceed to sacrifice oxen before them. Paul and Barnabas are so distraught at this that they tear off their clothes and cry out to the people. Pleading with the crowd, the style of preaching becomes more basic as Lystra has no knowledge of God. Paul starts from the basics by stating that God is a living God who made the heavens, earth and seas (Acts 14:15). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogē, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Look up Paul in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... Look up Paul in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Barnabas was an early Christian mentioned in the New Testament. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Paul is then hunted by disgruntled Jews from Antioch and Iconium and is stoned to the point where he is thought to be dead. Amazingly he gets to his feet and flees to Derbe and preaches the word there. He then opts to return to the cities he visited to encourage disciples, establish churches and appoint elders. This emphasis on the role of the whole church is strengthened once at home in Antioch where he finally gathers together the unified church to report to them on all his experiences. Here he summarises the aim of his journey well, to “give God the honor and the glory” (Acts 15:4) It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Derbe is an ancient city in todays Turkey. ...


"Council of Jerusalem"

Main article: Council of Jerusalem
Georgian Orthodox Icon of Saint Peter (right) and Saint Paul

According to Acts 15, Paul attended a meeting of the apostles and elders held at Jerusalem at which they discussed the question of circumcision of Gentile Christians and whether Christians should follow the Mosaic law. Traditionally, this meeting is called the Council of Jerusalem,[23] though nowhere is it called so in the text of the New Testament. Paul and the apostles apparently met at Jerusalem several times. Unfortunately, there is some difficulty in determining the sequence of the meetings and exact course of events.[24] Some Jerusalem meetings are mentioned in Acts, some meetings are mentioned in Paul's letters, and some appear to be mentioned in both.[25] For example, it has been suggested that the Jerusalem visit for famine relief implied in Acts 11:27–30 corresponds to the "first visit" (to Cephas and James only) narrated in Galatians 1:18–20.[25] In Galatians 2:1, Paul describes a "second visit" to Jerusalem as a private occasion, whereas Acts 15 describes a public meeting in Jerusalem addressed by James at its conclusion. Thus, while most[25][26] think that Galatians 2:1 corresponds to the Council of Jerusalem in Acts 15, others[attribution needed] think that Paul is referring here to the meeting in Acts 11 (the "famine visit"). Many other conjectures have been offered: the "fourteen years" could be from Paul's conversion rather than the first visit;[27] or "fourteen years" should be "four"; or Acts 11 and 15 are two alternative accounts of the same visit;[citation needed] or the visit is recorded in Acts 18:22.[citation needed] If there was a public rather than a private meeting, it seems likely that it took place after Galatians was written.[28] This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (650 × 844 pixel, file size: 85 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (650 × 844 pixel, file size: 85 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Georgian Orthodox Church (full title Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church, or in the Georgian language საქართველოს მართლმადიდებელი სამოციქულო ეკლესია Saqartvelos Samotsiqulo Avtokepaluri Martlmadidebeli Eklesia) is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, and tradition traces its origins to the mission of Apostle Andrew in the 1st century. ... This article is about Circumcision in the Bible. ... This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ...


According to Acts, Paul and Barnabas were appointed to go to Jerusalem to speak with the apostles and elders and were welcomed by them.[29] The key question raised (in both Acts and Galatians and which is not in dispute) was whether Gentile converts needed to be circumcised (Acts 15:2ff; Galatians 2:1ff). Paul states that he had attended "in response to a revelation and to lay before them the gospel that I preached among the Gentiles" (Galatians 2:2). Peter publicly reaffirmed a decision he had made previously (Acts 10-11), proclaiming: "[God] put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith" (Acts 15:9), echoing an earlier statement: "Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons" (Acts 10:34). James concurred: "We should not trouble those of the Gentiles who are turning to God" (Acts 15:19–21), and a letter (later known as the Apostolic Decree) was sent back with Paul enjoining them from food sacrificed to idols, from blood, from the meat of strangled animals, and from sexual immorality (Acts 15:29), which some consider to be Noahide Law.[30] The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ... The Noahide laws are the mitzvot (commandments) that Judaism teaches that all of humankind is morally bound to follow. ...


Despite the agreement they achieved at the meeting as understood by Paul, Paul recounts how he later publicly confronted Peter (accusing him of Judaizing), also called the "Incident at Antioch"[31] over his reluctance to share a meal with Gentile Christians in Antioch. Paul later wrote: "I opposed [Peter] to his face, because he was clearly in the wrong" and said to the apostle: "You are a Jew, yet you live like a Gentile and not like a Jew. How is it, then, that you force Gentiles to follow Jewish customs?" (Galatians 2:11–14). Paul also mentioned that even Barnabas sided with Peter.[32] On the incident, the Catholic Encyclopedia: Judaizers: The Incident at Antioch states: "St. Paul's account of the incident leaves no doubt that St. Peter saw the justice of the rebuke." However, L. Michael White's From Jesus to Christianity states: "The blowup with Peter was a total failure of political bravado, and Paul soon left Antioch as persona non grata, never again to return."[33] (see also Pauline Christianity). Acts does not record this event, saying only that "some time later," Paul decided to leave Antioch (usually considered the beginning of his "Second Missionary Journey," (Acts 15:36–18:22) with the object of visiting the believers in the towns where he and Barnabas had preached earlier, but this time without Barnabas. At this point the Galatians witness ceases. Judaizers is a term used by orthodox Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the Law of Moses. ... Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek (Hellenistic civilization). ... Judaize, from the Greek Ioudaizo (ιουδαιζω), means literally to live as a Jew, however it was used primarily in a derogatory sense for Christians who chose to live more in accord with the Jesus described in the Bible, often this meant observing the... Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ...


Paul's visits to Jerusalem in Acts and the epistles

This table is adapted from White, From Jesus to Christianity.[25]

Acts Epistles
  • First visit to Jerusalem (Acts 9:26–27)
    • after Damascus conversion
    • preaches openly in Jerusalem with Barnabas
  • Third visit to Jerusalem (Acts 15:1–19)
    • With Barnabas
    • "Council of Jerusalem"
  • Fourth visit to Jerusalem (Acts 18:21–22)
    • To "keep the feast" (Acts 18:21)
  • Fifth visit to Jerusalem (NIV)
    • Paul arrested
  • No visit to Jerusalem immediately after conversion (Galatians 1:17–18)
  • First visit to Jerusalem (Galatians 1:18–20)
  • Sees only Cephas (Peter) and James
  • Second visit to Jerusalem (Galatians 2:1–10)
    • With Barnabas and Titus
    • Possibly the "Council of Jerusalem"
    • Paul agrees to "remember the poor"
    • Followed by confrontation with Peter in Antioch (Galatians 2:11–14)

Second missionary journey

Saint Paul, Byzantine ivory relief, 6th-early 7th century (Musée de Cluny)
Saint Paul, Byzantine ivory relief, 6th-early 7th century (Musée de Cluny)

And following a dispute between Paul and Barnabas over whether they should take John Mark with them, they went on separate journeys (Acts 15:36–41) — Barnabas with John Mark, and Paul with Silas. Image File history File links Saint_Paul. ... Image File history File links Saint_Paul. ... The Musée de Cluny as viewed from the nearby park The Lady and the Unicorn tapestry Thermes de Cluny: caldarium The Musée de Cluny, officially known as Musée National du Moyen Âge, is a museum in Paris, France. ...


Following Acts 16:1–18:22, Paul and Silas went to Derbe and then Lystra. They were joined by Timothy, the son of a Jewish woman and a Greek man. According to Acts 16:3, Paul circumcised Timothy before leaving.[34] For other uses of Timothy, see Timothy (disambiguation). ... This article is about Circumcision in the Bible. ...


They continued to Phrygia and northern Galatia to Troas, when, inspired by a vision they set off for Macedonia. At Philippi they met and brought to faith a wealthy woman named Lydia of Thyatira, they then baptized her and her household; there Paul was also arrested and badly beaten. According to Acts, Paul then set off for Thessalonica.[35] This accords with Paul's own account (1 Thessalonians 2:2), though, given that he had been in Philippi only "some days," the church must have been founded by someone other than Paul. According to Acts, Paul then came to Athens where he gave his speech in the Areopagus; in this speech, he told Athenians that the "Unknown God" to whom they had a shrine was in fact known, as the God who had raised Jesus from the dead. (Acts 17:16–34) In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of the Troas The Troas (Troad; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient region in the northwestern part of Anatolia, bounded by the Hellespont to the northwest, the Aegean Sea to the west, and separated from the rest of Anatolia by the massif that forms... Map of Greece showing Philippi Philippi (in Ancient Greek / Philippoi) was a city in eastern Macedonia, founded by Philip II in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. ... Lydia of Thyatira was the first recorded convert to Christianity in Europe. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... This article concerns the Classical judicial body. ... In addition to the twelve main Gods and the innumerable lesser deities, ancient Greeks used to worship an Unknown God (spelled Agnostos Theos in Greek). ...

Greek Orthodox Cathedral of St. Paul the Apostle in Corinth, Greece
Greek Orthodox Cathedral of St. Paul the Apostle in Corinth, Greece

Thereafter Paul travelled to Corinth, where he settled for three years and where he may have written 1 Thessalonians which is estimated to have been written in 50 or 51.[36] At Corinth, (Acts 18:12–17) the "Jews united" and charged Paul with "persuading the people to worship God in ways contrary to the law"; the proconsul Gallio then judged that it was an internal religious dispute and dismissed the charges. "Then all of them (Other ancient authorities read all the Greeks) seized Sosthenes, the official of the synagogue, and beat him in front of the tribunal. But Gallio paid no attention to any of these things."[37] From an inscription in Delphi that mentions Gallio held office from 51–52 or 52–53,[36] the year of the hearing must have been in this time period, which is the only fixed date in the chronology of Paul's life.[38] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Depiction of Gallio Junius Annaeus Gallio, (originally Lucius Annaeus Novatus) (c. ... Sosthenes, meaning safe in strength, was the chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who, according to the New Testament, was seized and beaten by the mob in the presence of Gallio, the Roman governor, when he refused to proceed against Paul at the instigation of the Jews (Acts 18... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ...


