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Encyclopedia > Paul Wolfowitz
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Paul Wolfowitz
Paul Wolfowitz

10th President of the World Bank Group
In office
June 1, 2005 – June 30, 2007
Preceded by James Wolfensohn
Succeeded by Robert Zoellick

Born December 22, 1943 (1943-12-22) (age 63)
Brooklyn, New York, USA
Nationality American
Spouse Clare Selgin Wolfowitz (19682002 [uncertain status])
Children Sara, David, Rachel
Residence Chevy Chase, Maryland, USA
Website http://www.worldbankgroup.org/
[1][2][3][4]

Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships.[5] A former academic, diplomat, political and military strategist and policymaker, and former American government official, most recently, he served as president of the World Bank Group for two years. As U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense during the Presidency of George W. Bush, he was "a major architect of President Bush's Iraq policy and, within the Administration, its most passionate and compelling advocate" (Boyer 1).[6][7][8][9] He resigned as president of the World Bank Group as a result of an investigation by its board of executive directors, "ending a protracted and tumultuous battle over his stewardship, sparked by a promotion he arranged for his companion."[1][2] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2100x1704, 770 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Paul Wolfowitz Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... James D. Wolfensohn (2003) James Wolfensohn KBE AO (born December 1, 1933) was the ninth president of the World Bank Group. ... Robert B. Zoellick Robert Bruce Zoellick (IPA: ) (born July 25, 1953) is an American politician and (effective July 1, 2007) the eleventh president of the World Bank. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_York. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... NY redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Clare Selgin Wolfowitz is an expert on Indonesian anthropology and currently works for IRIS at the University of Maryland, College Park in the Governance Institutions Group, primarily on its projects in Indonesia and with the Programs and Policy Coordination office of USAID. She is the estranged wife of World Bank... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Chevy Chase is the name of both a town and an unincorporated Census-Designated Place in Montgomery County, Maryland (see Chevy Chase (CDP), Maryland). ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies... Economic development is a sustainable increase in living standards that implies increased per capita income, better education and health as well as environmental protection. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Public-private partnership (PPP) is a variation of privatization in which elements of a service previously run solely by the public sector are provided through a partnership between the government and one or more private sector companies. ... This article describes the government of the United States. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... The United States Deputy Secretary of Defense is the second-highest ranking official in the United States Department of Defense. ... The Presidency of George W. Bush, also known as the George W. Bush Administration, began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America. ... The Presidency of George W. Bush, also known as the George W. Bush Administration, began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America. ...

Contents

Personal history

The second child of Warsaw native Jacob "Jack" Wolfowitz (1910–1981) and Lillian Dundes, Paul Wolfowitz "was born in Brooklyn, New York, into a Polish Jewish immigrant family, and grew up mainly in the university town of Ithaca, New York, where his father was a professor of statistical theory at Cornell University."[10][11] "In addition to being prolific in research" and "very well read," his father's friend and colleague Shelemyahu Zacks writes in a tribute, Jacob Wolfowitz "fought at the time for the liberation of Soviet Jewry. He was a friend and strong supporter of the state of Israel and had many friends and admirers there."[12] Strongly influenced by his father, according to Eric Schmitt, Paul Wolfowitz became "A soft-spoken former aspiring-mathematician-turned-policymaker … [whose] world views … were forged by family history and in the halls of academia rather than in the jungles of Vietnam or the corridors of Congress … [His father] … escaped Poland after World War I. The rest of his father's family perished in the Holocaust."[13] Such family trauma led, David Dudley observes, to Jack Wolfowitz "liv[ing] in a world haunted by atrocities" and deeply affecting his son's personal and intellectual development.[11][14] According to Peter J. Boyer, "Wolfowitz said that he had learned little about Warsaw life, or the fate of his lost relatives, from his father. 'He hated to talk about his childhood,' Wolfowitz said. As a boy, Wolfowitz devoured books ('probably too many') about the Holocaust and Hiroshima—what he calls 'the polar horrors'" (2).[6] Speaking more specifically of the influence of the Holocaust on his own later views to Eric Schmitt, Wolfowitz said: Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Jacob Wolfowitz, Ph. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The City of Ithaca (named for the Greek island of Ithaca) sits on the southern shore of Cayuga Lake, in Central New York State. ... Cornell University is a university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...

"That sense of what happened in Europe in World War II has shaped a lot of my views … It's a very bad thing when people exterminate other people, and people persecute minorities. It doesn't mean you can prevent every such incident in the world, but it's also a mistake to dismiss that sort of concern as merely humanitarian and not related to real interest."[13] World map showing the location of Europe. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ...

Before first moving to Ithaca, in the fall of academic year 1952–1953 for his father's new post, Wolfowitz told Sam Tanenhaus in their interview, the Wolfowitzes lived in Manhattan: "I was born in Brooklyn but we grew up in Manhattan, one block down on Morningside Drive in a house that no longer exists. One block down from the President of Columbia who for part of that time was Dwight Eisenhower. My sister tells me that she remembers seeing Eisenhower go to his car as we were roller-skating on that block, but it didn't make any impression on me. I was probably three or four."[15][16] After teaching at Cornell for that first year, his father "immediately had a sabbatical ... and '53–'54 we spent half in Los Angeles," while he was teaching at UCLA, "and half in Urbana, Illinois," while he was teaching at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Manhattan is a borough of New York City, New York, USA, coterminous with New York County. ... Columbia University buildings across Morningside Drive, seen from a scenic overlook within Morningside Park Morningside Drive is a roughly north-south bi-directional street in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... d Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... The University of California, Los Angeles, generally known as UCLA, is a public university whose main campus is located in the affluent Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States. ... A snowy day in Carle Park west of the Urbana High School. ... The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), is the largest campus in the University of Illinois system. ...


Paul Wolfowitz's friend and later fellow Tellurider "Fred Baumann [Cornell] '66 remembers a familiar parental refrain in the Jewish community of Ithaca in the 1950s: 'Why can't you be like the Wolfowitzes?' Jacob and Lillian Wolfowitz's two model kids were well known at Temple Beth-El, where Baumann attended Hebrew school and, at ten years old, first met Paul and his older sister, Laura."[11] According to Dudley, The Telluride Association is a non-profit organization in the United States that provides young people with free educational programs emphasizing intellectual curiosity, democratic self-governance, and social responsibility. ...

Paul was quick-witted and friendly, and a year older than the quiet and bookish Fred; he proved an irresistible role model. "I was his protégé," says Baumann. "Paul had tremendous charm, along with real goodness. You wanted to follow him." Now a political science professor at Kenyon College in Ohio, Baumann would follow Wolfowitz to Ithaca High School and then to Telluride. "There was a kind of gravity to him. He was more like a grown-up than the rest of us." It's a feeling that resonates with many Ithacans who grew up in Paul's shadow. "When you were with him, you felt a sort of benignness radiating from him," remembers Daniel Fogel '69, now president of the University of Vermont. "A masterly intelligence that had no malevolence."[11] Kenyon College is a private, highly selective liberal arts college in Gambier, Ohio, founded in 1824 by Bishop Philander Chase of the The Episcopal Church, in parallel with the Bexley Hall seminary. ... Ithaca High School (IHS) is a public high school in Ithaca, New York. ... The Telluride Association is a non-profit organization in the United States that provides young people with free educational programs emphasizing intellectual curiosity, democratic self-governance, and social responsibility. ... Daniel Fogel is the president of the University of Vermont. ... UVM redirects here. ...

In 1957, when he was fourteen years old, Paul Wolfowitz also spent a year living in Israel, while his father was a visiting professor at the Israel Institute of Technology (Technion IIT), in Haifa; his elder sister, Laura, a biologist, later emigrated to Israel and married an Israeli.[12][7] Computer Science Faculty Building The Technion – Israel Institute of Technology (‎; commonly abbreviated as Technion IIT) is a university in Haifa, Israel, founded 1924. ... Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ...


Wolfowitz began taking classes at Cornell University while still a student at Ithaca High School.[17] In the mid-1960s, while they were both undergraduate students at Cornell, he met Clare Selgin, who later became a well-known anthropologist. They married in 1968, had three children (Sara, David, and Rachel), lived in Chevy Chase, Maryland, separated in 1999, and, according to some sources, became legally separated in 2001 and divorced in 2002, though, according to others, their marital status appears to be uncertain, and it is still not clear whether or not they have been divorced.[10][11][7][18][19][3] Cornell University is a university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ... Ithaca High School (IHS) is a public high school in Ithaca, New York. ... Clare Selgin Wolfowitz is an expert on Indonesian anthropology and currently works for IRIS at the University of Maryland, College Park in the Governance Institutions Group, primarily on its projects in Indonesia and with the Programs and Policy Coordination office of USAID. She is the estranged wife of World Bank... See Anthropology. ... Chevy Chase is the name of both a town and an unincorporated Census-Designated Place in Montgomery County, Maryland (see Chevy Chase (CDP), Maryland). ...

Further information: Clare Selgin Wolfowitz

After separating from his wife in late 1999, Wolfowitz began dating Shaha Ali Riza, according to "Turkish journalist Cengiz Candar, a friend of the couple" cited by Linton Weeks and Richard Leiby. Their relationship led to controversy later, during his presidency of the World Bank Group.[7][3] Clare Selgin Wolfowitz is an expert on Indonesian anthropology and currently works for IRIS at the University of Maryland, College Park in the Governance Institutions Group, primarily on its projects in Indonesia and with the Programs and Policy Coordination office of USAID. She is the estranged wife of World Bank... Shaha Riza Shaha Ali Riza, (Arabic: ) (born 1953 or 1954), is a World Bank staffer who is currently on external assignment. ... Cengiz Çandar (1948) is a renowned Turkish journalist and a former war correspondent. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ...

Further information: #Wolfowitz's relationship with Shaha Riza.

Wolfowitz speaks five languages in addition to English; according to John Cassidy's New Yorker profile, "Wolfowitz taught himself Arabic in the nineteen-eighties, when he was working at the State Department," and "He also speaks French, German, Hebrew, and Indonesian."[7] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The New Yorkers first cover, which is reprinted each year on the magazines anniversary. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


He lives in Chevy Chase, Maryland.[2] Chevy Chase is the name of both a town and an unincorporated Census-Designated Place in Montgomery County, Maryland (see Chevy Chase (CDP), Maryland). ...


