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Encyclopedia > Paul of Tarsus
Paul of Tarsus

St. Paul, by El Greco
Apostle to the Gentiles, Saint, Martyr
Born c. 10, Tarsus
Died c. 67, Rome during Nero's Persecution
Canonized pre-congregation
Major shrine Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
Feast January 25 (The Conversion of Sain Paul)
June 29 (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul)
November 18 (Feast of the dedication of the basilicas of Saints Peter and Paul)
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Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (633x823, 79 KB) Summary St. ... Events Differentiation of localized Teutonic tribes of the Irminones. ... Tarsus is a city in present day Turkey, located on the mouth of the Tarsus Cay (Cydnus) which empties into the Mediterranean. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 62 63 64 65 66 - 67 - 68 69 70 71 72 Events Linus succeeds Saint Peter as pope. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, AD 37 – June 9, AD 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... Canonization is the process of declaring someone a saint and involves proving that a candidate has lived in such a way that he or she qualifies for this. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... Statue in front of the Basilica Basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura — also known in English as the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls — is one of five churches considered to be the great ancient basilicas of Rome, Italy. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christ is the English translation of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... The phrase One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church appears in the Nicene Creed () and, in part, in the Apostles Creed (the holy catholic church, sanctam ecclesiam catholicam). ... Given the overwhelming influence exercised by Christianity, especially in pre-modern Europe, Christian theology permeates much of Western culture and often reflects that culture. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... “Apostle” redirects here. ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek basileia tou theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The history of Christianity concerns the history of the Christian religion and the Church, from Jesus and his Twelve Apostles to contemporary times. ... The purpose of this chronology is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era to the present. ...


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Paul of Tarsus (b. c. 10, d. c. 67), the Apostle to the Gentiles (Romans 11:13, Galatians 2:8) was, together with Simon Peter, the most notable of Early Christian missionaries. Unlike the Twelve Apostles, Paul did not know Jesus in life; he came to faith through a vision of the resurrected Jesus (1 Cor 15:8-9) and stressed that his apostolic authority was based on his vision. As he wrote, he "received it [the Gospel] by revelation from Jesus Christ" (Gal 1:11-12); according to Acts, his conversion took place as he was journeying on the Road to Damascus. Events Differentiation of localized Teutonic tribes of the Irminones. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 62 63 64 65 66 - 67 - 68 69 70 71 72 Events Linus succeeds Saint Peter as pope. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... “Apostle” redirects here. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus The Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported by the Canonical Gospels to have occurred after the discovery of the empty tomb. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... The Road to Damascus is a Biblical reference to the conversion of a persecutor of Christians named Saul on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus in the Roman province of Syria in AD 36. ...


Paul was the second most prolific contributor to the New Testament, after Luke the Evangelist. Thirteen letters are attributed to him, with varying degrees of confidence [1]. The undisputed Pauline epistles contain the earliest systematic account of Christian doctrine, and provide information on the life of the infant Church. They are arguably the oldest part of the New Testament. Paul also appears in the pages of the Acts of the Apostles, attributed to Luke, so that it is possible to compare the account of his life in the Acts with his own account in his various letters. His letters are largely written to churches which he had founded or visited; he was a great traveller, visiting Cyprus, Asia Minor (modern Turkey), mainland Greece, Crete, and Rome bringing the Gospel of Jesus Christ, first to Jews and then to Gentiles. His letters are full of expositions of what Christians should believe and how they should live. What he does not tell his correspondents (or the modern reader) is much about the life and teachings of Jesus; his most explicit references are to the Last Supper (1 Cor 11:17-34) and the crucifixion and resurrection (1 Cor 15). His specific references to Jesus' teaching are likewise sparse, raising the question, still disputed, as to how consistent his account of the faith is with that of the four canonical Gospels, Acts, and the Epistle of James. The view that Paul's Christ is very different from the historical Jesus has been expounded by Adolf Harnack among many others. Nevertheless, he provides the first written account of the relationship of the Christian to the Risen Christ - what it is to be a Christian - and thus of Christian spirituality. Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are those books in the New Testament that are traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus. ... Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... The Last Supper fresco in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci According to the Gospels, the Last Supper (also called Lords Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... This article is about Jesus the person, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ...


Paul's influence on Christian thinking has, arguably, been more significant than any other single New Testament author. His influence on the main strands of Christian thought have been massive, from St. Augustine of Hippo to the controversies between Gottschalk and Hincmar of Reims, between Thomism and Molinism, Martin Luther, Calvin and the Arminians, Jansenism and the Jesuit theologians and even to the German church of the twentieth century through the writings of the scholar Karl Barth, whose commentary on the Letter to the Romans had a political as well as theological impact. St. ... There were or are the following people named Gottschalk: Gottschalk, Prince of Vends (Slavic), 11th century Gottschalk, German monk, 9th century Gottschalk, Bishop of Freising, beneficiary of the 996 Ostarrîchi document Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829–1869) American composer and pianist Thomas Gottschalk, German entertainer and actor (born 1950... Hincmar (c. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... Molinism, named after 16th Century Jesuit theologian Luis de Molina, is a religious doctrine which attempts to reconcile the omniscience of God with human free will. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The name Calvin origionated from the word scritonious, or ass-like. ... Arminianism is a Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. ... Jansenism was a branch of Catholic thought tracing itself back to Cornelius Otto Jansen (1585 – 1638), a Flemish theologian. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Karl Barth. ...

Contents

Sources for information about St. Paul

In trying to reconstruct the events of St. Paul's life, scholars use both St. Paul's letters and the book of Acts. Different views are held as to the reliability of the latter. Some scholars, such as Hans Conzelmann, dispute the historical content of Acts. These scholars argue that even allowing for omissions in St. Paul's own account, which is found particularly in Galatians, there are many differences between his account and that in Acts. On the other hand, other scholars argue for the historicity and reliability of Acts; these scholars regard both sources as equally important and equally historical. Please see the full discussion in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acts_of_the_Apostles#Historical. For purposes of this article, both St. Paul's letters and Acts have been consulted to give the events of his life, and any ambiguities or difficulties have been noted. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Hans Conzelmann (October 27, 1915 – June 20, 1989) was a German scholar who made many significant contributions to New Testament research in the twentieth century, including his book on Luke-Acts and Lukan theology , which triggered much of the serious discussion on Lukan theology, according to Luke Timothy Johnsons... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...

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Early life

St. Paul's conversion, by Jean Fouquet.
St. Paul's conversion, by Jean Fouquet.

According to the Acts of the Apostles (9:30; 11:25; 22:3), Paul was born in Tarsus in Asia Minor, or modern-day Turkey, under the name Saul, "an Israelite of the tribe of Benjamin, circumcised on the eighth day" (Phil.3:5). However, Paul's own letters never mention this as his birthplace, nor is the name "Saul" alluded to. Acts records that Paul was a Roman citizen—a privilege he used a number of times in his defence, appealing convictions in Judea to Rome (Acts 22:25 and 27–29). According to Acts 22:3, he studied in Jerusalem under the Rabbi Gamaliel, well known in Paul's time. He supported himself during his travels and while preaching — a fact he alludes to a number of times (e.g., 1 Cor 9:13–15); according to Acts 18:3, he worked as a tentmaker. Image File history File links Saint_Paul. ... Image File history File links Saint_Paul. ... Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (c. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Tarsus is a city in present day Turkey, located on the mouth of the Tarsus Cay (Cydnus) which empties into the Mediterranean. ... Saul (Hebrew Shaul meaning demanded) is: 1. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Gamaliel the Elder, or Rabbi Gamaliel I, was the grandson of the great Jewish teacher Hillel the Elder. ...