Third missionary journey

Following this hearing, Paul continued his preaching, usually called his "third missionary journey" (Acts 18:23–21:26), traveling again through Asia Minor and Macedonia, to Antioch and back. He caused a great uproar in the theatre in Ephesus, where local silversmiths feared loss of income due to Paul's activities. Their income relied on the sale of silver statues (idols) of the goddess Artemis, whom they worshipped; the resulting mob almost killed Paul (Acts 19:21–41) and his companions. Later, as Paul was passing near Ephesus on his way to Jerusalem, Paul chose not to stop, since he was in haste to reach Jerusalem by Pentecost.[39] The church here, however, was so highly regarded by Paul that he called the elders to Miletus to meet with him (Acts 20:16–38). For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ...


Arrest and death

According to Acts 21:17–26, upon his arrival in Jerusalem, the Apostle Paul provided a detailed account to James regarding his ministry among the Gentiles, it states further that all the Elders were present. James and the Elders praised God for the report which they received. Afterward the elders informed him of rumors that had been circulating, which stated that he was teaching Jews to forsake observance of the Mosaic law, and the customs of the Jews; including circumcision. To rebut these rumors, the elders asked Paul to join with four other men in performing the vow of purification according to Mosaic law, in order to disprove the accusations of the Jews. Paul agreed, and proceeded to perform the vow. See Also: Relationship with Judaism For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... St. ...

A Greek language inscription from Herod's Temple, late 1st century BCE. It warns gentiles to refrain from entering the Temple enclosure, on pain of death.

Some of the Jews had seen Paul accompanied by a Gentile, and assumed that he had brought the Gentile into the temple, which if he had been found guilty of such, would have carried the death penalty.[40] The Jews were on the verge of killing Paul when Roman soldiers intervened. The Roman commander took Paul into custody to be scourged and questioned, and imprisoned him, first in Jerusalem, and then in Caesarea. Image File history File links Temple_inscription_in_greek. ... Image File history File links Temple_inscription_in_greek. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ... Model of Herods Temple - currently in the Israel Museum View from east to west of the model of Herods Temple Herods Temple in Jerusalem was a massive expansion of the Second Temple along with renovations of the entire Temple Mount. ... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Caesarea is the name of several Roman cities and towns, including: Caesarea Antiochia, properly Antioch in Pisidia, near modern Yalvaç, Turkey Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, modern Kayseri, Turkey Caesarea Palaestina: modern Caesarea, in Israel Caesarea Philippi in the Golan Heights Iol Caesarea: modern Cherchell, in Algeria Caesarea Magna or Caesara...


Paul claimed his right as a Roman citizen to be tried in Rome, but owing to the inaction of the governor; Antonius Felix, Paul languished in confinement at Caesarea for two years. When a new governor; Porcius Festus took office, Paul was sent by sea to Rome. During this trip to Rome, Paul was shipwrecked on Malta, where Acts states that he preached the Gospel, and the people converted to Christianity. The Roman Catholic church has named the Apostle Paul as the patron saint of Malta in observance of his work there. It is thought that Paul continued his journey by sea to Syracuse, on the Italian island of Sicily before eventually going to Rome. According to Acts 28:30–31, Paul spent another two years in Rome under house arrest, where he continued to preach the gospel and teach about Jesus being the Christ. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ...


Of his detention in Rome, Philippians provides some additional support. It was clearly written from prison and references to the "praetorian guard" and "Caesar's household," which may suggest that it was written from Rome. The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ...


Whether Paul died in Rome, or was able to go to Spain as he had hoped, as noted in his letter to the Romans (Romans 15:22–27), is uncertain. 1 Clement reports this about Paul:[41] The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The Epistles of Clement often referred to as 1 Clement and 2 Clement were not accepted in the canonic New Testament. ...

"By reason of jealousy and strife Paul by his example pointed out the prize of patient endurance. After that he had been seven times in bonds, had been driven into exile, had been stoned, had preached in the East and in the West, he won the noble renown which was the reward of his faith, having taught righteousness unto the whole world and having reached the farthest bounds of the West; and when he had borne his testimony before the rulers, so he departed from the world and went unto the holy place, having been found a notable pattern of patient endurance."

Commenting on this passage, Raymond Brown writes that while it "does not explicitly say" that Paul was martyred in Rome, "such a martydom is the most reasonable interpretation."[42] Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ...


Eusebius of Caesarea, who wrote in the fourth century, states that Paul was beheaded in the reign of the Roman Emperor Nero. This event has been dated either to the year 64, when Rome was devastated by a fire, or a few years later, to 67. A Roman catholic liturgical solemnity of Peter and Paul, celebrated on 29 June, may reflect the day of his martyrdom, other sources have articulated the tradition that Peter and Paul died on the same day (and possibly the same year).[43] Some hold the view that he could have revisited Greece and Asia Minor after his trip to Spain, and might then have been arrested in Troas (2 Timothy 4:13) and taken to Rome and executed.[citation needed] A Roman Catholic tradition holds that Paul was interred with Saint Peter ad Catacumbas by the via Appia until moved to what is now the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome (now in the process of being excavated). Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History, writes that Pope Vitalian in 665 gave Paul's relics (including a cross made from his prison chains) from the crypts of Lucina to King Oswy of Northumbria, northern Britain. However, Bede's use of the word "relic" was not limited to corporal remains. Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The path of the Via Appia and of the Via Appia Traiana. ... Basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura — known in English as the Basilica of St Paul Outside the Walls or St Paul-without-the-Walls — is one of five churches considered to be the great ancient basilicas of Rome. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Vitalianus (died January 27, 672) was Pope from 657 - 672. ... Events Swithelm succeeded by Sighere and Sebbi as king(s) of Essex Seongnam renamed Hansanju. ... Pomponius Graecinus is a name borne by a number of Ancient Romans: The Roman Mausoleum at Gubbio, dated by archaeologists to 10 BC, is believed by some to be the burial place of a Pomponius Graecinus, a native of Gubbio who became prefect of Rome Gaius Pomponius Graecinus, suffect consul...


Writings

Saint Paul Writing His Epistles
Saint Paul Writing His Epistles

Image File history File links PaulT.jpg File links The following pages link to this file: Paul of Tarsus ... Image File history File links PaulT.jpg File links The following pages link to this file: Paul of Tarsus ... A nineteenth century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus, thirteen of which are explicitly ascribed to Paul, and one, Hebrews, is anonymous. ...

Authorship

Paul is the second most prolific contributor to the New Testament (after Luke, whose two books amount to nearly a third of the New Testament). Thirteen letters are attributed to him with varying degrees of confidence.[44] The letters are written in Koine Greek and it may be that he employed an amanuensis, only occasionally writing himself.[45] The undisputed Pauline epistles contain the earliest systematic account of Christian doctrine, and provide information on the life of the infant Church. They are arguably the oldest part of the New Testament. Paul also appears in the pages of the Acts of the Apostles, attributed to Luke, so that it is possible to compare the account of his life in the Acts with his own account in his various letters. His letters are largely written to churches which he had founded or visited; he was a great traveler, visiting Cyprus, Asia Minor (modern Turkey), Macedonia, mainland Greece, Crete, and Rome bringing the Gospel of Jesus Christ, first to Jews and then to Gentiles. His letters are full of expositions of what Christians should believe and how they should live. What he does not tell his correspondents (or the modern reader) is much about the life and teachings of Jesus; his most explicit references are to the Last Supper (1 Corinthians 11:17-34) and the crucifixion and resurrection (1 Corinthians 15). His specific references to Jesus' teaching are likewise sparse (1 Cor 7:10-11, 9:14), raising the question, still disputed, as to how consistent his account of the faith is with that of the four canonical Gospels, Acts, and the Epistle of James. The view that Paul's Christ is very different from the historical Jesus has been expounded by Adolf Harnack among many others. Nevertheless, he provides the first written account of the relationship of the Christian to the Risen Christ — what it is to be a Christian — and thus of Christian spirituality. Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... Koine redirects here. ... A secretary is a person who performs routine, administrative, or personal tasks for a superior. ... A nineteenth century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus, thirteen of which are explicitly ascribed to Paul, and one, Hebrews, is anonymous. ... Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... For the painting by Leonardo da Vinci, see The Last Supper (Leonardo). ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament. ... This article is about Jesus the man, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ...


Of the thirteen letters traditionally attributed to Paul and included in the Western New Testament canon, there is little or no dispute that Paul actually wrote at least seven, those being Romans, First Corinthians, Second Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, First Thessalonians, and Philemon. Hebrews, which was ascribed to him in antiquity, was questioned even then, never had an ancient attribution, and in modern times is considered by most experts as not by Paul, see also Antilegomena. The authorship of the remaining six Pauline epistles is disputed to varying degrees. A nineteenth century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus, thirteen of which are explicitly ascribed to Paul, and one, Hebrews, is anonymous. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... See also: Second Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... The Epistle to Philippians is a book included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the First Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Epistle to Philemon is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbreviated Heb. ... Antilegomena (αντιλεγομενα, contradicted or disputed), an epithet used by the early Christian writers to denote those books of the New Testament which, although sometimes publicly read in the churches, were not for a considerable amount of time considered to be genuine, or received into the canon of Scripture. ...