Post-secondary education

Cornell University

Wolfowitz won a full scholarship to Cornell University, where he matriculated in 1961 "to please his father," according to Goldenberg.[10]


At Cornell, Wolfowitz was a member of the Telluride Association, a non-profit organization founded in 1910, whose first female member was his elder sister, Laura.[11] "Promot[ing] no particular political or religious viewpoint ... [it] creates and fosters educational communities that rely upon democratic participation ... aim[ing] to foster an everyday synthesis of self-governance and intellectual inquiry that enables students to develop their potential for leadership and public service ... seek[ing] out young people with the desire and the ability to contribute to society, and help[ing] them develop intellectually and as community members."[20] Its members receive free room and board in the Telluride House on the Cornell campus and learn about democracy through the practice of running the house and organizing seminars.[21] Wolfowitz lived in the Telluride House through academic year 1962 to 1963.[11] The Telluride Association is a non-profit organization in the United States that provides young people with free educational programs emphasizing intellectual curiosity, democratic self-governance, and social responsibility. ...


That year philosophy professor Allan Bloom served as a Cornell faculty mentor living in the house and had a major influence on Wolfowitz's political views with his assertion of the importance of political regimes in shaping peoples’ characters.[11] Schmitt observes that Wolfowitz first "became a protégé of the political philosopher Allan Bloom, and then of Albert Wohlstetter, the father of hard-line conservative strategic thinking at the University of Chicago."[13] In August 1963, "when he was nineteen, he and his mother attended the civil-rights march on Washington organized by Martin Luther King, Jr. and others" (3).[7][11] But his father did not take well to his son’s new interest in politics or his new mentor, Bloom.[7][11] Allan Blooms translation and interpretation, Second edition 1991. ... Albert Wohlstetter (born 1913, died January 10, 1997) was a major intellectual force behind efforts to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons and the need to develop nonnuclear alternatives. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ...


According to Schmitt, though he "majored in mathematics and chemistry ... he was profoundly moved by John Hersey's Hiroshima and shifted his focus toward politics. 'One of the things that ultimately led me to leave mathematics and go into political science was thinking I could prevent nuclear war,' he said."[13] His friends found that shift "unexpected," and his father opposed it.[11] John Hersey, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1958 John Richard Hersey (June 17, 1914 – March 24, 1993) was an American writer and journalist. ... Hiroshima (ISBN 0-679-72103-7) is the title of a magazine article written by Pulitzer Prize winner John Hersey that appeared in The New Yorker in August 1946, exactly one year after the United States dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima, Japan, at 8:15 a. ...


During academic year 1964 to 1965, his senior year at Cornell, having moved from the Telluride House to an apartment, Wolfowitz was a member of Quill and Dagger, a prestigious senior honor society.[11] This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Wolfowitz graduated in 1965 with a Bachelor's degree degree in mathematics and chemistry, then worked as a management intern at the U.S. Bureau of the Budget.[citation needed] Against his father's expectations and wishes, Wolfowitz decided to go to graduate school to study politics.[11] Although "Paul's choice" to pursue political science and a career in politics instead of mathematics "defied" his father's original expectations and wishes for him, Dudley concludes that, eventually, "as Paul's career took him from Yale to the Pentagon and the State Department ... Jack Wolfowitz seemed to make peace with his son's choice."[22] A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Chemistry - the study of atoms, made of nuclei (conglomeration of center particles) and electrons (outer particles), and the structures they form. ... This is the predecesor of the United States Office of Management and Budget ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


University of Chicago

Wolfowitz chose the University of Chicago over Harvard University, according to James Mann, in Rise of the Vulcans, because he wanted to study under Bloom's mentor, Leo Strauss.[citations needed] Wolfowitz enrolled in Strauss' courses, on Plato and Montesquieu, but, according to Mann, they "did not become especially close" before Strauss retired; nevertheless, Mann points out, "in subsequent years colleagues both in government and academia came to view Wolfowitz as one of the heirs to Strauss's intellectual traditions."[citations needed] The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... James Mann, senior writer-in-residence in the CSIS International Security Program, is the author of two books: Beijing Jeep (Simon & Schuster, 1989) and About Face: A History of Americas Curious Relationship With China From Nixon to Clinton (Knopf, 1999). ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages...


According to Dudley, citing Wolfowitz's friend and fellow Tellurider Fred Baumann, however, though "Bloom helped him find the courage of his own convictions ... [and] To that extent, Strauss matters ... Baumann recalls that Wolfowitz kept a discreet distance from the true believers. 'All these discussions around the dinner table -- "Does the philosopher need friends?" That wasn't Paul. He didn't go through some deep Straussian conversion--this fit into where he already was.'"[11] The Telluride Association is a non-profit organization in the United States that provides young people with free educational programs emphasizing intellectual curiosity, democratic self-governance, and social responsibility. ...


Moreover, in May 2003, when Sam Tanenhaus asked Wolfowitz about "the question of ideas" in their telephone interview for Tanenhaus's article "Bush's Brain Trust" later published in the July 2003 Vanity Fair: "That is, is there anything at all ... to the Straussian Connection?" Wolfowitz replied: Sam Tanenhaus (born October 31, 1955) is an American author, historian and biographer. ... American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ...

It's a product of fevered minds who seem incapable of understanding that September 11th changed a lot of things and changed the way we need to approach the world. Since they refused to confront that, they looked for some kind of conspiracy theory to explain it.

I mean I took two terrific courses from Leo Strauss as a graduate student. One was on Montesquieu's spirit of the laws, which did help me understand our Constitution better. And one was on Plato's laws. The idea that this has anything to do with U.S. foreign policy is just laughable.[15][16] The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks carried out in the United States on September 11, 2001. ... A conspiracy theory attempts to attribute the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually political, social, or historical events), or the concealment of such causes from public knowledge, to a secret, and often deceptive plot by a covert alliance of powerful or influential people or organizations. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy. ... Montesquieu in 1728. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... For a history, see Timeline of United States diplomatic history For the published diplomatic papers, see The Foreign Relations of the United States For Foreign relations under George W. Bush, see Foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration. ...

A few years later, in 2006, in a scholarly article published in the academic journal Comparative American Studies, Richard H. King cites and contextualizes the opinion expressed on March 8, 2005 in his weblog Altercation by Eric Alterman ––who had spoken with Wolfowitz informally during a book launch "cocktail party" hosted by Tina Brown and her husband Harold Evans––that "'Wolfowitz does not consider himself to be a Straussian.'"[23][24] In developing his own argument, King also cites the views of Clifford Orwin, who states that "'Wolfowitz is no ideologue, and neither 'Straussian' nor 'conservative' begins to describe him.'"[25] Ultimately, however, King qualifies the emphases of both Alterman and Orwin and also qualifies the emphases of those who exaggerate the "Straussian" influence on Bush administration foreign and defense policy-makers like Wolfowitz.[26] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Eric Alterman is a liberal American journalist, author, media critic, blogger, and educator, possibly best known for the political weblog named Altercation, which was hosted by MSNBC.com from 2002 until 2006, and now is hosted by Media Matters for America. ... Tina Brown (born Christina Hambley Brown on November 21, 1953, in Maidenhead, England) is a British-born American magazine editor, columnist, and talk-show host. ... Harold Evans Sir Harold Matthew Evans (born June 28 1928) is a British-born journalist and writer who was editor of The Sunday Times from 1967 to 1981. ... Clifford Orwin is a Canadian scholar of ancient, modern, contemporary and Jewish political thought. ...


Professor Albert Wohlstetter, who had studied mathematics with Wolfowitz's father at Columbia, and who ("Significantly") directed Paul Wolfowitz's research at the University of Chicago,[11][23] instilled in his students the importance of maintaining the supremacy of the United States through advanced weaponry.[27] Wohlstetter feared that plutonium produced as a by-product of U.S.-sponsored nuclear-powered desalination plants to be built near the Israeli-Egyptian border could be used in a nuclear weapons program. He returned from a trip to Israel with a number of Hebrew language documents on the program that he handed over to Wolfowitz (who is fluent in Hebrew); these later became a basis of Wolfowitz's doctoral dissertation on "water desalination in the Middle East".[citations needed] Albert Wohlstetter (born 1913, died January 10, 1997) was a major intellectual force behind efforts to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons and the need to develop nonnuclear alternatives. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


In the summer of 1969, Wohlstetter arranged for his students Wolfowitz and Wilson, as well as Richard Perle to join the Committee to Maintain a Prudent Defense Policy which was set up by Cold War architects Paul Nitze and Dean Acheson to maintain support in the U.S. Congress for the Anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system.[citations needed] The opposition to the ABM system in the U.S. Congress employed scientific experts to argue against the ABM system, so Nitze and Acheson turned to Wohlstetter and his young protégés to counter these arguments. Together they wrote research papers and drafted testimony for U.S. Senator Henry M. Jackson. Nitze later wrote: "The papers they helped us produce ran rings around the misinformed papers produced by polemical and pompous scientists."[citation needed] The U.S. Senate eventually approved the ABM system by 51 votes to 50, but U.S. President Richard Nixon later signed the ABM Treaty, restricting the extent of deployment of such systems.[citations needed] Richard Norman Perle (born 16 September 1941 in New York City) is an American political advisor and lobbyist who worked for the Reagan administration as an assistant Secretary of Defense and worked on the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee from 1987 to 2004. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Paul Nitze Paul Henry Nitze (January 16, 1907 – October 19, 2004) was a high-ranking United States government official who helped shape Cold War defense policy over the course of numerous presidential administrations. ... Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the late 1940s he played the central role in defining American foreign policy for the Cold War. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Henry Martin Scoop Jackson (May 31, 1912 – September 1, 1983) was a U.S. Congressman and Senator for Washington State from 1941 until his death. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (or ABM treaty) was a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. ...


Yale University

From 1970 to 1972, Wolfowitz taught in the Department of Political Science at Yale University, where one of his students was I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby.[28] In 1972 Wolfowitz earned a Ph.D. in political science, writing his doctoral dissertation on "water desalination in the Middle East".[29][30] “Yale” redirects here. ... I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Career

Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

Main article: Team B

In the 1970s Wolfowitz served as an aide to Democratic Senator Henry M. Jackson, whose political philosophies and positions have been cited as an influence on a number of key figures associated with neoconservatism, including Wolfowitz and Richard Perle; Jackson "was the quintessential 'Cold War liberal.' He was an outspoken and influential advocate of increased military spending and a hard line against the Soviet Union, while supporting social welfare programs, civil rights, and the labor movement."[31] Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... Henry Martin Scoop Jackson (May 31, 1912 – September 1, 1983) was a U.S. Congressman and Senator for Washington State from 1941 until his death. ... Neoconservatism refers to the political movement, ideology, and public policy goals of new conservatives in the United States, who are mainly characterized by their relatively interventionist and hawkish views on foreign policy, and their lack of support for the small government principles and restrictions on social spending, when compared with... Richard Norman Perle (born 16 September 1941 in New York City) is an American political advisor and lobbyist who worked for the Reagan administration as an assistant Secretary of Defense and worked on the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee from 1987 to 2004. ... Cold War liberal was a term most commonly used in the United States during the Cold War to describe politicians who, despite their generally liberal outlook on domestic issues, were supportive of hard-line anti-Soviet policies. ...