He first appears in the pages of the New Testament as a witness to the martyrdom of Stephen (Acts 7:57-8:3). He was, as he described himself, a persistent persecutor of the Church (1 Cor 15:9, Gal 1:13) (almost all of whose members were Jewish or Jewish proselytes), until his experience on the Road to Damascus which resulted in his conversion. Paul himself is very reticent about the precise character of his conversion (Gal 1:11-24) though he uses it as authority for his independence of the apostles. In Acts there are three accounts: the first is a description of the event itself (9:1-20) in which he is decribed as falling to the ground, as a result of a flash of light from the sky, hearing the words 'Saul, Saul why are you persecuting me?'; the second is Paul's witness to the event before the crowd in Jerusalem (22:1-22); the third is his testimony before King Agrippa II (26:1-24). In the accounts, he is described as being led, blinded by the light, to Damascus where his sight was restored by a disciple called Ananias and he was baptized. John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... St. ... Fourth-century inscription, representing Christ as the Good Shepherd. ... Proselyte, from the Greek proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for stranger (1 Chronicles 22:2), i. ... The Road to Damascus is a Biblical reference to the conversion of a persecutor of Christians named Saul on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus in the Roman province of Syria in AD 36. ... Agrippa II (AD 27–100), son of Agrippa I, and like him originally named Marcus Julius Agrippa. ...

The alleged house of St. Ananias in Damascus.
The alleged house of St. Ananias in Damascus.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1440x1080, 1649 KB) Inside the alleged house of St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1440x1080, 1649 KB) Inside the alleged house of St. ... Ananias was one of the Seventy Apostles sent out by Jesus in Luke 10. ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ...

Mission

Bab Kisan, where Paul escaped from Damascus
Bab Kisan, where Paul escaped from Damascus

Following his stay in Damascus after his conversion, where he was baptised, Paul says that he first went to Arabia, and then came back to Damascus (Gal 1:17). According to Acts, his preaching in the local synagogues got him into trouble there, and he was forced to escape, being let down over the wall in a basket (Acts 9:23). He describes in Galatians, how three years after his conversion, he went to Jerusalem, where he met James, and stayed with Simon Peter for fifteen days (Gal 1:13–24). According to Acts, he apparently attempted to join the disciples and was accepted only owing to the intercession of Barnabas – they were all understandably afraid of him as one who had been a persecutor of the Church (Acts 9:26-27). Again, according to Acts, he got into trouble for disputing with "Hellenists" (Greek speaking Jews and Gentile "God-fearers") and so he was sent back to Tarsus. Image File history File links Damascus, Syria - Bab Kisan, now Greek Catholic Chapel of St. ... Image File history File links Damascus, Syria - Bab Kisan, now Greek Catholic Chapel of St. ... ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ), also called James Adelphos, James of Jerusalem, or the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure in Early Christianity. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Barnabas was an early Christian mentioned in the New Testament. ...


We do not know exactly what happened in the fourteen years that elapsed before he went again to Jerusalem. At the end of this time, Barnabas went to find Saul and brought him back to Antioch (Acts 11:26). As he had been the object of suspicion by the Christians at Jerusalem, it is impossible to deduce how he might have been received when he returned to Tarsus and if he stayed without incident. Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ...


When a famine occurred in Judaea, around 45-46,[2] help was sent by the hands of Barnabas and Saul; Saul then returned to Antioch. According to Acts, Antioch had become an alternative centre for Christians, following the dispersion after the death of Stephen. In Antioch, the followers of Jesus were first called Christians.


First missionary journey

According to Acts 13-14 , Barnabas took Saul on what is often called the First Missionary Journey which took them to Cyprus, Barnabas's home, and thence to Paphos. Afterward he sailed onward to visit the towns of southern Asia Minor, which is in present-day Turkey: Perga, Antioch, Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe. However, Paul's own letters only mention that he preached in Syria and Cilicia (Gal 1:18–20). Acts records that Paul later "went through Syria and Cilicia, strengthening the churches" (15:41), but it does not explicitly state who founded the churches or when they were founded. Barnabas was an early Christian mentioned in the New Testament. ... Paphos, usually written Paphos or Paphus in English, (Ancient Greek: ; Modern Greek: Πάφος, Páfos; Latin: Paphus, and for a time, Augusta; Turkish: Baf, formerly Baffa) is a coastal town in the southwest of Cyprus. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Perga was the capital of Pamphylia, on the coast of Asia Minor. ... Antioch is a city in the Turkish Lake District, which is at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, Aegean and Central Anatolian regions. ... Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Derbe is an ancient city in todays Turkey. ...


"Council of Jerusalem"

Main article: Council of Jerusalem

According to Acts 15, Paul attended a meeting of the apostles and elders held at Jerusalem at which they discussed the question of circumcision of Gentile Christians; scholars usually date this meeting around 50. Traditionally, this meeting is called the Council of Jerusalem, though nowhere is it called so in the New Testament. Council of Jerusalem is a name applied in retrospect to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter 15. ... Circumcision, when practiced as a rite, has its foundations in the Bible, in the Abrahamic covenant, such as Genesis 17, and is therefore practiced by Jews and Muslims and some Christians, those who constitute the Abrahamic religions. ...


Paul and the apostles apparently met at Jerusalem several times. Unfortunately, there is some difficulty in determining the sequence of the meetings and exact course of events. Some Jerusalem meetings are mentioned in Acts, some meetings are mentioned in Paul's letters, and some appear to be mentioned in both. For example, in Galatians Paul makes no separate mention of the Jerusalem visit implied in Acts 11:27-30 when he and Barnabas brought famine relief to Judea. In Galatians 2:1, Paul describes a possible second visit to Jerusalem as a private occasion, whereas Acts describes a public meeting in Jerusalem addressed by James at its conclusion. Thus some scholars think that Paul in Galatians is referring to the meeting in Acts 11 (the 'famine visit') and that the letter to the Galatians was written after the men had come to Antioch demanding circumcision and before the Council of Jerusalem, the public meeting, had taken place— or even as he was setting out for it— this interpretation would make Galatians the earliest letter to be written (it is generally dated between 48 and 55). If the meeting was private, Luke's informants might have had no knowledge of it; however, it could not have taken place fourteen years after the first encounter (or seventeen from the date of Paul's conversion), because the famine relief took place in the reign of King Herod Agrippa, according to Acts; he died in 44. That would put Paul's conversion at 27, likely before Jesus' death.[3] In fact, the famine did not reach its greatest severity until 48, after Herod's death. Many other conjectures have been offered: fourteen years should be four; Acts 11 and 15 are two alternative accounts of the same visit; the visit is recorded in Acts 18:22. If there was a public rather than a private meeting, it seems likely that it took place after Galatians was written.[2] This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ...


According to Acts, Paul and Barnabas were appointed to go to Jerusalem to speak with the apostles and elders and were welcomed by them. The key question raised (in both Acts and Galatians and which is not in dispute) was whether Gentile converts needed to be circumcised (Acts 15:2ff; Gal.2:1ff). Paul states that he had attended "in response to a revelation and to lay before them the gospel that I preached among the Gentiles" (Gal 2:2). Peter publicly reaffirmed a decision he had made previously (see Acts 10 and 11), proclaiming: "[God] put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith" (Acts15:9), echoing an earlier statement: "Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons" (Acts10:34). James concurred: "We should not trouble those of the Gentiles who are turning to God" (Acts15:19–21), and a letter (later known as the Apostolic Decree) was sent back with Paul enjoining them from food sacrificed to idols, from blood, from the meat of strangled animals, and from sexual immorality (Acts 15:29), which some consider to be Noahide Law.[4] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Noahide laws are the mitzvot (commandments) that Judaism teaches that all of humankind is morally bound to follow. ...