The authenticity of Colossians has been questioned on the grounds that it contains an otherwise unparalleled description (amongst his writings) of Jesus as 'the image of the invisible God,' a Christology found elsewhere only in St. John's gospel. Nowhere is there a richer and more exalted estimate of the position of Christ than here. On the other hand, the personal notes in the letter connect it to Philemon, unquestionably the work of Paul. More problematic is Ephesians, a very similar letter to Colossians, but which reads more like a manifesto than a letter. It is almost entirely lacking in personal reminiscences. Its style is unique; it lacks the emphasis on the cross to be found in other Pauline writings, reference to the Second Coming is missing, and Christian marriage is exalted in a way which contrasts with the grudging reference in 1 Corinthians 7:8-9. Finally it exalts the Church in a way suggestive of a second generation of Christians, 'built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets' now past.[46] The defenders of its Pauline authorship argue that it was intended to be read by a number of different churches and that it marks the final stage of the development of Paul of Tarsus's thinking. The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... The Epistle to Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament, written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ...


The Pastoral Epistles, 1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus have likewise been put in question as Pauline works in modern times. Three main reasons are advanced: first, their difference in vocabulary, style and theology from Paul's acknowledged writings; secondly, the difficulty in fitting them into Paul's biography as we have it.[47] They, like Colossians and Ephesians, were written from prison but suppose Paul's release and travel thereafter. Finally, the concerns expressed are very much the practical ones as to how a church should function. They are more about maintenance than about mission. The three pastoral epistles are books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus. ...


2 Thessalonians, like Colossians, is questioned on stylistic grounds, with scholars noting, among other peculiarities, a dependence on 1 Thessalonians yet a distinctiveness in language from the Pauline corpus, suggesting that the author was an imitator.


Paul and Jesus

Main article: Atonement

Little can be deduced about the historical life of Jesus from Paul's letters. He mentions specifically the Last Supper (1 Corinthians 11:23ff), his death by crucifixion (1 Corinthians 2:2; Philippians 2:8), and his resurrection (Philippians 2:9). In addition, Paul states that Jesus was a Jew of the line of David (Romans 1:3) who was betrayed (1 Corinthians 11:12). Paul concentrates instead on the nature of the Christian's relationship with Christ and, in particular, on Christ's saving work. In Mark's gospel, Jesus is recorded as saying that he was to "give up his life as a ransom for many."[48] Paul's account of this idea of a saving act is more fully articulated in various places in his letters, most notably in his letter to the Romans. For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ...


What Christ has achieved for those who believe in him is variously described: as sinners under the law, they are "justified by his grace as a gift"; they are "redeemed" by Jesus who was put forward by God as expiation; they are "reconciled" by his death; his death was a propitiatory or expiatory sacrifice or a ransom paid. The gift (grace) is to be received in faith (Romans 3:24; Romans 5:9). The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... For other uses of the word, see Redemption Redemption is a religious concept referring to forgiveness or absolution for past sins and protection from eternal damnation. ...


Justification derives from the law courts.[49] Those who are justified are acquitted of an offence. Since the sinner is guilty, he or she can only be acquitted by someone else, Jesus, standing in for them, which has led many Christians to believe in the teaching known as the doctrine of penal substitution. The sinner is, in Paul's words "justified by faith" (Romans 5:1), that is, by adhering to Christ, the sinner becomes at one with Christ in his death and resurrection (hence the word "atonement"). Acquittal, however, is achieved not on the grounds that Christ was innocent (though he was) and that we share his innocence but on the grounds of his sacrifice (crucifixion), i.e., his innocent undergoing of punishment on behalf of sinners who should have suffered divine retribution for their sins. They deserved to be punished and he took their punishment. They are justified by his death, and now "so much more we are saved by him from divine retribution" (Romans 5:9). Penal substitution is a theory of the atonement within Christian theology, especially cherished by Evangelicals of the Reformed tradition. ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ...


For an understanding of the meaning of faith as that which justifies, Paul turns to Abraham, who trusted God's promise that he would be father of many nations. Abraham preceded the giving of the law on Mount Sinai. Thus law cannot save us; faith does. Abraham could not, of course, have faith in the living Christ but, in Paul's view, "the gospel was preached to him beforehand" (Galatians 3:8); this is in line with Paul's belief in the pre-existence of Christ (cf. Philippians 2:5–11).[50] For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ...


Within the last three decades, a number of theologians have put forward a "new perspective" on Paul's doctrine of justification, and even more specifically on what he says about justification by faith. Justification by faith means God accepts Gentiles in addition to Jews, since both believe in God. Paul writes in his letter to the Romans, "For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from observing the law. Is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles too? Yes, of Gentiles too, since there is only one God, who will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through that same faith" (Romans 3:28-30). Faith is the central component of Paul's doctrine of justification -- it means that Gentiles don't need to become Israelites when they convert to Christianity, because God is not just the God of one nation, but Gentile and Jew alike.[51]


Redemption has a different origin, that of the freeing of slaves; it is similar in character as a transaction to the paying of a ransom, (cf. Mark 10:45) though the circumstances are different. Money was paid in order to set free a slave, one who was in the ownership of another. Here the price was the costly act of Christ's death. On the other hand, no price was paid to anyone — Paul does not suggest, for instance, that the price be paid to the devil — though this has been suggested by learned writers, ancient and modern,[52] such as Origen and St. Augustine, as a reversal of the Fall by which the devil gained power over humankind. Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ...


A third expression, reconciliation, is about the making of friends which is, of course, a costly exercise where one has failed or harmed another.[citation needed] The making of peace (Colossians 1:20 and Romans 5:9) is another variant of the same theme. Elsewhere (Ephesians 2:14) he writes of Christ breaking down the dividing wall between Jew and Gentile, which the law constituted.


Sacrifice is an idea often elided with justification, but carries with it either notion of appeasing the wrath of God (propiation) or taking the poison out of sin (expiation).[citation needed] Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ...


As to how a person appropriates this gift, Paul writes of a mystical union with Christ through baptism: "we who have been baptised into Christ Jesus were baptised into his death" (Romans 6:4). He writes also of our being "in Christ Jesus" and alternately, of "Christ in you, the hope of glory." Thus, the objection that one person cannot be punished on behalf of another is met with the idea of the identification of the Christian with Christ through baptism.


These expressions, some of which are to be found in the course of the same exposition, have been interpreted by some scholars, such as the mediaeval teacher Peter Abelard and, much more recently, Hastings Rashdall,[53] as metaphors for the effects of Christ's death upon those who followed him. This is known as the "subjective theory of the atonement." On this view, rather than writing a systematic theology, Paul is trying to express something inexpressible. According to Ian Markham, on the other hand, the letter to the Romans is "muddled."[54] Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and logician. ... Hastings Rashdall (1858–1924) was an English philosopher who expounded a theory known as ideal utilitarianism. ...


But others, ancient and modern, Protestant and Catholic, have sought to elaborate from his writing objective theories of the Atonement on which they have, however, disagreed. The doctrine of justification by faith alone was the major source of the division of western Christianity known as the Protestant Reformation which took place in the sixteenth century. Justification by faith was set against salvation by works of the law in this case, the acquiring of indulgences from the Church and even such good works as the corporal works of mercy. The result of the dispute, which undermined the system of endowed prayers and the doctrine of purgatory, contributed to the creation of Protestant churches in Western Europe, set against the Roman Catholic Church. Solifidianism (from sola fide, the Latin for "faith alone"), the name often given to these views, is associated with the works of Martin Luther (14831546) and his followers. With this view went the notion of Christ's substitutionary atonement for human sin.[citation needed] For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ... Reformation redirects here. ... Sola fide (by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine held by some Protestant denominations of Christianity, which asserts that it is on the basis of their faith that believers are forgiven their transgressions of the Law of God, rather than on the basis... Legalism, in Christian theology, is a term referring to an improper fixation on law or codes of conduct, or legal ideas, usually implying an allegation of pride and the neglect of mercy, and ignorance of the grace of God. ... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ... The Works of Mercy or Acts of Mercy are actions and practices which the Catholic Church considers expectations to be fulfilled by believers. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... Sola fide (by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine held by some Protestant denominations of Christianity, which asserts that it is on the basis of their faith that believers are forgiven their transgressions of the Law of God, rather than on the basis... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ...


The various doctrines of the atonement have been associated with such theologians as Anselm; [55] John Calvin;[56] and more recently Gustaf Aulén [57]; none found their way into the Creeds. The substitutionary theory (above), in particular, has fiercely divided Christendom; some pronouncing it essential and others repugnant. [58] (In law, no one can be punished instead of another and the punishment of the innocent is a prime example of injustice — which tells against too precise an interpretation of the atonement as a legal act. [59] Anselm may refer to any of several historical figures: Saint Anselm, 8th-century Abbot of Nonantula Saint Anselm of Canterbury (ca 1033 - 1109), Archbishop of Canterbury Anselm of Laon (died 1117), Medieval theologian Anselm of Liège (1008-1056), chronicler Saint Anselm of Lucca (ca 1036 - 1086) This is a... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Gustaf Aulén was the Bishop of Strängnäs in the Church of Sweden and the author of Christus Victor: An Historical Study of the Three Main Types of the Idea of Atonement in 1931. ... This article is about statements of belief; Creed is also the name of a rock band, and a village in Cornwall A creed is a statement of belief—usually religious belief—or faith. ...