In 1972 U.S. President Richard Nixon, under pressure from Senator Jackson, who was unhappy with the SALT I strategic arms limitations talks and the policy of détente, dismissed the head of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) and replaced him with Fred Ikle. Ikle brought in a completely new team including Wolfowitz, who had been recommended by his old tutor Albert Wohlstetter. Wolfowitz once again set to work writing and distributing research papers and drafting testimony, as he had previously done at the Committee to Maintain a Prudent Defense Policy. He also traveled with Ikle to strategic arms limitations talks in Paris and other European cities. His greatest success was in dissuading South Korea from reprocessing plutonium that could be diverted into a clandestine weapons program, a situation that would re-occur north of the border during the George W. Bush administration. For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. ... Scud Missile The U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) was established as an independent agency by the Arms Control and Disarmament Act (75 Stat. ... Dr. Fred Charles Ikle is a Distinguished Scholar with the Center for Strategic and International Studies. ... Albert Wohlstetter (born 1913, died January 10, 1997) was a major intellectual force behind efforts to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons and the need to develop nonnuclear alternatives. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


Under President Gerald Ford, the American intelligence agencies had come under attack from Wohlstetter, among others, over their annually published National Intelligence Estimate. According to Mann: "The underlying issue was whether the C.I.A. and other agencies were underestimating the threat from the Soviet Union, either by intentionally tailoring intelligence to support Kissinger's policy of détente or by simply failing to give enough weight to darker interpretations of Soviet intentions." In an attempt to counter these claims, the newly appointed Director of Central Intelligence, George H.W. Bush authorized the formation of a committee of anti-Communist experts, headed by Richard Pipes (father of Daniel Pipes), to reassess the raw data. Richard Pipes picked Wolfowitz, " brilliant young weapons analyst," who was still employed by the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and about whom he was unfamiliar at the time, to serve on this committee, which came to be known as Team B: "'Richard Perle recommended him,' Pipes says of Wolfowitz today [2003, as quoted by Tanenhaus]. 'I'd never heard of him.'"[32] According to the IRC profile of Pipes, citing an interview with former intelligence officer Anne Hessing Cahn (Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 1977–1980), "Pipes said, 'I picked Paul Wolfowitz [who at the time was working as special assistant for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, or SALT] because Richard Perle recommended him so highly'"; Cahn has been highly critical of the report.[33][34] For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) express the coordinated judgments of the US Intelligence Community, and thus represent the most authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) with respect to a particular national security issue. ... CIA, see CIA (disambiguation). ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ... Richard Norman Perle (born 16 September 1941 in New York City) is an American political advisor and lobbyist who worked for the Reagan administration as an assistant Secretary of Defense and worked on the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee from 1987 to 2004. ... Richard Norman Perle (born 16 September 1941 in New York City) is an American political advisor and lobbyist who worked for the Reagan administration as an assistant Secretary of Defense and worked on the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee from 1987 to 2004. ...


The team's report, delivered in 1976 and quickly leaked to the press, stated that "All the evidence points to an undeviating Soviet commitment to what is euphemistically called the 'worldwide triumph of socialism,' but in fact connotes global Soviet hegemony," highlighting a number of key areas where they believed the government's intelligence analysts had got it wrong. According to Jack Davis, Wolfowitz observed later:

The B-Team demonstrated that it was possible to construct a sharply different view of Soviet motivation from the consensus view of the [intelligence] analysts and one that provided a much closer fit to the Soviets' observed behavior (and also provided a much better forecast of subsequent behavior up to and through the invasion of Afghanistan). The formal presentation of the competing views in a session out at [CIA headquarters in] Langley also made clear that the enormous experience and expertise of the B-Team as a group were formidable. Unfortunately, the bureaucratic reaction to the whole experience was largely negative and hostile.[35]

There has been and is still much controversy about the work of Team B, the accuracy of its conclusions, and its effects on U.S. military policies.[28][33][36] Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ... The Military of the United States, also known as the United States Armed Forces, is structured into five branches consisting of the: United States Army United States Marine Corps United States Navy United States Air Force United States Coast Guard Reserves United States National Guard United States Army Reserve United...

Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional Programs

In 1977, during the administration of U.S. President Jimmy Carter, Wolfowitz moved to The Pentagon, aiming to broaden his experience of military issues, because, according to Mann, Wolfowitz believed that "The key to preventing nuclear wars was to stop conventional wars."[citation needed] He was employed as U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional Programs for the U.S. Defense Department, under then U.S. Secretary of Defense Harold Brown, where he was put to work on the Limited Contingency Study, charged with examining possible areas of threat to the U.S. in the third world.[citations needed] For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated as DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Harold Brown (born September 19, 1927), American scientist, was U.S. Secretary of Defense from 1977 to 1981 in the cabinet of President Jimmy Carter. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


After taking up the post, Wolfowitz attended a seminar presented by Professor Geoffrey Kemp of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, in which Kemp argued that the U.S. was concentrating too much on defending against the possibility of a Soviet invasion of Europe through the Fulda Gap in Germany and ignoring the far more likely possibility of them turning southward to seize the oil fields of the Persian Gulf.[citations needed] "This warning struck a chord with Wolfowitz," according to Mann, as it "fit well with the conclusion he had just reached in the Team B intelligence review." Wolfowitz hired Kemp and Dennis Ross, a Soviet specialist from the University of California, to work with him on preparing the study. "We and our major industrialized allies have a vital and growing stake in the Persian Gulf region because of our need for Persian Gulf oil and because events in the Persian Gulf affect the Arab-Israeli conflict," the report stated, going on to conclude that Soviet seizure of the Persian Gulf oil field would "probably destroy NATO and the US-Japanese alliance without recourse to war by the Soviets."[citations needed] Geoffrey Kemp is the Director of Regional Strategic Programs at the Nixon Center. ... The Cabot Intercultural Center of The Fletcher School at Tufts University The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, also called simply The Fletcher School, is the oldest graduate school of international relations in the United States. ... Soviet redirects here. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Location of terrain features in the region of the Fulda Gap. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Ambassador Dennis Ross speaking at Emory University Dennis B. Ross is an American author and political figure who served as the director for policy planning in the State Department under President George H.W. Bush and special Middle East coordinator under President Bill Clinton. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


According to Mann [?], Wolfowitz enlarged the purview of the Limited Contingency Study by questioning what would happen if another country in the region were to seize the oil fields.[citations needed] He argued that "Iraq has become the militarily pre-eminent in the Persian Gulf," which was "a worrisome development" because of its "radical-Arab stance, its "anti-Western attitudes," its "dependence on Soviet arms sales," and its "willingness to foment trouble in other local nations."[citations needed]. He concluded that "Iraq’s implicit power will cause currently moderate local powers to accommodate themselves to Iraq" and that "Iraq may in the future use her military forces against such states as Kuwait or Saudi Arabia."[citations needed] To confront these perceived threats, he believed that the United States must "be able to defend the interests of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and ourselves against an Iraqi invasion or show of force" and to make manifest its "capabilities and commitments to balance Iraq’s power," requiring "an increased visibility for U.S. power." As Mann explains, "Iraq was a subject to which Wolfowitz would return over and over again during his career."[citations needed]


According to Ross, "no one believed that Iraq posed a serious or imminent threat to the Saudis," but Wolfowitz had told him: "When you look at contingencies, you don’t focus only on the likelihood of the contingency but also on the severity of its consequences."[citations needed] In contrast to Wolfowitz, Defense Secretary Brown worried that if the report were leaked, it would damage U.S. relations with Iraq and destabilize Saudi Arabia.[citations needed] "The whole thrust of the study," according to Ross, "was to say that [the U.S.] had a big problem, that it would take us a long time to get any significant military force into the area."[citations needed] The study’s recommendations laid the groundwork for what would become the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM), conceived as Rapid Deployment Forces for the Persian Gulf. It played a key role in the 1991 Gulf War, after the Bush administration argued that the study’s predictions had come true, and the subsequent 2003 invasion of Iraq, for which Wolfowitz was a major driving force.[citations needed] Emblem of the United States Central Command. ... In 1977, a presidential directive called for a mobile force capable of responding to worldwide contingencies but to be established without diverting forces from NATO or Korea. ... Combatants United States Saudi Arabia Egypt United Kingdom & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Khalid bin Sultan Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded, 30 taken prisoner At least 183,000 victims of the Gulf War syndrome Est. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


In late 1979 Jeane Kirkpatrick began a migration of neoconservatives from their traditional base in the U.S. Democratic Party over to the U.S. Republican Party and its Presidential candidate Ronald Reagan.[citations needed] Wolfowitz joined this exodus after receiving a phone call from his old boss Fred Ikle, then working on the Reagan campaign, in which he said "Paul, you’ve got to get out of there. We want you in the new administration."[citations needed] A short time later, in early 1980, Wolfowitz resigned from the Pentagon and went to work as a visiting professor at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University.[citations needed] According to the Washington Post; "He said it was not he who changed his political philosophy so much as the Democratic Party, which abandoned the hard-headed internationalism of Harry Truman, Kennedy and Jackson."[37] Nevertheless, the The Times observed in March 2005, in the context of discussing his suitability as president of the World Bank Group, that "he has not ceased being a registered Democrat."[38] Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Jeane Kirkpatrick Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick (November 19, 1926 â€“ December 7, 2006) was an American ambassador and an ardent anticommunist. ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major United States political parties. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 - June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... Dr. Fred Charles Ikle is a Distinguished Scholar with the Center for Strategic and International Studies. ... The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), based in Washington D.C., is one of the worlds most prestigious graduate schools devoted to the study of international affairs, economics, diplomacy, and policy research and education. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ...