Despite the agreement they achieved at the meeting as understood by Paul, Paul recounts how he later publicly confronted Peter (accusing him of Judaizing, also called the "Incident at Antioch"[5] over his reluctance to share a meal with Gentile Christians in Antioch. Paul later wrote: "I opposed [Peter] to his face, because he was clearly in the wrong" and said to the apostle: "You are a Jew, yet you live like a Gentile and not like a Jew. How is it, then, that you force Gentiles to follow Jewish customs?" (Gal. 2:11–14). Paul also mentioned that even Barnabas sided with Peter. Acts does not record this event, saying only that "some time later", Paul decided to leave Antioch (usually considered the beginning of his "Second Missionary Journey", (Acts15:36–18:22) with the object of visiting the believers in the towns where he and Barnabas had preached earlier, but this time without Barnabas. At this point the Galatians witness ceases. Judaizers is a term used by orthodox Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the Law of Moses. ... Hellenisation (or Hellenization) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek (Hellenic). ... Judaize, from the Greek Ioudaizo (ιουδαιζω), means literally to live as a Jew, however it was used primarily in a derogatory sense for Christians who chose to live more in accord with the Jesus described in the Bible, often this meant observing the...


Second missionary journey

Following a dispute between Paul and Barnabas over whether they should take John Mark with them, they went on separate journeys (Acts 15:36–41) — Barnabas with John Mark, and Paul with Silas. Following Acts 16:1-18:22, Paul and Silas went to Derbe and Lystra, the Phrygia and northern Galatia, to Troas, when, inspired by a vision they set off for Macedonia. At Philippi they met and brought to faith a young girl called Lydia, whom they baptised together with her family; there Paul was also arrested and badly beaten. According to Acts, Paul then set off for Thessalonica. This accords with Paul's own account (1 Thess. 2:2), though some question how, having been in Philippi only "some days", Paul could found a church based on Lydia's house; it may have been founded earlier by someone else. According to Acts, Paul then came to Athens where he gave his speech in the Areopagus; in this speech, he told Athenians that the "Unknown God" to whom they had a shrine was in fact "known", as the God who had raised Jesus from the dead. (Acts 17:16–34). Thereafter Paul travelled to Corinth, where he settled for three years and where he may have written 1 Thessalonians, possibly the earliest of his surviving letters. At Corinth, (18:12–17), the "Jews united" and charged Paul with "persuading the people to worship God in ways contrary to the law"; the proconsul Gallio then judged that it was a minor matter not worth his attention and dismissed the charges. "Then all of them (Other ancient authorities read all the Greeks) seized Sosthenes, the official of the synagogue, and beat him in front of the tribunal. But Gallio paid no attention to any of these things." (18:17 NRSV) From an inscription in Delphi that mentions Gallio, the year of the hearing is known to be 52, which aids in reconstructing the chronology of Paul's life. Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of the Troas The Troas (Troad; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient region in the northwestern part of Anatolia, bounded by the Hellespont to the northwest, the Aegean Sea to the west, and separated from the rest of Anatolia by the massif that forms... Map of Greece showing Philippi Philippi (in Ancient Greek / Philippoi) was a city in eastern Macedonia, founded by Philip II in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Nickname: Το κλεινόν άστυ Location of the city of Athens (red dot) within the Prefecture of Athens and Periphery of Attica Coordinates: Country Greece Peripheries Attica Prefecture Athens Founded circa 2000 BC Government  - Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis Area [1][2]  - City 38. ... This article concerns the Classical judicial body. ... In addition to the twelve main Gods and the innumerable lesser deities, ancient Greeks used to worship an Unknown God (spelled Agnostos Theos in Greek). ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Delphi (Greek Δελφοί — Delphee) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in a valley of Phocis. ...


Third missionary journey

Following this hearing, Paul continued his preaching, usually called his "third missionary journey" (Acts 18:23–21:26), travelling again through Asia Minor and Macedonia, to Antioch and back. He caused a great uproar in the theatre in Ephesus, where local silversmiths feared loss of income due to Paul's activities. Their income relied on the sale of silver statues (idols) of the goddess Artemis, whom they worshipped; the resulting mob almost killed Paul (Acts 19:21–41) and his companions. Later, as Paul was passing near Ephesus on his way to Jerusalem, Paul chose not to stop, since he was in haste to reach Jerusalem by Pentecost. The church here, however, was so highly regarded by Paul that he called the elders to Miletus to meet with him (Acts 20:16–38). Historical Map of Ephesus, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888 Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ), was one of the great cities of the Ionian Greeks in Asia Minor, located in Lydia where the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes) flows into the Aegean Sea (in modern day Turkey). ... The Diana of Versailles, a Roman copy of a sculpture by Leochares (Louvre Museum) Artemis (Greek: nominative , genitive ) in Greek mythology the daughter of Zeus and of Leto and the twin sister of Apollo was one of the most widely venerated of the gods and manifestly one of the oldest... Pentecost (symbolically related to the Jewish festival of Shavuot) is a feast on the Christian liturgical calendar that commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles, and the followers (men and women) of Jesus, fifty days (seven weeks) after Easter, and ten days after Ascension Thursday. ...


Arrest and death

Upon Paul's arrival in Jerusalem, he gave the apostles his account of bringing Gentiles to the faith. According to Acts, James the Just confronted Paul with the charge that he was teaching the Jews to ignore the law and asked him to demonstrate that he was a law-abiding Jew by taking a Nazirite vow (21:26). However, that Paul did so is difficult to reconcile with his personally expressed attitude both in Galatians and Philippians, where he utterly opposed any idea that the law was binding on Christians, declaring that even Peter did not live by the law (Gal 2:14). Various attempts have been made to reconcile Paul's views as expressed in his different letters and in Acts, notably the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia article on Judaizers states: Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew Yaʿaqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ), also called James Adelphos, James of Jerusalem, or the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure in Early Christianity. ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ... A Nazirite or Nazarite, (in Hebrew: נזיר,Nazir), refers to a Jew who took an ascetic vow described in Numbers 6:1-21. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to Philippians is a book included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ...

"Paul, on the other hand, not only did not object to the observance of the Mosaic Law, as long as it did not interfere with the liberty of the Gentiles, but he conformed to its prescriptions when occasion required (1 Cor 9:20). Thus he shortly after [the Council of Jerusalem] circumcised Timothy (Acts 16:1–3), and he was in the very act of observing the Mosaic ritual when he was arrested at Jerusalem (21:26 sqq.)".

In any case, about a week after Paul had taken his vow at the temple, some Jews from "Asia" (Asia Minor or modern Turkey, Paul's homeland) spotted him in Jerusalem and stirred up the crowd shouting: "Men of Israel, help us! This is the man who teaches all men everywhere against our people and our law and this place. And besides, he has brought Greeks into the temple area and defiled this holy place." (21:28). The crowd was about to kill Paul but the Roman guard rescued him, and after an unsuccessful speech in Aramaic (21:37-22:22), imprisoned him in Caesarea. Paul claimed his right as a Roman citizen to be tried in Rome, but owing to the inaction of the governor Antonius Felix, Paul languished in confinement at Caesarea for two years. When a new governor Porcius Festus took office, he held a hearing and sent Paul by sea to Rome. It was while journeying to Rome that Paul was shipwrecked on Malta where Acts states that he converted the people to Christianity, St Paul being Malta's patron saint to this day. According to Acts, Paul spent another two years in Rome under house arrest: "Boldly and without hindrance he preached the kingdom of God and taught about the Lord Jesus Christ." (28:30-31). Of his detention in Rome, Philippians provides some additional support. It was clearly written from prison and references to the "praetorian guard" and "Caesar's household" may suggest that it was written from Rome. Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... Circumcision, when practiced as a rite, has its foundations in the Bible, in the Abrahamic covenant, such as Genesis 17, and is therefore practiced by Jews and Muslims and some Christians, those who constitute the Abrahamic religions. ... Caesarea is the name of several Roman cities and towns, including: Caesarea Antiochia, properly Antioch in Pisidia, near modern Yalvaç, Turkey Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, modern Kayseri, Turkey Caesarea Palaestina: modern Caesarea, in Israel Caesarea Philippi in the Golan Heights Iol Caesarea: modern Cherchell, in Algeria Caesarea Magna or Caesara... Marcus Antonius Felix (Felix in Greek: ο Φηλιξ, born between 5/10-?) was the ancient Rome procurator of Iudaea Province 52-60, in succession to Ventidius Cumanus. ... Porcius Festus was procurator of Judea from about 58 to 62 AD, succeeding Antonius Felix. ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek basileia tou theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ...