Further, because salvation could not be achieved by merit, Paul lays some stress on the notion of its being a free gift, a matter of Grace. Whereas grace is most often associated specifically with the Holy Spirit, in St. Paul's writing, grace is received through Jesus (Romans 1:5), from God through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus (Romans 3:24), and especially in 2 Corinthians. On the other hand, the Spirit he describes as the Spirit of Christ (see below). The notion of free gift, not the subject of entitlement, has been associated with belief in predestination and, more controversially, double predestination: that God has chosen whom He wills to have mercy on and those whose will He has hardened (Rom. 9:18f.). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... Predestination (also linked with foreknowledge) is a religious concept, which involves the relationship between the beginning of things and their destinies. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Paul's concern with what Christ had done, as described above, was matched by his desire to say also who Jesus was (and is). At the beginning of his letter to the Romans, he describes Jesus as the "Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead"; in the letter to the Colossians, he is much more explicit, describing Jesus as "the image of the invisible God," (Colossians 1:15) as rich and exalted picture of Jesus as can be found anywhere in the New Testament (which is one reason why some doubt its authenticity) [60] On the other hand, in the undisputed Pauline letter to the Church at Phillipi, he describes Jesus as "in the form of God" who "did not count equality with God as thing to be grasped, but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men he humbled himself and became obedient to death, even death on a cross…" (Phillipians 2:5-7).


Holy Spirit

Paul places emphasis on the importance of the Spirit in the Christian life.[citation needed] He contrasts the spiritual and those thoughts and actions which are animal (of the flesh).[citation needed] The difficulty comes in determining how this affects action.[original research?] The gift of the spirit was much associated in Gentile mind with the gift of ecstatic speech speaking in tongues and is connected in Acts with becoming a Christian, even before baptism.[citation needed] In considering the manifestations of the spirit, he is cautious. Thus, when discussing the gift of tongues in his first letter to the Corinthians (; ), as against the unintelligible words of ecstasy, he commends, by contrast, intelligibility and order: ecstasy may illuminate the practitioner; coherent speech will enlighten the hearer.[citation needed] Everything should be done decently and in order. Released on September 27, 2005 by 845Ent. ...


Secondly, the gift of the Spirit appears to have been interpreted by the Corinthians as a freedom from all constraints, and in particular the law.[citation needed] Paul, on the contrary, argues that not all things permissible are good; eating meats that have been offered to pagan idols, frequenting pagan temples, orgiastic feasting; none of these things build up the Christian community, and may offend the weaker members.[citation needed] On the contrary, the Spirit was a uniting force, manifesting itself through the common purpose expressed in the exercise of their different gifts (1 Corinthians 12) He compares the Christian community to a human body, with its different limbs and organs, and the Spirit as the Spirit of Christ, whose body we are. The gifts range from administration to teaching, encouragement to healing, prophecy to the working of miracles. Its fruits are the virtues of love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, faithfulness, gentleness and self control (Galatians 5:22). Love is the best way of all (1 Corinthians 13)


Further, the new life is the life of the Spirit, as against the life of the flesh, which Spirit is the Spirit of Christ, so that one becomes a son of God. God is our Father and we are fellow heirs of Christ (Romans 8:14).


Relationship with Judaism

See also: Christianity and Judaism

Paul was himself a Jew, but his attitude towards his co-religionists is not agreed amongst all scholars.[citation needed] He appeared to praise Jewish circumcision in Romans 3:1–2, said that circumcision didn't matter in 1 Corinthians 7:19 but in Galatians, accuses those who promoted circumcision of wanting to make a good showing in the flesh and boasting or glorying in the flesh in Galatians 6:11–13.[improper synthesis?] He also questions the authority of the law, and though he may have opposed observance by non-Jews he also opposed Peter for his partial observance. In a later letter, Philippians 3:2, he is reported as warning Christians to beware the "mutilation" (Strong's G2699) and to "watch out for those dogs." He writes that there is neither Jew nor Greek, but Christ is all and in all. On the other hand, as we have seen in Acts, he is described as submitting to taking a Nazirite vow,[61] and earlier to having had Timothy circumcised to placate certain Jews.[62] He also wrote that among the Jews he became as a Jew in order to win Jews (1 Corinthians 9:20) and to the Romans: "So the law is holy, and the commandment is holy and just and good" (Romans 7:12). The task of reconciling these different views is made more difficult because it is not agreed whether, for instance, Galatians is a very early or later letter.[citation needed] Likewise Philippians may have been written late, from Rome, but not everyone is agreed on this.[citation needed] This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... This article is about Circumcision in the Bible. ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια,[1] which is unlawful), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Not to be confused with Nazarene. ...


However, considerable disagreement at the time and subsequently has been raised as to the significance of Works of the Law[63]. In the same letter in which Paul writes of justification by faith, he says of the Gentiles: "It is not by hearing the law, but by doing it that men will be justified (same word) by God." (Romans 2:12) Those who think Paul was consistent have judged him not to be a Solifidianist himself; others hold that he is merely demonstrating that both Jews and Gentiles are in the same condition of sin. Sola fide (by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine held by some Protestant denominations of Christianity, which asserts that it is on the basis of their faith that believers are forgiven their transgressions of the Law of God, rather than on the basis...


Some scholars find that Paul's agreement to perform the vow of purification noted in Acts 21:18–26 and his circumcision of Timothy noted in Acts 16:3, are difficult to reconcile with his personally expressed attitude to the Law in portions of Galatians and Philippians. For example, J. W. McGarvey's Commentary on Acts 21:18–26[64] states: The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... The Epistle to Philippians is a book included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ...

"This I confess to be the most difficult passage in Acts to fully understand, and to reconcile with the teaching of Paul on the subject of the Mosaic law."

And his Commentary on Acts 16:3[65] states:

"The circumcision of Timothy is quite a remarkable event in the history of Paul, and presents a serious injury as to the consistency of his teaching and of his practice, in reference to this Abrahamic rite. It demands of us, at this place, as full consideration as our limits will admit."

This is generally reconciled by arguing that Paul's attitude to the Law was flexible, for instance the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia writes, "Paul, on the other hand, not only did not object to the observance of the Mosaic Law, as long as it did not interfere with the liberty of the Gentiles, but he conformed to its prescriptions when occasion required (1 Corinthians 9:20)."[66] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ...


The 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia article on Gentile: Gentiles May Not Be Taught the Torah notes the following reconciliation: "R. Emden (), in a remarkable apology for Christianity contained in his appendix to "Seder 'Olam" (pp. 32b-34b, Hamburg, 1752), gives it as his opinion that the original intention of Jesus, and especially of Paul, was to convert only the Gentiles to the seven moral laws of Noah and to let the Jews follow the Mosaic law — which explains the apparent contradictions in the New Testament regarding the laws of Moses and the Sabbath." The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The Rainbow is the modern symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... For other uses, see Sabbath. ...


E. P. Sanders in 1977[67] reframed the context to make law-keeping and good works a sign of being in the Covenant (marking out the Jews as the people of God) rather than deeds performed in order to accomplish salvation (so-called Legalism (theology)), a pattern of religion he termed "covenantal nomism." If Sanders' perspective is valid, the traditional Protestant understanding of the doctrine of justification may have needed rethinking, for the interpretive framework of Martin Luther was called into question. Ed Parish Sanders (born 1937) is a leading New Testament theologian (Th. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Legalism, in Christian theology, is a term referring to an improper fixation on law or codes of conduct, or legal ideas, usually implying an allegation of pride and the neglect of mercy, and ignorance of the grace of God. ... Covenantal Nomism is the belief that first century Palestinian Jews did not believe in works righteousness. ...


Sanders's work has since been taken up by Professor James Dunn[68] and N.T. Wright,[69] Anglican Bishop of Durham, and the New Perspective has increased significantly in dominance in New Testament scholarship.[citation needed] Wright, noting the apparent discrepancy between Romans and Galatians, the former being much more positive about the continuing covenantal relationship between God and his ancient people, than the latter, contends that works are not insignificant (Romans 2: 13ff) and that Paul distinguishes between works which are signs of ethnic identity and those which are a sign of obedience to Christ.[citation needed] James D. G. (Jimmy) Dunn was for many years the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in the Department of Theology at the University of Durham. ... Tom (N.T.) Wright, Bishop of Durham Tom (N.T.) Wright is the Bishop of Durham of the Anglican Church and a leading British New Testament scholar. ... The New Perspective on Paul is the name given to a significant shift in how some New Testament scholars interpret the writings of Paul of Tarsus, particularly in regard to Judaism and the common Protestant understanding of Justification by Faith. ...


Resurrection

See also: Resurrection of the dead

Paul appears to develop his ideas in response to the particular congregation to whom he is writing.[citation needed] The idea of the resurrection of the body was foreign to the Greek (i.e., Corinthian) mind; rather the soul would ascend apart from the body.[citation needed] The Jewish conception, on the other hand, was of the exaltation of the body which was assumed into heaven.[citation needed] Neither fits easily into the descriptions of the risen Christ walking about as described in the gospels.[original research?] The Corinthians appeared to believe, from what Paul writes, that Jesus had avoided death, but that his followers would not.[original research?] He wants to make clear to them that Jesus died but overcame death and that unless he did so we could not hope to be raised from the dead; because he did so, we can (1 Corinthians 15:12ff).[original research?] However, the resurrected body is a glorified body and thus will not decay.[citation needed] He contrasts the old and the new body: the first being physical, the second spiritual; "It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power. It is sown a physical body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a physical body, there is also a spiritual body." (1 Corinthians 15:43-44). The mortal body is to be covered with the heavenly body; the frame that houses us now, though it be demolished will be replaced by a heavenly dwelling, so that "we may not be found naked" (;&version=; 2 Corinthians 5:3)[70] Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all variously describe a resurrection of the dead, usually a resurrection of all people to face God on Judgment Day. ...