State Department Director of Policy Planning

In 1980, following the election of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, the newly appointed U.S. National Security Advisor Richard V. Allen was put in charge of putting together the administration's foreign policy advisory team. Allen initially rejected Wolfowitz’s appointment: "He had worked for Carter. I thought he was a Carter guy," Allen later recalled, adding: "He was goner, as far as I was concerned"; but following discussions, instigated by former colleague John Lehman, Allen offered him the position of Director of Policy Planning at the U.S. State Department.[citations needed] In this position Wolfowitz and his newly selected staff, which included Lewis Libby, Francis Fukuyama, Dennis Ross, Alan Keyes, Zalmay Khalilzad, Stephen Sestanovich and James Roche, would be responsible for defining the administration's long-term foreign goals.[citations needed] For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 - June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... Richard V. Allen was the United States National Security Advisor to President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1982. ... John F. Lehman, Jr. ... The Director of Policy Planning is the United States Department of State official in charge of the Departments internal think tank, the Policy Planning Staff. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (b. ... Ambassador Dennis Ross speaking at Emory University Dennis B. Ross is an American author and political figure who served as the director for policy planning in the State Department under President George H.W. Bush and special Middle East coordinator under President Bill Clinton. ... Dr. Alan Keyes (born August 7, 1950) is a former Reagan administration diplomat, a Harvard-educated constitutional scholar, and a conservative political activist. ... Dr. Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad (Pashtu/Persian: ‎ ) (born 22 March 1951) is the U.S. Ambassador to Iraq. ... Stephen Sestanovich is the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Professor at the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University He previously worked in the Reagan administration on the policy planning staff in the Reagan administration and server as Ambassador-at-large and Special Adviser to the Secretary for... James G. Roche Dr. James G. Roche is the 20th Secretary of the Air Force. ...


President Reagan’s foreign policy had been heavily influenced by a 1979 article in Commentary by Jeanne Kirkpatrick entitled "Dictatorships and Double Standards". In the article, written in the aftermath of the Iranian Revolution, Kirkpatrick had argued that "We seem to accept the status quo in Communist nations (in the name of 'diversity' and national autonomy) but not in nations ruled by 'right-wing' dictators or white oligarchies," pointing out that the regimes that the Carter administration had pushed for democratic reforms "turn out to be those in which non-Communist autocracies are under pressure from revolutionary guerillas," such as key Cold War allies Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran and Anastasio Somoza Debayle, dictator of Nicaragua. "Although most governments in the world are, as they always have been, autocracies of one kind or another, no idea hold greater sway in the mind of educated Americans than the belief that it is possible to democratize governments, anytime, anywhere, under any circumstances," a belief which Kirkpatrick disagreed with because "Decades, if not centuries, are normally required for people to acquire the necessary disciplines and habits." This is known as the Kirkpatrick Doctrine. Commentary Magazine is a journal published by the American Jewish Committee, since 1945. ... Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick (born November 19, 1926) is an American conservative political scientist and member of the neoconservative movement. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the... Anastasio (Tachito) Somoza Debayle (December 5, 1925 – September 17, 1980) was officially the forty-fourth and forty-fifth President of Nicaragua from May 1, 1967 to May 1, 1972 and from December 1, 1974 to July 17, 1979. ... The Kirkpatrick Doctrine was a political doctrine expounded by United States Ambassador to the United Nations Jeane Kirkpatrick in the early 1980s which attempted to justify U.S. support for right-wing, anti-Communist dictatorships in the Third World in the context of the Cold War. ...


Notably, Wolfowitz broke from this official line by denouncing Saddam Hussein of Iraq at a time when Donald Rumsfeld, acting as Reagan's official envoy, was offering the dictator support in his conflict with Iran. James Mann points out: "quite a few neo-conservatives, like Wolfowitz, believed strongly in democratic ideals; they had taken from the philosopher Leo Strauss the notion that there is a moral duty to oppose a leader who is a 'tyrant.'" Other areas where Wolfowitz disagreed with the administration was in his opposition to attempts to open up dialogue with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and to the sale of Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft to Saudi Arabia. "In both instances," according to Mann, "Wolfowitz demonstrated himself to be one of the strongest supporters of Israel in the Reagan administration." Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy. ... The Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary organization regarded by the Arab League since October 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... The Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) is an aircraft system designed to carry out surveillance, and C2BM (command and control, battle management) functions. ...


Mann stresses: "It was on China that Wolfowitz launched his boldest challenge to the established order."[citations needed] After Nixon and Kissinger had gone to China in the early 70s, U.S. policy was to make concessions to China as an essential Cold War ally. The Chinese were now pushing for the U.S. to end arms sales to Taiwan, and Wolfowitz used the Chinese incentive as an opportunity to undermine Kissinger's foreign policy toward China. Instead, Wolfowitz advocated a unilateralist policy, claiming that the U.S. did not need China’s assistance but that the Chinese needed the U.S. to protect them against the far-more-likely prospect of a Soviet invasion of the Chinese mainland. Wolfowitz soon came into conflict with U.S. Secretary of State Alexander Haig, who had been Kissinger’s assistant at the time of the visits to China. On March 30, 1982, The New York Times predicted, it turned out falsely, that "Paul D. Wolfowitz, the director of policy planning … will be replaced," because "Mr. Haig found Mr. Wolfowitz too theoretical."[citations needed] Instead, on June 25, 1982, George Schultz replaced Haig as U.S. Secretary of State, and Wolfowitz was promoted.[citations needed] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... For other persons named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ...


State Department Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs

In 1982 the new U.S. Secretary of State George Schultz, who would become an influential mentor to Wolfowitz, appointed him as Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs. At that time, the Reagan’s foreign policy was beset with difficulties caused by conflict between Schultz and U.S. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger. Wolfowitz was able to turn this to his favor by forming a powerful alliance with Weinberger’s Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Asia Richard Armitage and Gaston Sigur of the National Security Council. Between them, these three men controlled the administration’s policy for Asia.[citations needed]Jeanne Kirkpatrick, on a visit to the Philippines, had been eagerly welcomed by the dictator Ferdinand Marcos who quoted heavily from her 1979 Commentary article Dictatorships and Double Standards and although Kirkpatrick had been forced to speak-out in favor of democracy the article continued to influence Reagan’s policy toward Marcos. Following the assassination of Philippine opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. in 1983 many within the Reagan administration including the President himself began to fear that the Philippines could fall to the communists and the U.S. military would lose its strongholds at Clark Air Force Base and Subic Bay Naval Station. Wolfowitz took this opportunity to re-orient the administration’s policy, stating in an April 15, 1985 article in The Wall Street Journal that "The best antidote to Communism is democracy." This was already the administration’s policy in Eastern Europe and Wolfowitz has since argued that "You can’t use democracy, as appropriately you should, as a battle with the Soviet Union, and turn around and be completely hypocritical about it when it’s on your side of the line."[citations needed] The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... Assistant Secretary Christopher R. Hill The Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs is the head of the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs within the United States Department of State. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Caspar Willard Cap Weinberger, GBE (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006), was an American politician and Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987, making him the third longest-serving defense secretary to date, after Robert McNamara and Donald Rumsfeld. ... Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ... The White House National Security Council (NSC) in the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials and is part of the Executive Office of the President. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick (born November 19, 1926) is an American conservative political scientist and member of the neoconservative movement. ... Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. ... Commentary Magazine is a journal published by the American Jewish Committee, since 1945. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Clark Air Base is a former U.S. Air Force base on Luzon Island in the Philippines. ... Subic Bay is a bay on the west coast of the island of Luzon in the Philippines, about 100km northwest of Manila Bay. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an influential international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers [2]. It was the... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


Wolfowitz claims that this policy did not deviate from that lain out by Kirkpatrick in her 1979 article as the "necessary disciplines and habits" she wrote of were already in place. "When we went to work on Marcos, it was not to dismantle the institutions of the Philippines; it was actually to get him to stop dismantling them himself," Wolfowitz later argued of the specifics of the policy; "Military reform, economic reform, getting rid of crony capitalism, relying on the church, political reform: It was very institutionally oriented."[citations needed] In pursuance of this policy Wolfowitz and his assistant Lewis Libby made trips to Manila where they called for democratic reforms and met with non-communist opposition leaders but the approach was still very soft. As Wolfowitz later explained: "If we had said, ‘We are enemies of the Marcos regime. We want to see it’s demise rather than reform,’ we would have lost all influence in Manila and would have created a situation highly polarized between a regime that had hunkered down and was prepared to do anything to survive and a population at loose ends," that would have strengthened the communists.[citations needed] So at the same time Wolfowitz also fought against moves by the U.S. Congress to end military aide to the Marcos regime.[citations needed] I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... Nickname: Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Philippines Region National Capital Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (Asenso Manilenyo/PDP-Laban) Area... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ...


Mann points out that "the Reagan administration’s decision to support democratic government in the Philippines had been hesitant, messy, crisis-driven and skewed by the desire to do what was necessary to protect the American military installations"; but, , that decision did eventually pay off when, following massive street protests, Marcos fled the country on a U.S. Air Force plane and Reagan reluctantly recognized the government of Corazón Aquino. Wolfowitz has since claimed that this demonstrates that democracy "needs the prodding of the U.S." Wolfowitz’s commitment to democracy would be put to the test in his next posting.[citations needed] Order 11th President of the Philippines (1st President of the 5th Republic) Term of Office February 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992 Vice President Salvador Laurel Predecessor Ferdinand Marcos Successor Fidel V. Ramos Born January 25, 1933 Manila, Philippines María Corazón Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (born January 25, 1933), widely...


Ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia

From 1986 to 1989, "during the military-backed government of former President Suharto," Wolfowitz was the U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia.[39] According to Peter J. Boyer, in his New Yorker profile of Wolfowitz, Haji Mohammad Soeharto (born June 8, 1921), more commonly referred to as simply Soeharto (Suharto in the English-speaking world), is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... This is a list of ambassadors from the United States. ... New Yorker may refer to: the magazine, The New Yorker a resident of New York City the hotel New Yorker a named passenger train operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad between Detroit, MI and New York, NY This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that...

Wolfowitz’s appointment to Indonesia was not an immediately obvious match. He was a Jew representing America in the largest Muslim republic in the world, an advocate of democracy in Suharto's dictatorship. But Wolfowitz’s tenure as Ambassador was a notable success, largely owing to the fact that, in essence, he went native. With tutoring help from his driver, he learned the language, and hurled himself into the culture. He attended academic seminars, climbed volcanoes, and toured the neighborhoods of Jakarta. (3)[6] Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...