Whether Paul died in Rome or was able to go to Spain as in his letter to the Romans (Rom. 15:22-7) he hoped, is uncertain. Eusebius of Caesarea, who wrote in the fourth century, states that Paul was beheaded in the reign of the Roman Emperor Nero. This event has been dated either to the year 64, when Rome was devastated by a fire, or a few years later, to 67. An ancient liturgical solemnity of Peter and Paul, celebrated on 29 June, could reflect the day of martyrdom, and many ancient sources articulated the tradition that Peter and Paul died on the same day (and possibly the same year). St. Clement of Rome, writing thirty years later says that Paul went to "the limits of the west". If the Pastoral Epistles are genuine, he could have revisited Greece and Asia Minor after his trip to Spain, and might then have been arrested in Troas (2 Tim. 4:13) and taken to Rome and executed. The traditional story is that Paul interred with Saint Peter's ad Catacumbas by the via Appia until moved to what is now the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome (now in the process of being excavated). Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History, writes that Pope Vitalian in 665 gave Paul's relics (including a cross made from his prison chains) from the crypts of Lucina to King Oswy of Northumbria, northern Britain. However, Bede's use of the word "relic" was not limited to corporal remains. The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, AD 37 – June 9, AD 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... Pope Clement I, the bishop of Rome also called Clement of Rome and Clemens Romanus, is considered to be the fourth pope, after Anacletus, according to the Roman Catholic tradition. ... The three pastoral epistles are books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus. ... The path of the Via Appia and of the Via Appia Traiana. ... Statue in front of the Basilica Basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura — also known in English as the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls — is one of five churches considered to be the great ancient basilicas of Rome, Italy. ... Bede (IPA: ) (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin) Beda (IPA: )), (ca. ... Vitalianus (died January 27, 672) was Pope from 657 - 672. ... Events Swithelm succeeded by Sighere and Sebbi as king(s) of Essex Seongnam renamed Hansanju. ...


Writings

Saint Paul Writing His Epistles
Saint Paul Writing His Epistles

Image File history File links PaulT.jpg File links The following pages link to this file: Paul of Tarsus ... Image File history File links PaulT.jpg File links The following pages link to this file: Paul of Tarsus ... A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are those books in the New Testament that are traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus. ...

Authorship

Of the thirteen letters traditionally attributed to St. Paul and included in the Western New Testament canon, there is little or no dispute that Paul actually wrote at least seven, those being Romans, First Corinthians, Second Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, First Thessalonians, and Philemon. Hebrews, which was ascribed to him in antiquity, was questioned even then, never had an ancient attribution, and in modern times has been rejected by most experts as inauthentic. The authorship of the remaining six Pauline epistles is disputed to varying degrees. A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are those books in the New Testament that are traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... See also: Second Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to Philippians is a book included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the First Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Philemon is the recipient of the Epistle to Philemon, which is a book of the Bible from the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbreviated Heb. ...


The authenticity of Colossians has been questioned on the grounds that it contains an otherwise unparalleled description (amongst his writings) of Jesus as 'the image of the invisible God', a Christology found elsewhere only in St. John's gospel. Nowhere is there a richer and more exalted estimate of the position of Christ than here. On the other hand, the personal notes in the letter connect it to Philemon, unquestionably the work of Paul. More problematic is Ephesians, a very similar letter to Colossians, but which reads more like a manifesto than a letter. It is almost entirely lacking in personal reminiscences. Its style is unique; it lacks the emphasis on the cross to be found in other Pauline writings, reference to the Second Coming is missing, and Christian marriage is exalted in a way which contrasts with the grudging reference in 1 Cor 7:8-9. Finally it exalts the Church in a way suggestive of a second generation of Christians, 'built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets' now past.[6] The defenders of its Pauline authorship argue that it was intended to be read by a number of different churches and that it marks the final stage of the development of St. Paul's thinking. The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... Christology is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with the nature of Jesus the Christ. ... The Epistle to Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament, written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles. ... The Second Coming or Last Coming refers to the Christian and Islamic belief in the coming or return of Jesus Christ to fulfill Messianic prophecy, such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God (also called the Reign of God), including the...


The Pastoral Epistles, 1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus have likewise been put in question as Pauline works in modern times. Three main reasons are advanced: first, their difference in vocabulary, style and theology from St. Paul's acknowledged writings; secondly, the difficulty in fitting them into St Paul's biography as we have it.[7] They, like Colossians and Ephesians, were written from prison but suppose St. Paul's release and travel thereafter. Finally, the concerns expressed are very much the practical ones as to how a church should function. They are more about maintenance than about mission. The three pastoral epistles are books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus. ...


2 Thessalonians, like Colossians, is questioned on stylistic grounds, with scholars noting, among other peculiarities, a dependence on 1 Thessalonians yet a distinctiveness in language from the Pauline corpus, suggesting that the author was an imitator.


Apart from the above, several further epistles have been attributed by some to Paul. Most of these seem to have been lost over time. For example, the Muratorian fragment (c. 180 AD) gives us the following information: "Moreover there is in circulation an epistle to the Laodiceans, and another to the Alexandrians, forged under the name of Paul, bearing on the heresy of Marcion, and several others, which cannot be received into the Catholic church, for gall ought not to be mingled with honey." There is a second so-called Epistle to the Laodiceans, which was evidently written in the third or fourth century, and has been preserved in Latin, in which it was likely originally written. Confusingly, a third Epistle to the Laodiceans is mentioned in Colossians 4:16: "And when this epistle is read among you, cause that it be read also in the church of the Laodiceans; and that ye likewise read the epistle from Laodicea." Marcion (c.150 AD) on one occasion refered to Ephesians as the Epistle to the Laodiceans, leading some to speculate relationships between it and the one extant or two alleged Laodicean epistles; such speculation, however, has not proved fruitful. Also lost is Paul's alleged Epistle to the Macedonians.[citation needed] The Acts of Paul, a second-century patchwork of writings, includes a text referred to as the Third Epistle to the Corinthians. Of all these extra-canonical Epistles, only the Latin version of Laodiceans and 3 Corinthians have been preserved. Among Christians, the Muratorian fragment is known as a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of New Testament books that were accepted as canonical by the churches known to its anonymous compiler. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Epistle to the Laodiceans An Epistle to the Laodiceans, consisting of 20 short lines, is found in some editions of the Vulgate, known only in Latin, purporting to be the epistle of Paul to the Laodiceans mentioned in the Epistle to the... The Third Epistle to the Corinthians is believed to be a pseudepigraphical text under the name of Paul of Tarsus. ...


Paul and Jesus

As already stated, little can be deduced about the earthly life of Jesus from St. Paul's letters. He mentions specifically only the Last Supper (1 Cor. 11:23ff), his death by crucifixion (1 Cor :2:2; Phil. 2:8), and his resurrection (Phil. 2:9) . Instead, Paul concentrates on the nature of the Christian's relationship with Christ and, in particular, on Christ's saving work. In St. Mark's gospel, Jesus is recorded as saying that he was to 'give up his life as a ransom for many'. St. Paul's account of this idea of a saving act is more fully articulated in various places in his letters, most notably in his letter to the Romans. The Last Supper fresco in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci According to the Gospels, the Last Supper (also called Lords Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ...


What Christ has achieved for those who believe in him is variously described: as sinners under the law, they are "justified by his grace as a gift"; they are "redeemed" by Jesus who was put forward by God as expiation; they are "reconciled" by his death. The gift (grace) is to be received in faith. (Rom 3:24f; Rom 5: 9). These three images have been the subject of detailed examination. In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of making or declaring a sinner righteous before God. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favor of God for humankind, as manifest in the blessings bestowed upon all —irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... For other uses of the word, see Redemption Redemption is a religious concept referring to forgiveness or absolution for past sins and protection from eternal damnation. ...