Paul has a very corporal idea of the resurrection hope of the Christian community.[citation needed] The hope given to all who belong to Christ, includes those who have already died but who have been baptised vicariously by the baptism of others on their behalf — so that they may be included among the saved (1 Corinthians 15:29); (whether or not Paul of Tarsus approved of the practice he was apparently prepared to use as part of his argument in favour of the resurrection of the dead).


The World to come

See also: Second Coming and End times

Paul's teaching about the end of the world is expressed most clearly in his letters to the Christians at Thessalonica. Heavily persecuted, it appears that they had written asking him first about those who had died already, and, secondly, when they should expect the end. Paul regarded the age as passing and, in such difficult times, he therefore encouraged marriage as a means of happiness. He assures them that the dead will rise first and be followed by those left alive (1 Thessalonians 4:16ff). This suggests an imminence of the end but he is unspecific about times and seasons, and encourages his hearers to expect a delay.[71] The form of the end will be a battle between Jesus and the man of lawlessness (3ff) whose conclusion is the triumph of Christ. For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... // In the three Abrahamic Religions (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity), the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ... In Christian eschatology, the Man of Sin, or Man of Lawlessness in some translations, is a person who, according to 2 Thessalonians 2:3, will be revealed before the Day of the Lord. ...


The delay in the coming of the end has been interpreted in different ways: on one view, Paul of Tarsus and the early Christians were simply mistaken; on another, that of Austin Farrer, his presentation of a single ending can be interpreted to accommodate the fact that endings occur all the time and that, subjectively, we all stand an instant from judgement. The delay is also accounted for by God's patience ((2Thessalonians 2:6). Austin Farrer (1904-1968) English theologian, biblical scholar, and philosopher. ...


As for the form of the end, the Catholic Encyclopedia presents two distinct ideas. First, universal judgement, with neither the good nor the wicked omitted (Romans 14:10–12), nor even the angels (1 Corinthians 6:3). Second, and more controversially, judgment will be according to faith and works, mentioned concerning sinners (2 Corinthians 11:15), the just (2 Timothy 4:14), and men in general (Rom 2:6–9). This latter characterization has been the subject of controversy among Reformed theologians, notably N. T. Wright.[citation needed] Tom (N.T.) Wright, Bishop of Durham Tom (N.T.) Wright is the Bishop of Durham of the Anglican Church and a leading British New Testament scholar. ...


Social views

The conversion on the way to Damascus, by Caravaggio.
The conversion on the way to Damascus, by Caravaggio.

Every letter of Paul includes pastoral advice which most often arises from the doctrines he has been propounding. They are not afterthoughts. Thus in his letter to the Romans, he reminds his readers that, like branches grafted onto the olive, they themselves, like the natural branches, the Jews, may be broken off if they fail to persist in faith. For that reason he appeals to them to offer themselves to God, and not to be conformed to the world. They must use their gifts as part of the body which they are. He invites them to be loving, patient, humble and peaceable, never seeking vengeance. Their standards are to be heavenly not earthy standards: he condemns impurity, lust, greed, anger, slander, filthy language, lying, and racial divisions. In the same passage, Paul extols the virtues of compassion, kindness, patience, forgiveness, love, peace, and gratitude (Colossians 3:1–17; cf. Galatians 5:16–26). Even so they are to be obedient to the authorities, paying their taxes, on the grounds that the magistrate exercises power which can only come from God. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (698x924, 84 KB) Summary Michelangelo Merisi, also known as Caravaggio, The Conversion of the way to Damascus, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (698x924, 84 KB) Summary Michelangelo Merisi, also known as Caravaggio, The Conversion of the way to Damascus, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. ... For other uses, see Caravaggio (disambiguation). ...


As noted above, the Corinthians were inclined to regard their freedom from law as a license to do what they liked. Thus, his attitude towards sexual immorality, set against the mores of Greek-influenced society, is particularly direct: "Flee from sexual immorality. All other sins a man commits are outside his body, but he who sins sexually sins against his own body" (1 Corinthians 6:18). His attitude towards marriage, in writing to the Corinthians, is to advise his readers that it is sin to fornicate because of the "present distress," while noting marriage is better than immoral conduct: "it is better to marry than to be aflame with passion"; the alternative, adopted by Paul himself, is true love. As for those who are married, even to unbelievers, they should not seek to be parted. In Ephesians he appears to be more positive, holding up marriage as a metaphor for the relationship between Christ and the Church (Ephesians 5:21–33). His attitude towards dietary rules manifests the same caution: Paul argued that while "all is permitted," some actions may seem to "weaker brethren" to be an implicit acceptance of the legitimacy of idol worship — such as eating food that had been used in pagan sacrifice.


He deals with many other questions on which he may have been asked for advice: their relationship with unbelievers; the duty of supporting other needy Christians, how to deal with church members who had fallen into temptation, the need for self-examination and humility, the conduct of family life, the importance of accepting the teaching authority of the leaders of the Church.


His teaching has been criticised as being extremely conservative, and even mystical. His view of the shortness of time before the end was to come is thought to have influenced his ministry ethic. An example of this may be seen in his attitude towards unbelievers, which appears to vary, and may be the result of his responding to various questions that we have no record of. Three particular issues, not all of them controversial at the time, have assumed great contemporary importance. One is his attitude towards slaves, the second towards women, and the third is his attitude towards homosexual acts.


The issue of slavery arises because his letter to the slave-owning Philemon, whose slave Onesimus Paul sends with his letter. He fails to condemn the practice (as he does also in writing to the Corinthians) but his asking that Philemon should treat him "not as a slave, but instead of a slave, as a most dear brother, especially to me" (Philemon 16) may be thought of as a subtle condemnation of slavery. Many others, however, have used his writings to uphold the institution of slavery. The Epistle to Philemon is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ...


To determine Paul's beliefs on homosexuality, several passages are frequently cited. In 1 Cor 6:9–10, Paul lists a number of actions which are so wicked that they will deprive whoever commits them of their divine inheritance: "Neither the immoral, nor idolaters, not adulterers, nor sexual perverts.[72] nor thieves, nor the greedy, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor robbers will inherit the kingdom of God." Elsewhere, he describes certain homosexual actions as unnatural, the perpetrators as being "consumed with passion for one another and as having abandoned the truth about God for a lie" (Romans 1:24–27). A number of Biblical scholars, such as Dr. David Hilborn, argue that these passages represent a condemnation of homosexuality by Paul. Other scholars, such as Yale University Professor of History John Boswell,[73] argues that Paul was not referring to homosexual relationships as we now understand them and contrast the relationships common in the ancient world (such as pederasty) with modern gay relationships. See The Bible and homosexuality's section on Paul.[3]. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... A mediæval copy of the Bible. ...


Paul and Marriage

C. Wilfred Griggs, assistant professor and authority of ancient scripture at the Maxwell Institute [4] acknowledges that many people believe that Paul was antagonistic toward marriage because of the passage, "For I would that all men were even as I myself. But every man hath his proper gift of God, one after this manner, and another after that. "I say therefore to the unmarried and widows, It is good for them if they abide even as I. "But if they cannot contain, let them marry: for it is better to marry than to burn." (1 Cor 7:7–9) But this belief does not account for all the other statements that Paul made concerning marriage. Paul's teachings, as recorded in letters that were sent to churches and saints in various stages of spiritual progression, reflect the character and experience of a man who understands family relationships and can speak with authority on the subject.


In the first place, Paul himself was likely to have been married because of his Judaic background. In his defense before the Jewish crowd outside the Roman barracks of the Antonian tower, Paul states that he was taught according to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers and was zealous in living that law. (See Acts 22:3.) Again, in his defense before the Pharisees and Sadducees, Paul claims that he is a Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee. (See Acts 23:6.) To the Galatians, Paul had written that he was more zealous in fulfilling the requirements of his religion than others of his time. (See Gal. 1:14.) The emphasis that the Jews put on marriage as part of their law and tradition would certainly have been used against Paul in view of such statements if he had not been married.1


Further evidence that Paul was married is found in the likelihood that Paul was a member of the Sanhedrin. One of the qualifications for becoming a member of that body was that a man must be married and the father of children,2 which was thought to make him more merciful in dispensing justice in the courts. Paul (Saul) was one of the official witnesses of the stoning of Stephen (see Acts 7:59), an action ordered by the Sanhedrin. He also gave his vote with the Sanhedrin against the Christians prior to his conversion. (See Acts 26:10.)3 Further evidence of Paul's position is found in Acts 9:1–2 where Paul went before the high priest and requested letters authorizing his "official" persecution in bringing Christians to trial and imprisonment. In view of these evidences, most non-Mormon scholars do not argue that Paul had never been married, but that he was either divorced or was a widower by the time he wrote to the Corinthian church.


But let us take a closer look at 1 Corinthians 7 to see if the evidence supports this last conjecture. At the outset, Paul refers to a letter the Corinthians wrote to him: "Now concerning the things whereof ye wrote unto me: It is good for a man not to touch a woman." Although the King James Version does not make it clear who makes the statement, "it is good for a man not to touch a woman," the Greek text and the Inspired Version both make this a statement of the Corinthians. We do not know the context of this statement, because we do not have the Corinthian epistle to Paul. The only context we can supply is Paul's answer and, fortunately, that does give us some clue as to their problem. Paul wishes (see 1 Cor. 7:7) that all men were as he was. But what is that? Could it be that he wishes all men were divorced or that all had lost their companions in death, or does he simply wish that men would be so dedicated to the work of the Lord that they be as though single?


Evidence of the latter possibility can be found later in the chapter. In verses 10 and 11, Paul does not tell the married saints to become separated, but if they are separated, he suggests either that they remain that way rather than marry someone else or that they become reconciled. Paul even enjoins against separation in part-member families if the husband and wife are compatible (verses 12–14), because the member may someday be able to help save his spouse (see verse 16). Some scholars conjecture that Paul was divorced as a result of a "mixed" marriage, but the Corinthians would have thrown this advice right back to him if such had been the case.