Sipress and Nakashima report that "Wolfowitz's colleagues and friends, both Indonesian and American" pointed to the "U.S. envoy's quiet pursuit of political and economic reforms in Indonesia."[40] According to the Associated Press, however, in their opposition to Wolfowitz's later appointment to the presidency of the World Bank, "Analysts in Indonesia ... say the candidate has a poor track record in other areas crucial to the World Bank, such as fighting graft and respect for human rights."[39] While Dewi Fortuna Anwar, "a former foreign policy adviser to B J Habibie, Suharto's successor as head of state" (1998–1999), agreed with others "that Wolfowitz was a competent and popular envoy," saying, "'He was extremely able and very much admired and well-liked on a personal level,'" Anwar qualified that, adding: "'but he never intervened to push human rights or stand up to corruption.'"[39] The head of the Indonesian National Human Rights Commission, Abdul Hakim Garuda Nusantara, "who at the time headed the Legal Aid Institute Lembaga Bantuan Hukum (LBHI)] that defended dissidents and sought to free political prisoners" elaborated: "'Of all former U.S. ambassadors, he was considered closest to and most influential with Suharto and his family, but he never showed interest in issues regarding democratization or respect of human rights. Wolfowitz never once visited our offices. I also never heard him publicly mention corruption, not once.'"[39] Anwar generalized further about Wolfowitz's tenure: "'at the time, Washington didn't care too much about human rights and democracy; it was still the Cold War and they were only concerned about fighting communism.'"[39] As Suzanne Goldenberg observes, The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (born June 25, 1936), more commonly known simply as Rudy Habibie or B J Habibie, was the third President of Indonesia, holding office from 1998 to 1999. ... Most liberal democracies consider that it is necessary to provide some level of legal aid to persons otherwise unable to afford legal representation. ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [edit] A ABRI (Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia) - Military of Indonesia (New Order Era) AMD (ABRI Masuk Desa) - A social responsibility... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

some who acknowledge his popularity also discount the argument that Wolfowitz used his influence as an envoy to press for change. ... "It is really too much to claim that he played any kind of role in leading Indonesia to democracy," says Jeffrey Winters, an expert on Indonesia at Chicago's Northwestern University, who was in the country at the time. ... "The real record when you dig into it is that he was very slow to respond to Indonesia's movement for democracy. Indonesia's citizens across the spectrum had been struggling against authoritarian rule. They had been tortured. They had been jailed. They had been ruined in various ways, and the Wolfowitz embassy didn't speak up for them - not once. ... He adds: "He had his chance, and he toed the Reagan hawkish line." The World Bank will be watching for far more than that from Wolfowitz.[10]

After Suharto was "ousted in 1998 by pro-democracy protests," according to the AP, Wolfowitz himself stated that the former president was guilty "'of suppressing political dissent, of weakening alternative leaders and of showing favoritism to his children's business deals, frequently at the expense of sound economic policy'"; yet, "at the time, thousands of leftists detained after the 1965 U.S.-backed military coup that brought Suharto to power were still languishing in jail without trial ... [and] tens of thousands of people in East Timor, a country Suharto's troops occupied in 1975, died during the 1980s in a series of army anti-insurgency offensives."[39] Opposing Wolfowitz's World Bank appointment, Binny Buchori, Director of the International NGO Forum on Indonesian Development ("a coalition of 100 agencies promoting democracy in Indonesia"), told the AP that Wolfowitz "'went to East Timor and saw abuses going on, but then kept quiet.'"[39] While, "during his 32-year reign, Suharto, his family and his military and business cronies transformed Indonesia into one of the most graft-ridden countries in the world, plundering an estimated $30 billion ... Wolfowitz [Buchori said] 'never alluded to any concerns about the level of corruption or the need for more transparency....'"[39]


Officials involved in the AID program during Wolfowitz's tenure told Alan Sipress and Ellen Nakashima of The Washington Post that he "took a keen personal interest in development, including health care, agriculture and private sector expansion" and that "Wolfowitz canceled food assistance to the Indonesian government out of concern that Suharto's family, which had an ownership interest in the country's only flour mill, was indirectly benefiting."[40] According to Sipress and Nakashima, Wolfowitz gave a farewell speech to the American Chamber of Commerce in Jakarta in which he stated that "the cost of the high-cost economy remains too high, for the private sector to flourish, special privilege must give way to equal opportunity and equal risk for all."[40] Yet, in "The Tragedy of Suharto", published earlier, in May 1998, in The Wall Street Journal, Wolfowitz states: The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an influential international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers [2]. It was the...

Although it is fashionable to blame all of Asia's present problems on corruption and the failure of Asian values, it is at bottom a case of a bubble bursting, of too many imprudent lenders chasing too many incautious borrowers. But the greed of Mr. Suharto's children ensured that their father would take the lion's share of the blame for Indonesia's financial collapse. The Suharto children's favored position became a major obstacle to the measures needed to restore economic confidence. Worst of all, they ensured that the economic crisis would be a political crisis as well. That he allowed this, and that he amassed such wealth himself, is all the more mysterious since he lived a relatively modest life.[41] World map showing the location of Asia. ... Haji Mohammad Soeharto (born June 8, 1921), more commonly referred to as simply Soeharto (Suharto in the English-speaking world), is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ...

In "The Tragedy of Suharto", Wolfowitz also asserts that, following the Indonesian 1998 Revolution, Suharto blamed this "plea for greater political openness" as "the cause of the violent incidents that marked Indonesia's largely stage-managed elections in 1997."[41] In his May 1989 farewell remarks at Jakarta's American Cultural Center, Wolfowitz stated, as quoted by Sipress and Nakashima, that "'if greater openness is a key to economic success, I believe there is increasingly a need for openness in the political sphere as well.'" Sipress and Nakashima observe that "this single, unexpected sentence stunned some members of Suharto's inner circle."[40] In 1998, following over thirty years of military dictatorship under General Suharto, the 1998 Indonesian Revolution led to the introduction of democracy. ...


In 1997 Wolfowitz was still publicly praising Suharto's "strong and remarkable leadership" in testimony on Indonesia before the U.S. House Appropriations Subcommittee on Foreign Operations ....[citations needed] In "The Tragedy of Suharto", Wolfowitz writes: "The tragedy for Mr. Suharto and his country is that he would have been widely admired by his countrymen if he had stepped down 10 years ago," adding that "achieving peace among a population so diverse requires a strong leader and a unified military."[41] After the 2002 Bali bombing, on October 18, 2002, according to Scott Burchill, a Lecturer in International Relations, at the School of Social and International Studies, Deakin University, then Deputy Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz observed that "'the reason the terrorists are successful in Indonesia is because the Suharto regime fell and the methods that were used to suppress them are gone.'"[42] The House Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs is a standing subcommittee within the House Appropriations Committee. ... The 2002 Bali bombing occurred on October 12, 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Deakin University is a large Australian public university with around 32,000 students studying Bachelor, Masters, Doctoral and Professional programs as of 2004. ...


Undersecretary of Defense for Policy

Wolfowitz, Gen. Colin Powell (left), and Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf (middle) listen as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney addresses reporters regarding the 1991 Gulf War.
Wolfowitz, Gen. Colin Powell (left), and Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf (middle) listen as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney addresses reporters regarding the 1991 Gulf War.

From 1989 to 1993, serving in the administration of George H.W. Bush, Wolfowitz was U.S. Undersecretary of Defense for Policy, under then U.S. Defense Secretary Dick Cheney, and was responsible for realigning U.S. military strategy in the post-cold war environment.[citations needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2869x1910, 669 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Colin Powell Paul Wolfowitz Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2869x1910, 669 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Colin Powell Paul Wolfowitz Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Norman Schwarzkopf can refer to: Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... The Undersecretary of Defense for Policy is the title of a high-level civilian official in the United States Department of Defense. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Military stratagem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Wolfowitz’s team co-ordinated and reviewed military strategy, raising $50 billion in allied financial support for the operation. Wolfowitz was present, alongside Cheney, Colin Powell and others, on 27 February 1991 at the meeting with the President at which all agreed that the mission had been accomplished and the troops should be demobilised. At that time he did not believe it appropriate for US soldiers to push forward into Iraq to bring about regime change but did support the policy of encouraging Kurdish and Shiite revolutionaries to rise up against their dictator.[citations needed] Combatants United States Saudi Arabia Egypt United Kingdom & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Khalid bin Sultan Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded, 30 taken prisoner At least 183,000 victims of the Gulf War syndrome Est. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... A revolutionary is somebody who wants a revolution, and seeks to promote, encourage, or lead the creation of one. ... Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ...


On February 25, 1998, Wolfowitz testified before a congressional committee that he thought that "the best opportunity to overthrow Saddam was, unfortunately, lost in the month right after the war."[43] Wolfowitz added that he was horrified in March as "Saddam Hussein flew helicopters that slaughtered the people in the south and in the north who were rising up against him, while American fighter pilots flew overhead, desperately eager to shoot down those helicopters, and not allowed to do so." During that hearing, he also stated: "Some people might say—and I think I would sympathise with this view—that perhaps if we had delayed the ceasefire by a few more days, we might have got rid of [Saddam Hussein]." February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


After the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Wolfowitz and his then-assistant Scooter Libby wrote the Defense Planning Guidance to "set the nation’s direction for the next century" that many saw as a "blueprint for U.S. hegemony."[citations needed] At that time the official administration line was one of "containment", and the contents of Wolfowitz’s plan calling for "preemption" and "unilateralism" proved unpalatable to the more-moderate members of the administration, including Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell and President Bush.[citations needed] Defense Secretary Cheney produced a revised plan released in 1992.[citations needed] After the election of U.S. President Bill Clinton in 1992, Wolfowitz fell out of favor and left government until the restoration to power of the U.S. Republican Party in 2000.[citations needed] During the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush, from 2000 to 2007, many of the ideas outlined in Wolfowitz's initial plan re-emerged as what is called the Bush Doctrine.[citations needed] Combatants United States Saudi Arabia Egypt United Kingdom & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Khalid bin Sultan Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded, 30 taken prisoner At least 183,000 victims of the Gulf War syndrome Est. ... I. Lewis Libby I. Lewis Scooter Libby Jr. ... Wolfowitz Doctrine is a pseudo-name given to the 1992 Defense Planning Guidance authored by Paul Wolfowitz and I. Lewis Libby. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is by law the highest ranking military officer of the United States military, and the principal military advisor to the President of the United States. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Bush Doctrine is a phrase used to describe a policy outlined in a National Security Council text entitled the National Security Strategy of the United States published on September 20, 2002[1] In the events following September 11, 2001 attacks two distinct schools of thought arose in the Bush...


Dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies

From 1994 to 2001, Wolfowitz served as Professor of International Relations and Dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University. He was instrumental in adding more than $75 million to the university's endowment, developing an international finance concentration as part of the curriculum, and combining the various Asian studies programs into one department. Drawing upon his political and defense experience, he also served as a foreign policy advisor to Bob Dole on the 1996 U.S. Presidential election campaign and as a paid consultant for aerospace and defense conglomerate Northrop Grumman.[citations needed] The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), based in Washington D.C., is one of the worlds most prestigious graduate schools devoted to the study of international affairs, economics, diplomacy, and policy research and education. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... (Redirected from 1996 U.S. Presidential Election) Introduction This election took place on November 5, 1996. ... The Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) is an aerospace and defense conglomerate that is the result of a 1994 merger between Northrop and Grumman. ...


According to Kampfner, "Wolfowitz used his perch at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies as a test-bed for a new conservative world vision."[citations needed] Wolfowitz was associated with the Project for the New American Century (PNAC); he signed both the PNAC's June 3, 1997 "Statement of Principles"[44], which begins by stating: The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ...

American foreign and defense policy is adrift. Conservatives have criticized the incoherent policies of the Clinton Administration. They have also resisted isolationist impulses from within their own ranks. But conservatives have not confidently advanced a strategic vision of America's role in the world. They have not set forth guiding principles for American foreign policy. They have allowed differences over tactics to obscure potential agreement on strategic objectives. And they have not fought for a defense budget that would maintain American security and advance American interests in the new century. ... We aim to change this. We aim to make the case and rally support for American global leadership.

and its January 26, 1998 "open letter to President Bill Clinton", which begins by stating: "We are writing you because we are convinced that current American policy toward Iraq is not succeeding, and that we may soon face a threat in the Middle East more serious than any we have known since the end of the Cold War."[45] is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

See main article: Project for the New American Century
Further information: Project for the New American Century#Persons associated with the PNAC

In February 1998 Wolfowitz testified before a Congressional hearing, stating that the current administration lacked the sense of purpose to "liberate ourselves, our friends and allies in the region, and the Iraqi people themselves from the menace of Saddam Hussein."[46] In his testimony, he lamented the decision at the end of the 1991 Persian Gulf War to call for a ceasefire before attempting to achieve those goals. Wolfowitz urged the administration to support Iraqi opposition groups, in particular the INC of Ahmed Chalabi with arms, intelligence and financing as a way of overthrowing the current regime without risking American troops.[citation needed] The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Combatants United States Saudi Arabia Egypt United Kingdom & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Khalid bin Sultan Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded, 30 taken prisoner At least 183,000 victims of the Gulf War syndrome Est. ... The Iraqi National Congress (INC) is an umbrella Iraqi opposition group led by Ahmed Chalabi. ... Ahmed Chalabi Ahmed Abdel Hadi Chalabi,1 (Arabic: احمد الجلبي) (born October 30, 1944) was interim oil minister in Iraq[1] in April-May 2005 and December-January 2006 and deputy prime minister from May 2005 until May 2006. ...


In September 2000 the PNAC produced a 90-page report entitled Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategies, Forces and Resources for a New Century, advocating the redeployment of U.S. troops in permanent bases in strategic locations throughout the world where they can be ready to act to protect U.S. interests abroad.[47] During the 2000 U.S. Presidential election campaign, Wolfowitz served as a foreign policy advisor to George W. Bush as part of the group led by Condoleezza Rice calling itself The Vulcans.[48] Map The U.S. presidential election of 2000 took place on Election Day, Tuesday, November 7. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... The Vulcan statue in Birmingham. ...


Deputy Secretary of Defense

Wolfowitz is sworn in by David O. Cooke, director of Washington Headquarters Services, as the 28th Deputy Secretary of Defense, March 2, 2001.

From 2001 to 2005, during the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush, Wolfowitz returned to government, serving as U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense reporting to U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. In May 2001, during the height of Sino-American tensions that surrounded the U.S.-China Spy Plane Incident, he ordered the recall and destruction of 600,000 Chinese-made berets that had been issued to troops, stating: "U.S. troops shall not wear berets made in China."[49] Following that action, in the early months of the administration, Wolfowitz was sidelined, as President Bush seemed to follow his predecessors' policies of "containment", although, in The Price of Loyalty, Ron Suskind quotes former U.S. Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill as denying that "containment" was U.S. defense policy .[citations needed]. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2000x1327, 576 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Paul Wolfowitz ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2000x1327, 576 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Paul Wolfowitz ... David O. Cooke David O. Doc Cooke (1920 – June 22, 2002) was a United States Department of Defense civilian administrator who served under twelve Secretaries of Defense over a period of 45 years. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The United States Deputy Secretary of Defense is the second-highest ranking official in the United States Department of Defense. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which governs mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau; or Republic of China (Taiwan), which governs Taiwan, the Pescadores, the Matsu Islands, and Kinmen. ... J-8IIM On April 1, 2001, a United States Navy EP-3E was intercepted by Peoples Liberation Army Air Force J-8 fighter jets about 70 miles (110 km) off the Chinese island of Hainan. ... The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of Paul ONeill, a 2004 book, described the Bush administration during Paul ONeills tenure as Secretary of the Treasury. ... Wikinews has news related to: Author claims Al Qaeda planned to gas New Yorks subway system Ron Suskind is a former Wall Street Journal reporter (1993 to 2000) and is a Pulitzer Prize winning writer (1995, for Feature Writing). ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ... Paul Henry ONeill (born December 4, 1935) served as the 72nd United States Secretary of the Treasury for part of President George W. Bushs first Administration. ...

Deputy Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz, press briefing, November 21, 2001.
Deputy Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz, press briefing, November 21, 2001.

The terrorist attacks of 9-11 proved to be a radical turning point in administration policy, as Wolfowitz later explained: "9/11 really was a wake up call and that if we take proper advantage of this opportunity to prevent the future terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction that it will have been an extremely valuable wake up call," adding: "if we say our only problem was to respond to 9/11, and we wait until somebody hits us with nuclear weapons before we take that kind of threat seriously, we will have made a very big mistake."[50] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1973x2913, 774 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Paul Wolfowitz ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1973x2913, 774 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Paul Wolfowitz ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered terrorism. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


In the first emergency meeting of the U.S. National Security Council on the day of the attacks, Rumsfeld asked, "Why shouldn’t we go against Iraq, not just al-Qaeda?" with Wolfowitz adding that Iraq was a "brittle, oppressive regime that might break easily—it was doable," and, according to John Kampfner, "from that moment on, he and Wolfowitz used every available opportunity to press the case."[citations needed] The idea was initially rejected, mainly at the behest of U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell, but, according to Kampfner, "Undeterred Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz held secret meetings about opening up a second front—against Saddam. Powell was excluded."[citations needed] In such meetings they created a policy that would later be dubbed the Bush Doctrine, centering on "pre-emption", American unilateralism, and the war on Iraq, which, as Seymour M. Hersh explains, in his New Yorker article on the invasion and the early phases of the Iraq War, the PNAC had advocated in their earlier letters.[51] The National Security Council (NSC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. ... John Kampfner is a British journalist, who has been editor of the weekly political magazine the New Statesman since 2005. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... The Bush Doctrine is a phrase used to describe a policy outlined in a National Security Council text entitled the National Security Strategy of the United States published on September 20, 2002[1] In the events following September 11, 2001 attacks two distinct schools of thought arose in the Bush... The Bush Doctrine is a phrase used to describe a policy outlined in a National Security Council text entitled the National Security Strategy of the United States published on September 20, 2002[1] In the events following September 11, 2001 attacks two distinct schools of thought arose in the Bush... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Seymour Myron Sy Hersh (born April 8, 1937 Chicago) is an American Pulitzer Prize winning investigative journalist and author based in Washington, DC. He is a regular contributor to The New Yorker magazine on military and security matters. ... The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ...


After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the U.S. had to deal immediately with the threat of Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan.[51] The U.S. invasion of Afghanistan began on October 7, 2001. Victory was declared on March 6, 2002. Just under a month later, on October 10, 2001, George Robertson, then Secretary-General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, went to The Pentagon to offer NATO troops, planes and ships to assist. Wolfowitz rebuffed the offer, saying: "We can do everything we need to." Wolfowitz later announced publicly, according to Kampfner, "that 'allies, coalitions and diplomacy' were of little immediate concern."[citations needed] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Combatants Taliban al-Qaeda IMU Hezbi Islami Afghanistan Northern Alliance United Nations NATO  Australia  New Zealand Commanders Mohammed Omar Obaidullah Akhund # Dadullah â€  Jalaluddin Haqqani Osama bin Laden Ayman al-Zawahiri Mohammad Atef â€  Juma Namangani â€  Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Bismillah Khan Mohammed Fahim Tommy Franks Dan McNeill David Fraser Ton van Loon Strength... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... George Robertson pictured at The Pentagon in June 2001 The Right Honourable George Islay MacNeill Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, KT, GCMG, FRSA, PC (born 12 April 1946, in Port Ellen, Isle of Islay, Scotland) was the Secretary-General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, between October 1999 and... This article is about the United States military building. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...

Wolfowitz with New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark at the Pentagon, March 26, 2002.
Wolfowitz with New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark at the Pentagon, March 26, 2002.

Ten months later, on January 15, 2003, with hostilities still continuing, Wolfowitz made a fifteen-hour visit to the Afghan capital, Kabul, and met with the new president Hamid Karzai. Wolfowitz stated, "We’re clearly moving into a different phase, where our priority in Afghanistan is increasingly going to be stability and reconstruction. There’s no way to go too fast. Faster is better." Despite the promises, according to Hersh, "little effort to provide the military and economic resources" necessary for reconstruction was made.[51] This criticism would also re-occur after the U.S. invasion of Iraq later that year.[51] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3019x2008, 747 KB) Summary Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz (right) escorts New Zealands Prime Minister Helen Clark (center) into the Pentagon on March 26, 2002. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3019x2008, 747 KB) Summary Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz (right) escorts New Zealands Prime Minister Helen Clark (center) into the Pentagon on March 26, 2002. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government and is the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... Helen Elizabeth Clark (born February 26, 1950) became Prime Minister of New Zealand in December 1999 and entered her third successive term in that office in 2005. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the...