Justification derives from the law courts. Those who are justified are acquitted of an offence. Since the sinner is guilty, he or she can only be acquitted by someone else, Jesus, standing in for them, which has led many Christians to believe in the teaching known as the doctrine of substitutionary atonement. The sinner is, in St. Paul's words "justified by faith" (Rom. 5:1), that is, by adhering to Christ, the sinner becomes at one with Christ in his death and resurrection (hence the word atonement). Acquittal, however, is achieved not on the grounds that Christ was innocent (though he was) and that we share his innocence but on the grounds of his sacrifice (crucifixion), i.e. his innocent undergoing of punishment on behalf of sinners who should have suffered divine retribution for their sins. They deserved to be punished and he took their punishment. They are justified by his death, and now "so much more we are saved by him from divine retribution" (Rom. 5: 9). Substitutionary atonement is the act of restoring balances by substitution. ...


For an understanding of the meaning of faith as that which justifies, St. Paul turns to Abraham, who trusted God's promise that he would be father of many nations. Abraham preceded the giving of the law on Mount Sinai. Thus law cannot save us; faith does. Abraham could not, of course, have faith in the living Christ but, in Paul's view, "the gospel was preached to him beforehand" (Gal. 3:8); this is in line with Paul's belief in the pre-existence of Christ (cf. Phil 2:5-11).[8] The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and Islamic tradition. ...


Redemption has a different origin, that of the freeing of slaves; it is similar in character as a transaction to the paying of a ransom, (mentioned in St. Mark) though the circumstances are different. Money was paid in order to set free a slave, one who was in the ownership of another. Here the price was the costly act of Christ's death. On the other hand, no price was paid to anyone – St. Paul does not suggest, for instance, that the price be paid to the devil – though this has been suggested by learned writers, ancient and modern, such as Origen and St. Augustine, as a reversal of the Fall by which the devil gained power over humankind. Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Autumn colours at Westonbirt Arboretum, Gloucestershire, England. ...


A third expression, reconciliation, is about the making of friends which is, of course, a costly exercise where one has failed or harmed another. The making of peace (Col. 1:20) (Rom 5:9) is another variant of the same theme. Elsewhere (Eph. 2:14) he writes of Christ breaking down the dividing wall between Jew and Gentile, which the law constituted.


As to how a person appropriates this gift, St. Paul writes of a mystical union with Christ through baptism: "we who have been baptised into Christ Jesus were baptised into his death" (Rom. 6:4). He writes also of our being "in Christ Jesus" and alternately, of "Christ in you, the hope of glory". Thus, the objection that one person cannot be punished on behalf of another is met with the idea of the identification of the Christian with Christ through baptism.


These expressions, some of which are to be found in the course of the same exposition, have been interpreted by some scholars, such as the mediaeval teacher Peter Abelard and, much more recently, Hastings Rashdall,[9] as metaphors for the effects of Christ's death upon those who followed him. This is known as the "subjective theory of the atonement". On this view, rather than writing a systematic theology, Paul is trying to express something inexpressible. According to Ian Markham, on the other hand, the letter to the Romans is "muddled".[10] Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher and logician. ... Hastings Rashdall (1858–1924) was an English philosopher who expounded a theory known as ideal utilitarianism. ...



But others, ancient and modern, Protestant and Catholic, have sought to elaborate from his writing objective theories of the Atonement on which they have, however, disagreed. The doctrine of justification by faith alone was the major source of the division of western Christianity known as the Protestant Reformation which took place in the sixteenth century. Justification by faith was set against salvation by works of the law in this case, the acquiring of indulgences from the Church and even such good works as the corporal works of mercy. The result of the dispute, which undermined the system of endowed prayers and the doctrine of purgatory, contributed to the creation of Protestant churches in Western Europe, set against the Roman Catholic Church. Solifidianism (sola fides = faith alone), the name often given to these views, is associated with the works of Martin Luther (1483-1546) and his followers. With this view went the notion of Christ's substitutionary atonement for human sin. For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... Sola fide (by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... Sola fide (by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine held by some Protestant denominations of Christianity, which asserts that it is on the basis of their faith that believers are forgiven their transgressions of the Law of God, rather than on the basis... Legalism, in Christian theology, is a term referring to an improper fixation on law or codes of conduct, or legal ideas, usually implying an allegation of pride and the neglect of mercy, and ignorance of the grace of God. ... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ... The Works of Mercy or Acts of Mercy are actions and practices which the Catholic Church considers expectations to be fulfilled by believers. ... Purgatory commonly refers to a doctrine in the Roman Catholic Church, which posits that those who die in a state of grace undergo a purification in order to achieve the holiness necessary to enter heaven. ... Sola fide (by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine held by some Protestant denominations of Christianity, which asserts that it is on the basis of their faith that believers are forgiven their transgressions of the Law of God, rather than on the basis... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


The various doctrines of the atonement have been associated with such theologians as Anselm, Calvin, and more recently Gustaf Aulén; none found their way into the Creeds. The substitutionary theory (above), in particular, has fiercely divided Christendom, some pronouncing it essential and others repugnant. (In law, no one can be punished instead of another and the punishment of the innocent is a prime example of injustice - which tells against too precise an interpretation of the atonement as a legal act.) Further, because salvation could not be achieved by merit, Paul lays some stress on the notion of its being a free gift, a matter of Grace. Whereas grace is most often associated specifically with the Holy Spirit, in St. Paul's writing, grace is received through Jesus (Rom.1:5), from God through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus (Rom.3:24), and especially in 2 Cor.13:14. On the other hand, the Spirit he describes as the Spirit of Christ (see below). The notion of free gift, not the subject of entitlement, has been associated with belief in predestination and, more controversially, double predestination: that God has chosen whom He wills to have mercy on and those whose will He has hardened (Rom. 9:18f.). Anselm may refer to any of several historical figures: Saint Anselm, 8th-century Abbot of Nonantula Saint Anselm of Canterbury (ca 1033 - 1109), Archbishop of Canterbury Anselm of Laon (died 1117), Medieval theologian Anselm of Liège (1008-1056), chronicler Saint Anselm of Lucca (ca 1036 - 1086) This is a... The name Calvin origionated from the word scritonious, or ass-like. ... Gustaf Aulén was the Bishop of Strängnäs in the Church of Sweden and the author of Christus Victor: An Historical Study of the Three Main Types of the Idea of Atonement in 1931. ... This article is about statements of belief; Creed is also the name of a rock band, and a village in Cornwall A creed is a statement of belief—usually religious belief—or faith. ... Look up Grace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Predestination is a religious concept, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Paul's concern with what Christ had done, as described above, was matched by his desire to say also who he was (and is). In his letter to the Romans, he describes Jesus as the "Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead"; in the letter to the Colossians, he is much more explicit, describing Jesus as "the image of the invisible God", (Col.1:15) as rich and exalted picture of Jesus as can be found anywhere in the New Testament (which is one reason why some doubt its authenticity). On the other hand, in the undisputed Pauline letter to the Philippians, he describes Jesus as "in the form of God" who "did not count equality with God as thing to be grasped, but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men he humbled himself and became obedient to death, even death on a cross…" Son of God is a biblical phrase from the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and the New Testament. ...


Holy Spirit

Paul places much emphasis on the importance of the Spirit in the Christian life. He contrasts the spiritual and those thoughts and actions which are animal (of the flesh). The difficulty comes in determining how this affects action. The gift of the spirit was much associated in Gentile mind with the gift of ecstatic speech speaking in tongues and is connected in Acts with becoming a Christian, even before baptism. In considering the manifestations of the spirit, he is cautious. Thus, when discussing the gift of tongues in his first letter to the Corinthians (Chapter 14), as against the unintelligible words of ecstasy, he commends, by contrast, intelligibility and order: ecstasy may illuminate the practitioner; coherent speech will enlighten the hearer. Everything should be done decently and in order. Released on September 27, 2005 by 845Ent. ...