One reason Paul wrote to the Corinthians concerning these matters is found in verse 29, where he states, "this I say, brethren, the time is short: it remaineth, that…they that have wives be as though they had none." He further states (verse 32) that the unmarried saints (and those who are as though unmarried) care for the things of the Lord, but too often a married person puts other things before the work of the Lord (verse 33). Paul is simply reminding those who have been called to God's work to put that calling first, even before earthly matters.


In the Inspired Version, Joseph Smith made an important addition to 1 Corinthians 7:29 that supports this interpretation: "But I speak unto you who are called unto the ministry. For this I say brethren, the time that remaineth is but short, that ye shall be sent forth unto the ministry. Even they who have wives, shall be as though they had none; for ye are called and chosen to do the Lord's work." Contrary to generally accepted interpretations, Paul is not condemning marriage in this chapter but is evidently replying to a problem regarding missionaries who desire to become married. His advice is that while they are on their missions (and he declared that the time for missionary work is short) they should be concerned with the work of the Lord and not with family or personal matters.


Concerning the importance of marriage for a member of the church and the relationships of family members toward each other and the Lord, Paul exhorts the saints to be followers of himself, especially in the ordinances of the church. (See 1 Cor. 11:1–2.) He teaches that the husband is to honor the Lord as his head and the wife is to honor the husband as her head, and that "neither is the man without the woman, neither the woman without the man, in the Lord." (1 Cor. 11:11.)


What sense would these statements make if they came from an unmarried man? In view of all that Paul has said on marriage in 1 Corinthians, it is quite unlikely that the Corinthians would accept his epistle and his arguments if he had been divorced or separated from a wife. The message of 2 Corinthians 7, however, is that the first epistle was accepted and many Saints repented.


It is evident from the frequency of Paul's counsel on marriage and family that he placed great importance on the subject. Paul exhorts the women in the Ephesian branch of the church to submit themselves to their own husbands (literally, become subject or obedient to), as they would to the Lord, comparing the husband and the family to Christ and the Church. (See Eph. 5.) But he also charges the husbands to love their wives (see Eph. 5:25) as their Savior loved the church, so that they might sanctify and perfect their families through love. Paraphrasing one of the great commandments—to love one's neighbor as oneself—Paul says, "So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his wife loveth himself." (Verse 28.) A husband is not to rule as a tyrant over his wife but is to preside in love. (See verse 33.)


Paul's letter to Philippi deserves special cOnsideration in pursuing this subject. Philippi was the first European city in which Paul preached and was one of the most righteous branches of the church at that time of which we have record: "Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence…" (Philip. 2:12.) During Paul's missionary travels and while in prison at Rome, the Philippian church was the only one to remain in constant communication with him by courier, sending gifts and necessities to their beloved apostle. (See Philip. 4:15–18.) In his letter to this faithful group, Paul addresses some of the sisters: "I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche, that they be of the same mind in the Lord.


"And I intreat thee also, true yokefellow, help those women who laboured with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and with other my fellowlabourers." (Philip. 4:2–3; italics added.) Gnesie syzuge, the words translated "true yokefellow," are here taken as feminine, and is a noun that means "wife." Ancient commentators believed that Paul was addressing his wife (e.g., Clement of Alex., Strom. 3:53:1, and Origen, Comm. in Ep. ad. Rom. 1:1), and this is the most sensible translation of the Greek in this context. If he were married at the time, one would expect Paul to leave his wife with a faithful group of saints, where she would least suffer from want and lack of support during his absence. Both her presence in Philippi and the love of the members there for Paul would account for the constant communication with the apostle, and, if this interpretation is true, it is natural that Paul would ask his wife to assist some of the women who had done so much on his behalf.


Finally, in Paul's last epistles, which were written to Timothy and Titus, he places further emphasis on the desirability of marriage. In listing the qualities necessary for a bishop, Paul includes being married (see 1 Tim. 3:2) and being a good leader over his house: "For if a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take care of the church of God?" (1 Tim. 3:5; cp. Titus 1:5–9). Even those called "deacons" in that day (the Greek literally means "one who serves" or a "helper") were to be married and have orderly households. (See 1 Tim, 3:10–13.)


The evidence of Paul's writings leads to the conclusion that he not only tolerated marriage among the saints, but encouraged and exhorted them to marry and bear children. He indicated that marriage is an essential part of the gospel framework, and asserted that one of the signs of apostasy in the last days would be teachings against marriage. (See 1 Tim. 4:1–3.) Certainly Jesus was foremost in importance to Paul, just as he should be in the hearts of men today, and on occasion Paul had to remind men called to the ministry to be fully dedicated to the Lord's work. Nevertheless, Paul understood and taught that in the presence of the Lord, the man will not be without the woman, neither the woman without the man.


Alternative views

Main article: Pauline Christianity

Elaine Pagels, professor of religion at Princeton and an authority on Gnosticism, argues that Paul was a Gnostic[74] and that the anti-Gnostic Pastoral Epistles were "pseudo-Pauline" forgeries written to rebut this. Pagels maintains that the majority of the Christian churches in the second century went with the majority of the middle class in opposing the trend toward equality for women. By the year 200, the majority of Christian communities endorsed as canonical the "pseudo-Pauline" letter to Timothy. That letter, according to Pagels, stresses and exaggerates the antifeminist element in Paul's views: "Let a woman learn in silence in all submissiveness. I permit no woman to teach or have authority over men; she is to keep silent." She believes the letters to the Colossians and to the Ephesians, which order women to "be subject in everything to their husbands," do not express what were very favorable attitudes of Paul about women, but also were "pseudo-Pauline" forgeries. Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ... Elaine Pagels, née Hiesey, (born February 13, 1943), is the Harrington Spear Paine Professor of Religion at Princeton University. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Theologian Robert Cramer agrees that the "pseduo-Pauline" epistles were written to marginalize women, especially in the church and in marriage::

Since it is now widely concluded that the Pastoral Epistles were written around 115 AD, these words were written most likely about fifty years after Paul's martyrdom. Considering the similarity between 1 Corinthians 14:35 and 1 Timothy 2:11-12, conclusions that I and others continue to draw are:
  1. that Paul wrote the bulk of what was in 1 Corinthians but that he did not write 1 Timothy, and
  2. that around 115 AD, the writer of 1 Timothy or a group associated with him added the 1 Corinthians 14:33b-36 pericope to the body of letters that later became 1 Corinthians.
In this scenario this would have been done in part to lend further authority to a later (or more culturally acceptable) teaching that marginalized women.[75]

Father Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, O.P., in the New Jerome Biblical Commentary, agrees that the verses not favorable to women were "post-Pauline interpolations":

1 Corinthians 14:34-35 are not a Corinthian slogan, as some have argued…, but a post-Pauline interpolation…. Not only is the appeal to the law (possibly Genesis 3:16) un-Pauline, but the verses contradict 1 Corinthians 11:5. The injunctions reflect the misogynism of 1 Timothy 2:11-14 and probably stem from the same circle. Some mss. place these verses after 40.[76]

Talmudic scholar Hyam Maccoby contends that the Paul as described in the Book of Acts and the view of Paul gleaned from his own writings are very different people. Some difficulties have been noted in the account of his life. Additionally, the speeches of Paul, as recorded in Acts, have been argued to show a different turn of mind. Paul as described in the Book of Acts is much more interested in factual history, less in theology; ideas such as justification by faith are absent as are references to the Spirit. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ...


On the other hand, according to Maccoby, there are no references to John the Baptist in the Pauline Epistles, but Paul mentions him several times in the Book of Acts. F.C.Baur (1792–1860), professor of theology at Tübingen in Germany and founder of the so-called Tübingen School of theology, argued that Paul, as the apostle to the Gentiles, was in violent opposition to the older disciples. Baur considers the Acts of the Apostles were late and unreliable. This debate has continued ever since, with Deissmann (1866–1937) and Richard Reitzenstein (1861–1931) emphasising Paul's Greek inheritance and Schweitzer and Weiss stressing his dependence on Judaism. St. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ferdinand Christian Baur (June 21, 1792 - 1860), was a German theologian and leader of the Tübingen school of theology. ... Higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... Richard August Reitzenstein (1861-1931) was a German classical philologist and scholar of Ancient Greek religion, hermetism and Gnosticism. ... Albert Schweitzer, M.D., OM, (January 14, 1875 – September 4, 1965), was an Alsatian theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. ... Weiss (German for white) may refer to: Mount Weiss, a mountain located in the Sunwapta River valley of Jasper National Park USS Weiss (DE-378), a vessel USS Weiss (APD-135), a Crosley-class high-speed transport Weissbier, the German name for wheat beer Weiss (ice cream), an ice cream...