On April 16, 2002 the National Solidarity Rally for Israel was called in Washington to oppose US pressure on the government of Ariel Sharon. Wolfowitz was the sole representative of the Bush administration to attend, speaking alongside Former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and former New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. Kampfner claims that this was part of a systematic campaign by the neo-cons to undermine Powell while he was away on a peace mission to the Middle East. According to Matthew Engel in The Guardian, the administration had exposed itself to being momentarily characterised as anti-Israel, which would have meant losing votes and financial support.[52] As reported by the BBC, Wolfowitz told the crowd that US President George W. Bush "wants you to know that he stands in solidarity with you".[53] Sharon Samber and Matthew E. Berger reported for Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) that Wolfowitz continued by saying that "Innocent Palestinians are suffering and dying as well. It is critical that we recognize and acknowledge that fact," before being booed and drowned out by chants of "No more Arafat."[54] According to Engel this may have been a turning point that saw a return to a more pro-Israeli position within the administration as Bush feared being outflanked on the right.[52] April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... The Prime Minister of Israel is the elected head of the Israeli government. ...   (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ (without niqqud: בנימין נתניהו), Hebrew transliteration written in English: Binyamin Netanyahu, nicknamed Bibi) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is a leading figure in the Likud party. ... The Mayor of New York City is the chief executive of the New York City government, as stipulated by the Charter of the City of New York. ... Rudolph William Louis Rudy Giuliani III, KBE (born May 28, 1944) served as the Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2001. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Matthew Engel is a writer and editor who began his career in 1979. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) is an international news agency serving Jewish community newspapers and media around the world. ...


Following the declaration of victory in Afghanistan the Bush administration had started to plan for the next stage of the War on Terror. According to John Kampfner, "Emboldened by their experience in Afghanistan, they saw the opportunity to root out hostile regimes in the Middle East and to implant very American interpretations of democracy and free markets, from Iraq to Iran and Saudi Arabia. Wolfowitz epitomised this view."[citations needed] Setting his sights on Iraq, which he had identified as a key region during his time as U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional Programs under U.S. President Jimmy Carter, Wolfowitz "saw a liberated Iraq as both paradigm and linchpin for future interventions."[citations needed] The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda... John Kampfner is a British journalist, who has been editor of the weekly political magazine the New Statesman since 2005. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ...


The invasion of Iraq began on March 19, 2003 and lasted until President Bush declared "Mission Accomplished" on May 1, 2003. is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See main article: 2003 invasion of Iraq

As Hersh explains, in his article published in The New Yorker eleven days after President Bush declared the "end of major combat operations", however: "After a year of bitter infighting, the Bush Administration remains sharply divided about Iraq."[51] The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


Prior to the invasion, Wolfowitz had a plan to sell the war to the more skeptical members of the administration as well as the general public, as he later clarified: "For bureaucratic reasons, we settled on one issue, weapons of mass destruction, because it was the one reason everyone could agree on."[55][16][15][56][57] For the album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...


The job of finding these WMD and providing justification for the attack would fall to the intelligence services, but, according to Kampfner, "Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz believed that, while the established security services had a role, they were too bureaucratic and too traditional in their thinking."[citations needed] As a result, borrowing an idea from their old Team B days, "they set up what came to be known as the 'cabal', a cell of eight or nine analysts in a new Office of Special Plans (OSP) based in the U.S. Defense Department."[citations needed] According to an unnamed Pentagon source quoted by Hersh, the OSP "was created in order to find evidence of what Wolfowitz and his boss, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, believed to be true—that Saddam Hussein had close ties to Al Qaeda, and that Iraq had an enormous arsenal of chemical, biological, and possibly even nuclear weapons that threatened the region and, potentially, the United States."[51] Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated as DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of militant Sunni jihadist organizations. ...


Within months of being set-up, the OSP "rivaled both the C.I.A. and the Pentagon’s own Defense Intelligence Agency, the D.I.A., as President Bush’s main source of intelligence regarding Iraq’s possible possession of weapons of mass destruction and connection with Al Qaeda." Hersh explains further that the OSP "relied on data gathered by other intelligence agencies and also on information provided by the Iraqi National Congress, or I.N.C., the exile group headed by Ahmad Chalabi."[citations needed] According to Kampfner, the CIA had ended its funding of the I.N.C. "in the mid-1990s when doubts were cast about Chalabi’s reliability."[citations needed] Also according to Kampfner, however, "as the administration geared up for conflict with Saddam, Chalabi was welcomed in the inner sanctum of the Pentagon" under the auspices of the OSP, and "Wolfowitz did not see fit to challenge any of Chalabi’s information."[citations needed] The actions of the OSP have led to accusation of the Bush administration "fixing intelligence to support policy" with the aim of influencing congress in its use of the War Powers Act.[citations needed] The arguments, however, did prove effective; the administration continued [and continues] to focus on the Hussein regime's long history of involvement with international terrorist organizations and the current predominance of Zarqawi's Al Qaeda in Iraq.[51] The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... The Iraqi National Congress (INC) is an umbrella Iraqi opposition group led by Ahmed Chalabi. ... Ahmed Abdel Hadi Chalabi1 (Arabic: احمد الجلبي) (born October 30, 1944) is part of a three-man executive council for the umbrella Iraqi opposition group, the Iraqi National Congress (INC), created in 1992 for the purpose of fomenting the overthrow of Iraqi... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with War Powers Resolution. ...


Kampfner outlined Wolfowitz’s strategy for the 2003 invasion of Iraq, which "envisaged the use of air support and the occupation of southern Iraq with ground troops, to install a new government run by Ahmed Chalabi’s Iraqi National Congress" and which began on March 19, 2003.[citations needed] Wolfowitz believed that the operation would require minimal troop deployment, Hersh explains, because "any show of force would immediately trigger a revolt against Saddam within Iraq, and that it would quickly expand."[51] The financial expenditure would be kept low, Kampfner observes, if "under the plan American troops would seize the oil fields around Basra, in the South, and sell the oil to finance the opposition."[citations needed] The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Ahmed Chalabi Ahmed Abdel Hadi Chalabi,1 (Arabic: احمد الجلبي) (born October 30, 1944) was interim oil minister in Iraq[1] in April-May 2005 and December-January 2006 and deputy prime minister from May 2005 until May 2006. ... The Iraqi National Congress (INC) is an umbrella Iraqi opposition group led by Ahmed Chalabi. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During Wolfowitz's pre-war testimony before Congress, he dismissed General Eric K. Shinseki's estimates of the size of the post war occupation force as incorrect and estimated that fewer than 100,000 troops would be necessary in the war. Two days after Shinseki testified, Wolfowitz said to the House Budget Committee on February 27, 2003: Eric K. Shinseki General Eric Ken Shinseki (エリック・シンセキ) was the 34th Chief of Staff of the United States Army, and retired from the post in 2003. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

There has been a good deal of comment—some of it quite outlandish—about what our postwar requirements might be in Iraq. Some of the higher end predictions we have been hearing recently, such as the notion that it will take several hundred thousand U.S. troops to provide stability in post-Saddam Iraq, are wildly off the mark. It is hard to conceive that it would take more forces to provide stability in post-Saddam Iraq than it would take to conduct the war itself and to secure the surrender of Saddam's security forces and his army—hard to imagine.[51]

On October 26, 2003, while in Baghdad, Iraq, staying at the Al-Rashid Hotel Wolfowitz narrowly escaped an attack when six rockets slammed into the floors below his room blowing out the windows and frames.[58] Army Lt. Col. Charles H. Buehring was killed and seventeen others soldiers were wounded.[59] Wolfowitz and his DOD staffers escaped unharmed and returned to the United States on October 28, 2003. is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Al-Rashid Hotel is an 18-story hotel in Baghdad, Iraq, favored by journalists and media personnel. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


President of the World Bank

In January 2005, Wolfowitz was nominated to be president of the World Bank. Criticism of his nomination appeared in European media.[60] Nobel Laureate in Economics and former chief economist for the World Bank Joseph Stiglitz reportedly said: "'The World Bank will once again become a hate figure. This could bring street protests and violence across the developing world.'"[61] In a speech at the U.N. Economic and Social Council, Economist Jeffrey Sachs was also quite vocal in his opposition to Wolfowitz: "It's time for other candidates to come forward that have experience in development. This is a position on which hundreds of millions of people depend for their lives … Let's have a proper leadership of professionalism."[62] ... Nobel Prize medal. ... Joseph Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist, author and winner of Nobel Prize for economics ( 2001). ... Jeffrey Sachs Jeffrey David Sachs (born November 5, 1954 in Detroit, Michigan) is an American economist known for his work as an economic advisor to governments in Latin America, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Asia, and Africa. ...

Press conference at G8 Summit (Paul Wolfowitz standing at rear on right)
Press conference at G8 Summit (Paul Wolfowitz standing at rear on right)

In the United States, however, there was some praise for the nomination. For example, an editorial in The Wall Street Journal states: "Mr. Wolfowitz is willing to speak the truth to power … he saw earlier than most, and spoke publicly about, the need for dictators to plan democratic transitions. It is the world's dictators who are the chief causes of world poverty. If anyone can stand up to the Robert Mugabes of the world, it must be the man who stood up to Saddam Hussein."[63] Image File history File linksMetadata Blair_G8_July7th05. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Blair_G8_July7th05. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an influential international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers [2]. It was the... Robert Gabriel Mugabe KCB (born on February 21, 1924) is the President of Zimbabwe. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


He was confirmed and took up the position on June 1, 2005.One of Wolfowitz's first official acts was to attend the 31st G8 summit to discuss issues of global climate change and the economic development in Africa. When this meeting was interrupted by the July 7, 2005 London bombings, Wolfowitz was present with other world leaders at the press conference given by British Prime Minister Tony Blair. June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official G8 2005 Portrait. ... The term climate change is used to refer to changes in the Earths climate. ... Economic development is a sustainable increase in living standards that implies increased per capita income, better education and health as well as environmental protection. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... [edit] For news on the current explosion reports see 21 July 2005 London bombings On Thursday, 7 July 2005, a series of four bomb attacks struck Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...


Several of Wolfowitz's initial appointments at the Bank proved controversial, including two US nationals (Robin Cleveland and Kevin Kellems) formerly with the Bush administration, whom he appointed as close advisors with $250,000 tax-free contracts.[64] Another appointee, Juan José Daboub has been criticized by his colleagues and others for attempts to change policies on family planning and climate change towards a conservative line."[65][66] Juan José Daboub is a former Minister of Finance in El Salvador and member of the right-wing ARENA party, closely affiliated with the Catholic Church. ...