Secondly, the gift of the Spirit appears to have been interpreted by the Corinthians as a freedom from all constraints, and in particular the law. Paul, on the contrary, argues that not all things permissible are good; eating meats that have been offered to pagan idols, frequenting pagan temples, orgiastic feasting; none of these things build up the Christian community, and may offend the weaker members. On the contrary, the Spirit was a uniting force, manifesting itself through the common purpose expressed in the exercise of their different gifts (1 Cor. 12) He compares the Christian community to a human body, with its different limbs and organs, and the Spirit as the Spirit of Christ, whose body we are. The gifts range from administration to teaching, encouragement to healing, prophecy to the working of miracles. Its fruits are the virtues of love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, faithfulness, gentleness and self control (Gal.5:22). Love is the best way of all (1 Cor. 13)


Further, the new life is the life of the Spirit, as against the life of the flesh, which Spirit is the Spirit of Christ, so that one becomes a son of God. God is our Father and we are fellow heirs of Christ (Rom.8:14).


Relationship with Judaism

Paul was himself a Jew, but his attitude towards his co-religionists is not agreed amongst all scholars. He appeared to praise Jewish circumcision in Romans 3:1-2, said that circumcision didn't matter in 1 Cor 7:19 but in Galatians, accuses those who promoted circumcision of wanting to make a good showing in the flesh and boasting or glorying in the flesh in Gal 6:11-13. He also questions the authority of the law, (see Antinomianism), and though he may have opposed observance by non-Jews he also opposed Peter for his partial observance. In a later letter, Phil 3:2, he is reported as warning Christians to beware the "mutilation" (Strong's G2699) and to "watch out for those dogs". He writes that there is neither Jew nor Greek, but Christ is all and in all. On the other hand in Acts, as we have seen, he is described as submitting to taking a Nazirite vow, and earlier to having had Timothy circumcised to placate the Jews. He also wrote that among the Jews he became as a Jew in order to win Jews (1 Cor 9:20) and to the Romans: "So the law is holy, and the commandment is holy and just and good." (Rom 7:12) The task of reconciling these different views is made more difficult because it is not agreed whether, for instance, Galatians is a very early or later letter. Likewise Philippians may have been written late, from Rome, but not everyone is agreed on this. Circumcision, when practiced as a rite, has its foundations in the Bible, in the Abrahamic covenant, such as Genesis 17, and is therefore practiced by Jews and Muslims and some Christians, those who constitute the Abrahamic religions. ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ...


The background to the various arguments is the ongoing dispute over the observance of the law, which, as we have noticed, was with Jews but also with so-called Judaizing Gentile Christians. In Galatians and Philippians, St. Paul is emphatic that the law is of null effect; it only makes men and women aware of their sinfulness. His own sense of relief at discovering that what the law was incapable of doing, the risen Christ had done permeates his letters. The question of whether Christianity was a Jewish sect or included Gentiles, without their having to fully conform to Jewish ritual law, was eventually answered pretty emphatically as the latter.


However, considerable disagreement at the time and subsequently has been raised as to the significance of "works of the law". In the same letter in which Paul writes of justification by faith, he says of the Gentiles: "It is not by hearing the law, but by doing it that men will be justified (same word) by God." (Rom. 2:12) Those who think Paul was consistent have judged him not to be a Solifidianist himself; others hold that he is merely demonstrating that both Jews and Gentiles are in the same condition of sin.


E. P. Sanders in 1977 reframed the context to make law-keeping and good works a sign of being in the Covenant (marking out the Jews as the people of God) rather than deeds performed in order to accomplish salvation, a pattern of religion he termed "covenantal nomism". If Sanders' perspective is valid, the traditional Protestant understanding of the doctrine of justification may have needed rethinking, for the interpretive framework of Martin Luther was called into question. Ed Parish Sanders (born 1937) is a leading New Testament theologian (Th. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bərîṯ, Standard Hebrew bərit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... Covenantal Nomism is the belief that first century Palestinian Jews did not believe in works righteousness. ...


Sanders's work has since been taken up by Professor James Dunn and N.T. Wright, Bishop of Durham, and the New Perspective has increased significantly in dominance in New Testament scholarship. Wright, noting the apparent discrepancy between Romans and Galatians, the former being much more positive about the continuing covenantal relationship between God and his ancient people, than the latter, contends that that works are not insignificant (Romans 2: 13ff) and that Paul distinguishes between works which is signs of ethnic identity and those which are a sign of obedience to Christ. James D. G. (Jimmy) Dunn was for many years the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in the Department of Theology at the University of Durham. ... Tom (N.T.) Wright, Bishop of Durham Tom (N.T.) Wright is the Bishop of Durham of the Anglican Church and a leading British New Testament scholar. ... The New Perspective on Paul is the name given to a significant shift in how some New Testament scholars interpret the writings of Paul of Tarsus, particularly in regard to Judaism and the common Protestant understanding of Justification by Faith. ...


Resurrection

See also: Resurrection of the dead

Paul appears to develop his ideas in response to the particular congregation to whom he is writing. The idea of the resurrection of the body was foreign to the Greek (i.e. Corinthian) mind; rather the soul would ascend apart from the body. The Jewish conception, on the other hand, was of the exaltation of the body which was assumed into heaven. Neither fits easily into the descriptions of the risen Christ walking about as described in the gospels. The Corinthians appeared to believe, from what Paul writes, that Jesus had avoided death, but that his followers would not. He wants to make clear to them that Jesus died but overcame death and that unless he did so we could not hope to be raised from the dead; because he did so, we can (1 Cor. 15:12ff.). However, the resurrected body is a glorified body and thus will not decay. He contrasts the old and the new body: the first being physical, the second spiritual; "It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power. It is sown a physical body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a physical body, there is also a spiritual body." (1 Cor. 15:43-44 RSV). The mortal body is to be covered with the heavenly body; the frame that houses us now, though it be demolished will be replaced by a heavenly dwelling, so that 'we may not be found naked' (2 Cor. 5:3 RSV) [11] // Main article: Jewish eschatology Orthodox Judaism holds that belief in the Resurrection of the Dead is one of the cardinal principles of the Jewish faith. ...


Paul has a very corporate idea of the resurrection hope of the Christian community. The hope given to all who belong to Christ, includes those who have already died but who have been baptised vicariously by the baptism of others on their behalf – so that they may be included among the saved (1 Cor. 15:29); (whether or not St. Paul approved of the practice he was apparently prepared to use as part of his argument in favour of the resurrection of the dead).


The World to come

See also: Second Coming

Paul's teaching about the end of the world is expressed most clearly in his letters to the Christians at Thessalonica. Heavily persecuted, it appears that they had written asking him first about those who had died already, and, secondly, when they should expect the end. Paul regarded the age as passing and, in such difficult times, he therefore discouraged marriage. He assures them that the dead will rise first and be followed by those left alive (1 Thess. 4:16ff.). This suggests an imminence of the end but he is unspecific about times and seasons, and encourages his hearers to expect a delay. The form of the end will be a battle between Jesus and the man of lawlessness (2 Thess.2:3ff.RSV) whose conclusion is the triumph of Christ. The Second Coming or Last Coming refers to the Christian and Islamic belief in the coming or return of Jesus Christ to fulfill Messianic prophecy, such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God (also called the Reign of God), including the...


The delay in the coming of the end has been interpreted in different ways: on one view, St. Paul and the early Christians were simply mistaken; on another, that of Austin Farrer, his presentation of a single ending can be interpreted to accommodate the fact that endings occur all the time and that, subjectively, we all stand an instant from judgement. The delay is also accounted for by God's patience (2 Thess. 2:6). Austin Farrer (1904-1968) English theologian, biblical scholar, and philosopher. ...


As for the form of the end, the Catholic Encyclopedia presents two distinct ideas. First, universal judgement, with neither the good nor the wicked omitted (Rom 14:10–12), nor even the angels (1 Cor 6:3). Second, and more controversially, judgment will be according to faith and works, mentioned concerning sinners (2 Cor 11:15), the just (2 Tim 4:14), and men in general (Rom 2:6–9). This latter characterization has been the subject of controversy among Reformed theologians, notably N. T. Wright. Tom (N.T.) Wright, Bishop of Durham Tom (N.T.) Wright is the Bishop of Durham of the Anglican Church and a leading British New Testament scholar. ...