Maccoby theorizes that Paul synthesized Judaism, Gnosticism, and mystery religion to create Christianity as a cosmic savior religion. According to Maccoby, Paul's Pharisaism was his own invention, though actually he was probably associated with the Sadducees. Maccoby attributes the origins of Christian anti-Semitism to Paul and claims that Paul's view of women, though inconsistent, reflects his Gnosticism in its antifeminist aspects.[77]


See also

Achaichus was one of the members of the church of Corinth who, with Fortunatus and Stephanas, visited Paul while he was at Ephesus, for the purpose of consulting him on the affairs of the church (I Corinthians 16:17). ... A nineteenth century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus, thirteen of which are explicitly ascribed to Paul, and one, Hebrews, is anonymous. ... Not everyone listed here is Christian or a mystic, but all have contributed to the Christian understanding of connection to or direct experience of God. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... First Christians In its first three centuries, the Christian church endured regular (though not constant) persecution at the hands of Roman authorities. ... Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Acts 13:9, from The New Testament of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ: According to the Received Greek Text (University Press, Cambridge 1876)
  2. ^ Romans 11:13, Galatians 2:8
  3. ^ The Complete Gospels, Robert J. Miller ed., notes on Matt 26:48: "The fact that Judas needs to use a sign indicates that Jesus was not known by face in Jerusalem." Presumably, at that time, Paul was in Jerusalem studying under the famous Pharisee Gamaliel.
  4. ^ Acts 9:1-31, 22:1-22, 26:9-24
  5. ^ Galatians 1:11–12
  6. ^ Gal 6:11, Rom 16:22, 1 Cor 16:21, Col 4:18, 2 Thess 3:17, Phil 1:19
  7. ^ Joseph Barber Lightfoot in his Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians writes: "At this point [Gal 6:11] the apostle takes the pen from his amanuensis, and the concluding paragraph is written with his own hand. From the time when letters began to be forged in his name (2 Thessalonians 2:2; 2 Thessalonians 3:17) it seems to have been his practice to close with a few words in his own handwriting, as a precaution against such forgeries… In the present case he writes a whole paragraph, summing up the main lessons of the epistle in terse, eager, disjointed sentences. He writes it, too, in large, bold characters (Gr. pelikois grammasin), that his handwriting may reflect the energy and determination of his soul."
  8. ^ 2 Thess 2:2; 3:17
  9. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church ed. F.L. Lucas (Oxford) entry on St. Paul
  10. ^ Laymon, Charles M. The Interpreter's One-Volume Commentary on the Bible (Abingdon Press, Nashville 1971) ISBN 0687192994
  11. ^ Walton, Steve (2000). Leadership and Lifestyle: The Portrait of Paul in the Miletus Speech and 1 Thessalonians. Cambridge University Press, 3. ISBN 0521780063. 
  12. ^ Hare, Douglas R. A. (1987), "Introduction", in Knox, John, Chapters in a Life of Paul (Revised ed.), Mercer University Press, pp. x, ISBN 0865542813, <http://books.google.com/books?id=g_42mQjLOVsC&pg=PR10&vq=%22proper+historical+method+requires+us%22&dq=paul+primary+sources+acts+epistles&as_brr=3&sig=RvCwlMrXfqLVQ91D-2OTOOwRWm8>
  13. ^ Maccoby, Hyam (1998). The mythmaker, Barnes and Noble ed., Barnes and Noble, 4. ISBN 0760707871. 
  14. ^ Chapters 9:30, 11:25 and 22:3
  15. ^ Hengel, Martin; Anna Maria Schwemer (1997). Paul Between Damascus and Antioch: The Unknown Years, trans. John Bowden, Westminster John Knox Press, 43. ISBN 0664257364. 
  16. ^ Galatians 2:1–10
  17. ^ Barnett, Paul The Birth Of Christianity: The First Twenty Years (Eerdmans Publishing Co. 2005) ISBN 0802827810 p. 200
  18. ^ Ogg, George, Chronology of the New Testament in Peakes Commentary of the Bible (Nelson) 1963)
  19. ^ Barnett p. 83
  20. ^ Acts 11:26
  21. ^ [Gundry, R.H, A Survey of the New Testament 3rd edition (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1994)]
  22. ^ [Kistemaker, S.J, Acts (New Testament Commentary; Grand Rapids: Baker, 1990)]
  23. ^ for example see the title in Acts&verse=15&src=NIV Acts 15 in the NIV
  24. ^ see below
  25. ^ a b c d White, L. Michael (2004). From Jesus to Christianity. HarperCollins, 148–149. ISBN 0060526556. 
  26. ^ Raymond E. Brown in Introduction to the New Testament argues that they are the same event but each from a different viewpoint with its own bias.
  27. ^ Paul:Apostle of the Free Spirit, F. F. Bruce, Paternoster 1980, p.151
  28. ^ Ogg, George (ibid) p. 731
  29. ^ Bruce Metzger's Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament has the Western version of 15:2: "for Paul spoke maintaining firmly that they should stay as they were when converted; but those who had come from Jerusalem ordered them, Paul and Barnabas and certain others, to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders that they might be judged before them about this question."
  30. ^ For example, Augustine's Contra Faustum 32.13, see also Council of Jerusalem
  31. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Judaizers see section titled: "The Incident At Antioch"
  32. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Judaizers: "On their arrival Peter, who up to this had eaten with the Gentiles, "withdrew and separated himself, fearing them who were of the circumcision," and by his example drew with him not only the other Jews, but even Barnabas, Paul's fellow-labourer."
  33. ^ White, L. Michael (2004). From Jesus to Christianity. HarperSanFrancisco, 170. ISBN 0–06–052655–6. 
  34. ^ McGarvey: "Yet we see him in the case before us, circumcising Timothy with his own hand, and this 'on account of certain Jews who were in those quarters.'"
  35. ^ Map of Paul's Second Missionary Journey
  36. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  37. ^ Acts 18:17 NIV
  38. ^ Pauline Chronology: His Life and Missionary Work, from Catholic Resources by Felix Just, S.J.
  39. ^ Map of Paul's Third Missionary Journey
  40. ^ Expositor's Bible Commentary (Zondervan, 1978–1992), Commentary on Acts 21:27–29
  41. ^ The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, 5:5–6, translated by J.B. Lightfoot in Lightfoot, Joseph Barber (1890). The Apostolic Fathers: A Revised Text with Introductions, Notes, Dissertations, and Translations. Macmillan, 274. OCLC 54248207. 
  42. ^ Brown, Raymond Edward; John Paul Meier (1983). Antioch and Rome: New Testament Cradles of Catholic Christianity. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 124. ISBN 0809125323. 
  43. ^ Lactanius, John Chrysostom, Sulpicius Severus all agree with Eusebius' claim that Peter and Paul died under Nero. Lactantius, Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died II; John Chrysostom, Concerning Lowliness of Mind 4; Sulpicius Severus, Chronica II.28–29
  44. '^ Hebrews authorship by Paul was questioned as early as Origen (circa. 200); it has no early attribution; the almost unanimous views of scholars is that it is not Pauline
  45. ^ see Galatians 6:11, Romans 16:22, 1 Corinthians 16:21, Colossians 4:18, 2 Thessalonians 3:17, Philemon 1:19
  46. ^ Brown, R.E., The Churches the Apostles left behind p.48.
  47. ^ Barrett, C.K. the Pastoral Epistles p.4ff.
  48. ^ Mark 10:45
  49. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian church (Oxford 1958) article on Justification
  50. ^ Hanson A.T., Studies in Paul's Technique and Theology (SPCK 1974) p. 64
  51. ^ Gathercole Simon, "What Did Paul Really Mean?" (Christianity Today 2007)
  52. ^ Christus Victor, Gustaf Aulen (SPCK 1931)
  53. ^ Rashdall, Hastings, The Idea of Atonement in Christian Theology (1919).
  54. ^ Markham I.S., in Theological Liberalism: Creative and Critical ed. J'annine Jobling & Ian Markham
  55. ^ Cur Deus Homo'; Dillistone (ibid.) p. 190 ff
  56. ^ (ibid.) p. 195ff
  57. ^ (ibid.) p. 102
  58. ^ (see penal substitution
  59. ^ (ibid.) p. 214
  60. ^ R.E. Brown The Churches the Apostles left behind (Chapman 1984 p. 47f
  61. ^ McGarvey: "It is evident, from the transaction before us, as observed above, that James and the brethren in Jerusalem regarded the offering of sacrifices as at least innocent; for they approved the course of the four Nazarites, and urged Paul to join with them in the service, though it required them to offer sacrifices, and even sin-offerings. They could not, indeed, very well avoid this opinion, since they admitted the continued authority of the Mosaic law. Though disagreeing with them as to the ground of their opinion, as in reference to the other customs, Paul evidently admitted the opinion itself, for he adopted their advice, and paid the expense of the sacrifices which the four Nazarites offered."
  62. ^ McGarvey: "Yet we see him in the case before us, circumcising Timothy with his own hand, and this "on account of certain Jews who were in those quarters."
  63. ^ James D. G. Dunn, Jesus, Paul and the Law: Studies in Mark and Galatians, Westminster/John Knox Press, 1990, chapter 8: "Works of the Law and the Curse of the Law"
  64. ^ [1]
  65. ^ [2]
  66. ^ "Judaizers", 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia
  67. ^ Paul and Palestinian Judaism 1977 SCM Press ISBN 0–8006–1899–8
  68. ^ J.D.G. Dunn's Manson Memorial Lecture (4.11.1982): 'The New Perspective on Paul' BJRL 65(1983), 95–122.
  69. ^ New Perspectives on Paul
  70. ^ see C.S.C. Williams In Peake's Commentary on the Bible (Nelson 1962)
  71. ^ Rowlands, Christopher Christian Origins (SPCK 1985) p.113
  72. ^ The term arsenokoitai is translated as 'sodomite' — Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament (T & T Clark); see also main article on homosexuality
  73. ^ Boswell, John. Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. University Of Chicago Press; New Ed edition, 2005. ISBN 0226067114
  74. ^ Pagels, Elaine. The Gnostic Gospels. Vintage Publishers, 1989, p.62
  75. ^ Cramer, Robert N. "Women's roles in early church — real history, revisionism, and making things right." Online: http://www.bibletexts.com/qa/qa078.htm#1 Accessed October 5, 2007
  76. ^ New Jerome Biblical Commentary, edited by Raymond E. Brown, S.S., Joseph A. Fitzmyer, S.J, and Roland E. Murphy, O.Carm., Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990, pages 811-812)
  77. ^ Maccoby, Hyam. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity. HarperCollins, 1987. Ch. 1

Textus Receptus (Latin: received text) is the name given to the first Greek-language text of the New Testament to be printed on a printing press. ... Gamaliel the Elder, or Rabbi Gamaliel I, was the grandson of the great Jewish teacher Hillel the Elder. ... Joseph Barber Lightfoot (April 13, 1828–December 21, 1889) was an English theologian and Bishop of Durham. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... Frederick Fyvie Bruce (12 October 1910 – 11 September 1990) was a Bible scholar, and one of the founders of the modern evangelical understanding of the Bible. ... Bruce Metzger pictured on the cover of his autobiography Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Bruce Manning Metzger (born 1914) is a professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who serves on the board of the American Bible Society. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... Augustinus redirects here. ... This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... Penal substitution is a theory of the atonement within Christian theology, especially cherished by Evangelicals of the Reformed tradition. ... James D. G. (Jimmy) Dunn was for many years the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in the Department of Theology at the University of Durham. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...