Social views

The conversion on the way to Damascus, by Caravaggio.
The conversion on the way to Damascus, by Caravaggio.

Every letter of St. Paul includes pastoral advice which most often arises from the doctrines he has been propounding. They are not afterthoughts. Thus in his letter to the Romans, having reminded his readers that, like branches grafted onto the olive, they themselves, like the natural branches, the Jews, may be broken off if they fail to persist in faith. For that reason he appeals to them to offer themselves to God, and not to be conformed to the world. They must use their gifts as part of the body which they are. He invites them to be loving, patient, humble and peaceable, never seeking vengeance. Their standards are to be heavenly not earthy standards: he condemns impurity, lust, greed, anger, slander, filthy language, lying, and racial divisions. In the same passage, Paul extolled the virtues of compassion, kindness, patience, forgiveness, love, peace, and gratitude (Col 3:1–17; cf. Galatians 5:16-26) Even so they are to be obedient to the authorities, paying their taxes, on the grounds that the magistrate exercises power which can only come from God. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (698x924, 84 KB) Summary Michelangelo Merisi, also known as Caravaggio, The Conversion of the way to Damascus, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (698x924, 84 KB) Summary Michelangelo Merisi, also known as Caravaggio, The Conversion of the way to Damascus, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. ... Chalk portrait of Caravaggio by Ottavio Leoni, c. ...


As noted above, the Corinthians were inclined to regard their freedom from law as a licence to do what they liked. Thus, his attitude towards sexual immorality, set against the mores of Greek-influenced society, is particularly direct: "Flee from sexual immorality. All other sins a man commits are outside his body, but he who sins sexually sins against his own body" (1 Cor. 6:18). His attitude towards marriage, in writing to the Corinthians, is to advise his readers not to marry because of the "present distress" but marriage is better than immoral conduct: "it is better to marry than to be aflame with passion"; the alternative, adopted by Paul himself, is celibacy. As for those who are married, even to unbelievers, they should not seek to be parted. In Ephesians he appears to be more positive holding marriage up as a parable of the relationship between Christ and the Church (Eph 5:21–33). His attitude towards dietary rules manifests the same caution: all is permitted but some actions may seem to "weaker brethren" to be an implicit acceptance of the legitimacy of idol worship – such as eating food that had been used in pagan sacrifice.


He deals with many other questions on which he may have been asked for advice: their relationship with unbelievers; the duty of supporting other needy Christians, how to deal with church members who had fallen into temptation, the need for self-examination and humility, the conduct of family life, the importance of accepting the teaching authority of the leaders of the Church.


His teaching has been criticised as being conservative and even quietist. His view of the shortness of the time before the end is thought to have influenced his ethic. That what he says – for instance, about the appropriate attitude towards unbelievers – appears to vary may be the result of his responding to different questioners whose enquiries are unknown to us. Three particular issues, not all of them controversial at the time have assumed great contemporary importance. One is his attitude towards slaves, the second towards women and the third his attitude towards homosexual acts.


The issue of slavery arises because his letter to the slave owning Philemon, whose slave Onesimus Paul sends with his letter. He fails to condemn the practice (as he does also in writing to the Corinthians) but his asking that Philemon should treat him "not as a slave, but instead of a slave, as a most dear brother, especially to me" (Phil 16) may be thought of as a subtle condemnation of slavery. Philemon is the recipient of the Epistle to Philemon, which is a book of the Bible from the New Testament. ...


He certainly treats women differently from men, though not unambiguously; women were created for man, but as woman was made from man, so man is now born of woman. And all things are from God. And elsewhere there is neither male nor female but all are one in Christ. On the other hand, the man is the head of the woman and, in the first letter to Timothy, women are forbidden from teaching or exercising authority over men. The "headship" argument has been used as one reason for opposing the ordination of women.


To determine St. Paul's beliefs on homosexuality, several passages are frequently cited. In 1 Cor. 6:9-10, Paul lists a number of actions which are so wicked that they will deprive whoever commits them of their divine inheritance: "Neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor the effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners shall inherit the Kingdom of God." (21st Century King James Version) (1Corinthians 6:9-10) Elsewhere, he describes certain homosexual actions as unnatural, the perpetrators as being "consumed with passion for one another and as having abandoned the truth about God for a lie." (Rom 1:24-27) A number of Biblical scholars, such as Dr. David Hilborn, argue that these passages represent a condemnation of homosexuality by Paul. Other scholars, such as Dr. John Elliott and Dr. John Boswell, argue that Paul was not referring to homosexual relationships as we now understand them and contrast the relationships common in the ancient world (such as pederasty) with modern gay relationships. See The Bible and homosexuality's section on Paul.[1]. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... A mediæval copy of the Bible. ...


Alternative views

Most writing on St. Paul comes from the pen of Christians and thus, as Hyam Maccoby, the Talmudic scholar, contends, tends to adopt a reverential tone towards his life and teaching (and also to assume or argue for the consistency between the New Testament writers). He is one of a number of authors who argued not only that we can learn little of Christ's life and teaching from his letters, but also that Paul of Acts and Paul from his own writing are very different people. Some difficulties have been noted in the account of his life. Additionally, the speeches of Paul, as recorded in Acts, have been argued to show a different turn of mind. Paul of Acts is much more interested in factual history, less in theology; ideas such as justification by faith are absent (see Acts 13:16-41; 17:22-31) as are references to the Spirit. On the other hand, there are no references to John the Baptist in the letters, but Paul mentions him several times in Acts. MacCoby is, in fact, anticipated in some of his arguments by F.C.Baur (1792-1860), professor of theology at Tubingen in Germany and founder of the so-called Tübingen School of theology who argued that the Gentile apostle was in violent opposition to the older disciples, believing that the Acts of the Apostles were late and unreliable. This debate has continued ever since, with Deissman (1866-1937) and Reitzenstein (1861-1931) emphasising Paul's Greek inheritance and Schweitzer and Weiss stressing his dependence on Judaism. Hyam Maccoby (1924-2004) was a British scholar, dramatist, and Orthodox Jew specializing in the study of the Jewish and Christian religious tradition. ... Ferdinand Christian Baur (June 21, 1792 - 1860), was a German theologian and leader of the Tübingen school of theology. ... Higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... Albert Schweltzer, M.D., OM, (January 14, 1875 - September 4, 1965) was an Alsatian theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. ... Weiss (German for white) may refer to: Mount Weiss, a mountain located in the Sunwapta River valley of Jasper National Park USS Weiss (DE-378), a vessel USS Weiss (APD-135), a Crosley-class high-speed transport Weissbier, the German name for wheat beer Weiss (ice cream), an ice cream...


A further charge by Maccoby is that the Gospels present Jesus as, essentially, a wandering rabbi and that Paul elevates him to the status of Son of God and Messiah, claims which Jesus did not make himself. Géza Vermes, in his book Jesus the Jew advances precisely this argument. Christian scholars, even as long ago as Wilhelm Wrede (1859-1906), have made similar claims: that Jesus did not claim to be the Messiah and the references to the secrecy of his Messiahship lead to this conclusion. The cogency of these arguments depends on how far the four evangelists themselves are to be treated as creative theologians and what processes took place in the editing of the gospels as written. Some differences can be accounted for by the different demands of storytelling and letterwriting. Also, the tone of the gospels differs between themselves. (At the beginning of St. Mark's gospel the expression "Son of God" is found but it is not in all ancient manuscripts; the view has been expressed that Jesus somehow became the Son of God at his baptism - a doctrine known as adoptionism. In St. John's Gospel, Jesus is called the divine 'Word' who existed before Abraham and Jesus said, "Before Abraham was, I am.") Differences in translation yield different interpretations. The arguments are dense and complex and cannot be rehearsed in detail here. Maccoby, on the other hand, argues that the Gospels and other later Christian documents were written to reflect Paul's views rather than the authentic life and teaching of Jesus. Géza Vermes (IPA: , born 22 June 1924) is a scholar and writer on religious history, particularly Jewish and Christian. ... In certain passages of the New Testament, notably in the Gospel of Mark, Jesus commands his followers not to reveal to others that he is the Messiah. ... Adoptionism or adoptianism is an attempt to explain how Jesus is related God (that is, it was one option that arose in the Trinitarian controversies of the early church). ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ...