References

  • Aulén, Gustaf, Christus Victor (SPCK 1931)
  • Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament. Anchor Bible Series, 1997. ISBN 0–385–24767–2.
  • Brown Raymond E. The Church the Apostles left behind(Chapman 1984)
  • Bruce, F.F., Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free (ISBN 0–8028–4778–1)
  • F.F. Bruce 'Is the Paul of Acts the Real Paul?' Bulletin John Rylands Library 58 (1976) 283–305
  • Conzelmann, Hans the Acts of the Apostles — a Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles (Augsburg Fortress 1987)
  • Davies, W. D. (1970). Paul and Rabbinic Judaism: Some Rabbinic Elements in Pauline Theology, third edition, S.P.C.K.. ISBN 0281024499. 
  • Davies, W. D. (1962), "The Apostolic Age and the Life of Paul", in Black, Matthew, Peake's Commentary on the Bible, London: T. Nelson, ISBN 0840750196
  • Hanson, Anthony Tyrrell (1974). Studies in Paul's Technique and Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. ISBN 0802834523. 
  • Dunn, James D.G. Jesus, Paul and the Law 1990 ISBN 0–664–25095–5
  • Maccoby, Hyam. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity. New York: Harper & Row, 1986. ISBN 0–06–015582–5.
  • MacDonald, Dennis Ronald, 1983. The Legend and the Apostle: The Battle for Paul in Story and Canon Philadelphia: Westminster Press.
  • Irenaeus, Against Heresies, i.26.2
  • Ogg, George (1962), "Chronology of the New Testament", in Black, Matthew, Peake's Commentary on the Bible, London: T. Nelson, ISBN 0840750196
  • Rashdall, Hastings The Idea of Atonement in Christian Theology (1919)
  • John Ruef Paul's First letter to Corinth (Penguin 1971)
  • E.P. Sanders Paul and Palestinian Judaism (1977)

Gustaf Aulén was the Bishop of Strängnäs in the Church of Sweden and the author of Christus Victor: An Historical Study of the Three Main Types of the Idea of Atonement in 1931. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... The Anchor Bible Project, consisting of the Anchor Bible Commentary Series, Anchor Bible Dictionary and Anchor Bible Reference Library is a scholarly and commercial co-venture that began in 1956, when individual volumes in the commentary series began production. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... Frederick Fyvie Bruce (1910-1990) was a Bible scholar, and one of the founders of the modern evangelical understanding of the Bible. ... Hans Conzelmann (October 27, 1915 – June 20, 1989) was a German scholar who made many significant contributions to New Testament research in the twentieth century, including his book on Luke-Acts and Lukan theology , which triggered much of the serious discussion on Lukan theology, according to Luke Timothy Johnsons... James D. G. (Jimmy) Dunn was for many years the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in the Department of Theology at the University of Durham. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος), (b. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ... Ed Parish Sanders (born 1947) is a leading New Testament theologian and one of the principal proponents of the New Perspective on Paul. ...

External links

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Paul of Tarsus
  • Interactive maps of Paul's mission journeys
  • Catholic Encyclopedia: Paul of Tarsus
  • Encyclopædia Britannica: Paul
  • Epistles of Apostle Paul Bishop Alexander (Orthodox Christian perspective)
  • Jewish Encyclopedia: Paul of Tarsus
  • New Perspective on Paul
  • Paul: anarchiste éclairé Dr. Yves Maris
  • Paul's mission and letters From PBS Frontline series on the earliest Christians.
  • St Paul's tomb unearthed in Rome from BBC News (2006–12–08)
  • The Apostle and the Poet: Paul and Aratus Dr. Riemer Faber
  • The Apostle Paul's Shipwreck: An Historical Examination of Acts 27 and 28
  • The Problem of Paul Hyam Maccoby
  • Vatican reports discovery of St.Paul's tomb from WorldNetDaily.com (February 18, 2005). cf. Vatican Museum
  • Vatican Unearths Apparent Tomb of Paul of Tarsus
  • Jewish Encyclopedia: New Testament: For and Against the Law.
  • Documentary film on Apostle Paul
Saints Portal
Persondata
NAME Paul the Apostle
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Paul of Tarsus; Paul, Saint; Saul
SHORT DESCRIPTION Apostle who spread Christianity
DATE OF BIRTH 10
PLACE OF BIRTH Tarsus, Turkey
DATE OF DEATH 67
PLACE OF DEATH Rome, Italy

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Perga was the capital of Pamphylia, on the coast of Asia Minor. ... Antioch is a city in the Turkish Lake District, which is at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, Aegean and Central Anatolian regions. ... Konya (Ottoman Turkish: ; also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically also known as Iconium (Latin), Greek: Ikónion) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Derbe is an ancient city in todays Turkey. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is mostly about the Antalya City; for the province, see Antalya Province. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Derbe is an ancient city in todays Turkey. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mysia. ... Coordinates 40°29′ N 25°31′ E Country Greece Periphery East Macedonia and Thrace Prefecture Evros Population 2,723 source (2001) Area 178. ... Neapoli (Greek: Νεάπολη) is a suburban city in the Thessaloniki Prefecture. ... Map of Greece showing Philippi Philippi (in Ancient Greek / Philippoi) was a city in eastern Macedonia, founded by Philip II in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. ... Localization of Amphipolis Amphipolis (Greek, Ἀμφίπολις – Amphípolis) was an ancient Greek city in the region once inhabited by the Edoni people in the present-day periphery of East Macedonia and Thrace. ... Apollonia is an ancient town (former Apollonia in Mygdonia) in Greek Macedonia along the Via Egnatia, about midway between Thessalonica and Amphipolis. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (&#920;&#949;&#963;&#963;&#945;&#955;&#959;&#957;&#943;&#954;&#951;) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Berea is mentioned in the book of Acts in the Bible, for the ancient city of Beroea, now know as Veria. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... There is another Kechries, see Kechries Kechries (Greek Modern: &#922;&#949;&#967;&#961;&#953;&#941;&#962;, rarely &#922;&#949;&#967;&#961;&#949;&#941;&#962;, Ancient/Katharevousa: Kechreai), older form: Cenchreae, Kechriai, Kekhries, Kekhriai, Kekhriais is a community in the municipality of Corinth in Corinthia. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... There is another Kechries, see Kechries Kechries (Greek Modern: &#922;&#949;&#967;&#961;&#953;&#941;&#962;, rarely &#922;&#949;&#967;&#961;&#949;&#941;&#962;, Ancient/Katharevousa: Kechreai), older form: Cenchreae, Kechriai, Kekhries, Kekhriai, Kekhriais is a community in the municipality of Corinth in Corinthia. ... Map of the Troas The Troas (Troad) is an ancient region in the northwestern part of Anatolia, bounded by the Hellespont to the northwest, the Aegean Sea to the west, and separated from the rest of Anatolia by the massif that forms Mount Ida. ... Assos (Behramkale) - located in Turkey Aristotle lived here and St Paul visited, but today visitors go to Assos as a tranquil Aegean-coast seaside retreat amid ancient ruins. ... Mytilene (Greek: Μυτιλήνη - Mytilíni, Turkish: Midilli), also Mytilini, is the capital city of Lesbos (formerly known as Lesbos but the modern name is Mytilene), a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, and the Lesbos Prefecture as well. ... Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios), is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea seven kilometres (five miles) off the Turkish coast. ... Samos (Greek: Σάμος) is a Greek island in the Eastern Aegean sea, located between the island of Chios to the North and the archipelagic complex of the Dodecanese to the South and in particular the island of Patmos and off the coast of Turkey, on what was formerly known as Ionia. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... Port and city view of Kos town on the island Kos. ... Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος Rhódhos; Italian Rodi; [[Ladino language| ) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands in terms of both land area and population, situated in eastern Aegean Sea. ... Patara (Lycian: Pttara), later renamed Arsinoe (Greek: ), was a flourishing maritime and commercial city on the south-west coast of Lycia on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey near the modern small town of GelemiÅŸ, in Antalya Province. ... Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... 68. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Paul (10754 words)
Paul preached in the synagogue every Sabbath day, and when the violent opposition of the Jews denied him entrance there he withdrew to an adjoining house which was the property of a proselyte named Titus Justus.
According to them Paul was the creator of theology, the founder of the Church, the preacher of asceticism, the defender of the sacraments and of the ecclesiastical system, the opponent of the religion of love and liberty which Christ came to announce to the world.
Paul never answers this question directly, but he shows us the drama of Calvary under three aspects, which there is danger in separating and which are better understood when compared: (a) at one time the death of Christ is a sacrifice intended, like the sacrifice of the Old Law, to expiate sin and propitiate God.
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