Maccoby questions Paul's integrity as well:"Scholars", he says, "feel that, however objective their enquiry is supposed to be, ... never say anything to suggest that he may have bent the truth at times, though the evidence is strong enough in various parts of his life-story that he was not above deception when he felt it warranted by circumstances".


Elaine Pagels, a professor of religion at Princeton, and an authority of Gnosticism has argued that Paul was a Gnostic and that the anti-Gnostic Pastoral Epistles were forgeries written to rebut this. (Most scholars interpret the Gnostic references in his letter to the Colossians as an attempt to outgun the Gnostics by claiming that Christ is the 'pleroma'.) Elaine Pagels (née Hiesey, born February 13, 1943), is the Harrington Spear Paine Professor of Religion at Princeton University. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Further discussion of these issues can be found in the article Pauline Christianity. Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ...


See also

Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ... A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are those books in the New Testament that are traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... Achaichus was one of the members of the church of Corinth who, with Fortunatus and Stephanas, visited Paul while he was at Ephesus, for the purpose of consulting him on the affairs of the church (I Corinthians 16:17). ... Not everyone listed here is Christian or a mystic, but all have contributed to the Christian understanding of connection to or direct experience of God. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ...

Notes

  1. '^ Hebrews authorship by Paul was questioned as early as Origen (c AD 200); it has no early atribution;the almost unanimous views of scholars is that it is not Pauline
  2. ^ a b Ogg, George, Chronology of the New Testament.
  3. ^ The crucifixion is generally dated between 28 and 36, 28 being the year that John the Baptist began his ministry according to Luke 3, 36 being the year of Pilate's recall to Rome; the traditional date is c. 33.
  4. ^ For example, Augustine's Contra Faustum 32.13, see also Council of Jerusalem
  5. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Judaizers) see section titled: "THE INCIDENT AT ANTIOCH"
  6. ^ Brown, R.E.,The Churches the Apostles left behind p.48.
  7. ^ Barrett,C.K.the Pastoral Epistles p.4ff.
  8. ^ Hanson A.T., Studies in Paul's Technique and Theology (SPCK 1974) p. 64
  9. ^ Rashdall, Hastings, The Idea of Atonement in Christian Theology (1919).
  10. ^ Markham I.S., in Theological Liberalism: Creative and Critical ed. J'annine Jobling & Ian Markham
  11. ^ see C.S.C. Williams In Peake's Commentary on the Bible (Nelson 1962)

The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... Icon depiction of Jesus baptism by the hand of John, Jordan River, Jordan The excavated remains of the baptism site in Bethany beyond the Jordan John the Baptist (Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל, Yohanan HaMatbil, also called John the Baptiser, or Yahya the Baptiser) was a 1st century Jewish preacher and ascetic regarded... Pontius Pilate (Latin Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the small Roman province of Judea from 26 until 36? AD although Tacitus believed him to be the procurator of that province. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Council of Jerusalem is a name applied in retrospect to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter 15. ...

References

  • Aulén, Gustaf, Christus Victor (SPCK 1931)
  • Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament. Anchor Bible Series, 1997. ISBN 0-385-24767-2.
  • Brown Raymond E. The Church the Apostles left behind(Chapman 1984)
  • Bruce, F.F., Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free (ISBN 0-8028-4778-1)
  • F.F. Bruce 'Is the Paul of Acts the Real Paul?' Bulletin John Rylands Library 58 (1976) 283-305
  • Conzelmann, Hans the Acts of the Apostles - a Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles (Augsburg Fortess 1987)
  • Davies, W.D.Paul and Rabbinic Judaism (SPCK 1955)
  • Davies W.D. The Apostolic Age and the life of Paul in Peake's Commentary on the Bible (Nelson 1962)
  • A.T. HansonStudies in Paul's Technique and Theology (SPCK 1974)
  • Dunn, James D.G. Jesus, Paul and the Law 1990 ISBN 0-664-25095-5
  • Maccoby, Hyam. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity. New York: Harper & Row, 1986. ISBN 0-06-015582-5.
  • MacDonald, Dennis Ronald, 1983. The Legend and the Apostle: The Battle for Paul in Story and Canon Philadelphia: Westminster Press.
  • Irenaeus, Against Heresies, i.26.2
  • Ogg, George Chronology of the New Testament in Peake (qv.)
  • Rashdall, Hastings The Idea of Atonement in Christian Theology (1919)
  • John Ruef Paul's First letter to Corinth (Penguin 1971)
  • E.P. Sanders Paul and Palestinian Judaism (1977)

Gustaf Aulén was the Bishop of Strängnäs in the Church of Sweden and the author of Christus Victor: An Historical Study of the Three Main Types of the Idea of Atonement in 1931. ... Father Raymond Edward Brown, S.S., (born May 22, 1928, died of aids August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest appointed in 1972 and in 1996 to the Pontifical Biblical Commission, which advises the pontiff on scriptural matters, and professor emeritus at the Protestant Union Theological Seminary in... The Anchor Bible Project, consisting of the Anchor Bible Commentary Series, Anchor Bible Dictionary and Anchor Bible Reference Library is a scholarly and commercial co-venture that began in 1956, when individual volumes in the commentary series began production. ... Father Raymond Edward Brown, S.S., (born May 22, 1928, died of aids August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest appointed in 1972 and in 1996 to the Pontifical Biblical Commission, which advises the pontiff on scriptural matters, and professor emeritus at the Protestant Union Theological Seminary in... Frederick Fyvie Bruce (1910-1990) was a Bible scholar, and one of the founders of the modern evangelical understanding of the Bible. ... Hans Conzelmann (October 27, 1915 – June 20, 1989) was a German scholar who made many significant contributions to New Testament research in the twentieth century, including his book on Luke-Acts and Lukan theology , which triggered much of the serious discussion on Lukan theology, according to Luke Timothy Johnsons... James D. G. (Jimmy) Dunn was for many years the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in the Department of Theology at the University of Durham. ... An engraving of Irenaeus ( 130–202), bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul (now Lyon, France). ... Ed Parish Sanders (born 1947) is a leading New Testament theologian and one of the principal proponents of the New Perspective on Paul. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Saints Portal
Persondata
NAME Paul of Tarsus
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Paul the Apostle; Saint Paul
SHORT DESCRIPTION Apostle who spread Christianity
DATE OF BIRTH 5
PLACE OF BIRTH Tarsus, Turkey
DATE OF DEATH 65
PLACE OF DEATH Rome, Italy

  Results from FactBites:
 
Paul of Tarsus (1095 words)
   Paul was a product of the Jewish diaspora and was born in the Cilician city of Tarsus in Asia Minor; unlike all the other earliest followers of Christianity, he was not a native of Palestine.
There was, Paul argued, a deeper intent or spirit to the Law given the Hebrews; that intent or spirit was summed up in the teachings and the death of Jesus of Nazareth and was inscribed in every human soul.
While Paul, like Jesus of Nazareth, seemed to believe that the end of the world would happen within the generation of his listeners, he nevertheless downplayed the eschatological aspects of the religion, preferring instead to focus on the personal salvation aspects of the teachings.
Paul of Tarsus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6484 words)
Paul is described in the New Testament as a Hellenized Jew and Roman citizen from Tarsus (in present-day Turkey).
Paul also wrote that Jesus appeared to him "last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time" (1 Cor 15:8 KJV), and frequently claimed that his authority as "Apostle to the Gentiles" came directly from God (Gal 1:13–16), and "not from man".
Paul believed the advantage of the Jews was their being entrusted with the oracles of heaven, and that the law was upon them.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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