Further information: #Ongoing criticism of Wolfowitz and #Wolfowitz's leadership of the World Bank

In his public presentations, Wolfowitz sought to give special emphasis to two particular issues. Identifying Sub-Saharan Africa as the region most challenged to improve living standards, he traveled widely in the region. He also made clear his intention to heighten further his predecessor's focus on fighting corruption. However, several aspects of the latter program raised controversy. Overturning the names produced by a formal search process, he appointed a figure linked to the US Republican party to head the Bank's internal watchdog. In addition, member countries worried that Wolfowitz's willingness to suspend lending to countries on grounds of corruption was vulnerable to selective application—possibly in line with US foreign policy interests. In a heated debate on the proposed Governance and Anti-Corruption Strategy at the Bank's 2006 Annual Meetings, shareholders directed Wolfowitz to undertake extensive consultations and revise the strategy, inter alia to show how objective measures of corruption would be incorporated into decisions and how the shareholders' representatives on the Bank's Board would play a key role. Following the consultations and revisions, the Board approved a revised strategy in spring 2007.[7]


Political views and military policies

Neoconservatism

See main article: Neoconservatism

Political analysts consider Wolfowitz a neoconservative whose political views were influenced by his Cornell University mentor Allan Bloom and Bloom's University of Chicago mentors Albert Wohlstetter and Leo Strauss, with whom Wolfowitz also later studied; some classify Wolfowitz's perspectives as "Straussian", whereas others question that label and regard it as pigeon-holing him.[9][51][56][57] Neoconservatism is a political movement that emerged as a rejection of liberalism and the New Left counter-culture of the 1960s. ... Neoconservatism is a political movement that emerged as a rejection of liberalism and the New Left counter-culture of the 1960s. ... Cornell University is a university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ... Allan Blooms translation and interpretation, Second edition 1991. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Albert Wohlstetter (born 1913, died January 10, 1997) was a major intellectual force behind efforts to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons and the need to develop nonnuclear alternatives. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy. ...


Pre-emption

See also: Preemptive war, Bush doctrine#Preemption, and 2003 Invasion of Iraq#Legality of invasion

Wolfowitz is a long-term advocate of "preemption"––a military policy to strike first to eliminate presumed threats, according to Seymour Hersh: "The Pentagon's conservative and highly assertive civilian leadership, assembled by Wolfowitz, gained extraordinary influence, especially after September 11th. These civilians were the most vigorous advocates for taking action against Saddam Hussein and for the use of pre-emptive military action to combat terrorism."[51] Preemptive war (or preemptive attack) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war. ... The Bush Doctrine is a phrase used to describe a policy outlined in a National Security Council text entitled the National Security Strategy of the United States published on September 20, 2002[1] In the events following September 11, 2001 attacks two distinct schools of thought arose in the Bush... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Preemptive war (or preemptive attack) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war. ... Seymour Myron Sy Hersh (born April 8, 1937 Chicago) is an American Pulitzer Prize winning investigative journalist and author based in Washington, DC. He is a regular contributor to The New Yorker magazine on military and security matters. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Wolfowitz explained his position in a 2002 interview with Robert Collier, of the San Francisco Chronicle, stating: "I think the premise of a policy has to be we can't afford to wait for proof beyond a reasonable doubt. That is a way in which any number of terrorist regimes have, over the last 20 years, gotten away with doing things that I think encourage more behavior of that kind."[50] He added, apparently as clarification: "you can't wait until you have evidence beyond a reasonable doubt that somebody did something in the past, you know that people are planning to do something against you in the future and that they're developing incredibly destructive weapons to do it with and that's not tolerable."[50] Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ...


As Hersh explains: "Pre-emption would emerge as the overriding idea behind the Administration’s foreign policy."[51] According to Kampfner, who discusses Wolfowitz in relation to the "The alliance of Blairites and Bushites" in his article "The British Neoconservatives", published in The New Statesman on May 12, 2003, less than a fortnight after the end of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the British government's own policy of "Liberal interventionism", an "originally leftish view of military action[,] found a harder edge and a willing match in the primacy and pre-emption doctrine of the Bush administration and its leading thinker, Paul Wolfowitz. Both groups have united around their abhorrence of the centre-right and centre-left mainstream of the early 1990s - the likes of John Major, Douglas Hurd and the early Bill Clinton - citing inaction over Bosnia as their main crime."[67] A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Rik Mayall as Alan Bstard in The New Statesman The New Statesman was an award-winning British sitcom of the late 1980s and early 1990s satirising the Conservative government of the time. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Interventionism is a term for a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy or society. ... Sir John Major, KG, CH (born 29 March 1943) is a former British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and leader of the British Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. ... Douglas Richard Hurd, Baron Hurd of Westwell, CH, CBE, PC (born 8 March 1930), is a senior British Conservative politician and novelist, who served in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major between 1979 and his retirement in 1995. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Motto none Anthem Intermeco Bosnia and Herzegovina() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Sarajevo Official languages Bosnian Croatian Serbian Government Parliamentary democracy  -  Presidency members NebojÅ¡a Radmanović1 Haris Silajdžić2 Željko KomÅ¡ić3  -  Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola Å pirić  -  High Representative 4 Independence...


Hersh, Kampfner, and others have argued that the policy of pre-emption (and the United States's subsequent conduct of the Iraq War) contradict treaty requirements found in the United Nations Charter, to which the United States is a signatory, as it is to the Geneva Conventions. Article 51 of the Charter, for example, refers a member state's "individual" and "collective" right to engage in "self-defense" in response to an "armed attack" against it; while offering a basis for the attacks against Al-Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan by the United States and its coalition allies after the September 11, 2001 attacks, critics of the Bush administration argue that it does not provide a similar basis for such "pre-emptive" attacks as the 2003 Invasion of Iraq.[68] For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , stupid or seekers of ignorance) are a fundamentalist Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by American aerial bombardment and Northern Alliance ground forces. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...

See main article: 2003 Invasion of Iraq#The United Nations, the ICC and the 2003 Invasion

The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...

Iranian dissidents and Iran

Since the 1979 Iranian Revolution Wolfowitz has been a notable advocate for Iranian dissidents, including Azar Nafisi, the bestselling author of Reading Lolita in Tehran.[citation needed] Larry Franklin, who was both a member of his staff and an associate of the American Israel Political Affair Committee (AIPAC), investigated for alleged espionage for Israel on U.S. soil, including leaking information to Israel in order to damage Iranian-US relations, pled guilty to some of those charges, pursuant to a plea agreement in which he would "cooperate in the larger federal investigation" involving "two former employees of the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, Steven J. Rosen and Keith Weissman."[69][70] Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Azar Nafisi speaking at the 2004 National Book Festival in Washington D.C. Azar Nafisi, Ph. ... Reading Lolita in Tehran Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in Books is a book by Iranian author and professor, Azar Nafisi. ... Lawrence Anthony Franklin is a U.S. Air Force Reserve colonel who has pled guilty to passing information about U.S. policy towards Iran to Israel through the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC), the foremost pro-Israel lobbying organization in the U.S, while he was working for the... U.S. President George W. Bush addresses AIPAC members in Washington on May 18, 2004. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... U.S. President George W. Bush addresses AIPAC members in Washington on May 18, 2004. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Keith Weissman was the policy director of AIPAC. He is now under investigation for spying for Israel and has been fired by AIPAC together with Steve Rosen. ...

See main article: Lawrence Franklin espionage scandal

The Lawrence Franklin espionage scandal (also known as the AIPAC espionage scandal) refers to allegations that information regarding United States policy towards Iran was passed to Israel through Lawrence Franklin via the American Israel Public Affairs Committee. ...

Some perspectives on Wolfowitz in the media

In his 2002 profile of Wolfowitz in The New York Times, Eric Schmitt describes Wolfowitz as a "lightning rod" for President George W. Bush: The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...

Deputy Defense Secretary Paul D. Wolfowitz got a call 10 days ago from Karl Rove, President Bush's chief political adviser, dispatching him to a big rally here in support of Israel. The White House was stung by criticism from conservative Republicans over its policies toward Israel.

So last Monday Mr. Wolfowitz, who is one of Israel's staunchest allies in the administration, also found himself in front of the Capitol as Mr. Bush's emissary, drowned out by chants of Down with Arafat!

Mr. Wolfowitz, who is Jewish, was booed repeatedly when he spoke—in his largely pro-Israel speech—of the innocent Palestinians who were suffering, along with Israelis, from the bloodshed.

Mr. Wolfowitz has had his share of lightning-rod days as one of the administration's leading hawks. He is a strong advocates for building missile defenses and expanding the global campaign against terrorism, to include toppling President Saddam Hussein of Iraq. But Mr. Wolfowitz, the Pentagon's second in command, did not volunteer for political spear-catching duty … [13][71] Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush. ... This page is about the official residence of the President of the USA. For other White Houses see White House (disambiguation). ... Mohammed Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (August 24, 1929 – November 11, 2004; Arabic: ), popularly known as Yasser Arafat, was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (1968–2004) and President[2] of the Palestinian National Authority (1993–2004). ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...

Prior to Wolfowitz's nomination to the World Bank, as cited in media profiles of him, in Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War Cabinet (New York: Viking, 2004), James Mann described him as "the most influential underling in Washington."[10] According to Goldenberg, as well as various other sources, "A former colleague says[,] "Hawk doesn't do him justice. What about velociraptor?"[10][72] James Mann, senior writer-in-residence in the CSIS International Security Program, is the author of two books: Beijing Jeep (Simon & Schuster, 1989) and About Face: A History of Americas Curious Relationship With China From Nixon to Clinton (Knopf, 1999). ... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ...


In his book review of Rise of the Vulcans, Martin Sieff views Mann's portrayal of Wolfowitz as disappointing in its uncritical omissions and departures from reality:

Wolfowitz on Iraq as described by Mann is Wolfowitz as he wishes to be seen -- and perhaps even sees himself. Here is a dignified, cautious, responsible intellectual heavyweight, a moderate centrist who comes late in the day and reluctantly, but only after soberly weighing all things in the balance, to the profound conclusion that Iraq must be conquered for the Good of the Republic and to end its very real threat of weapons of mass destruction. It has about as much connection to reality as describing Saddam Hussein as a social democrat.[48] Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...

For Rosh Hashana 2003 (5764), The Jerusalem Post named Paul Wolfowitz its inaugural "Man of the Year": "In this year when anti-Semitism is once again a fact of life, the name 'Wolfowitz' has become its lightning rod … Surely this is one distinction he does not relish. Yet it remains a part of what makes this, uniquely, Wolfowitz's year."[73][71] This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews[1] as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ...


In June 2004, as reported on the MSNBC television program Deborah Norville Tonight, Tom Clancy asked about Paul Wolfowitz: "Is he really on our side?", narrating the context: "I sat in on—I was in the Pentagon in '01 for a red team operation and he came in and briefed us. And after the brief, I just thought, is he really on our side? Sorry."[74] MSNBC, a combination of MSN and NBC, is a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States and Canada, and a news website. ... MSNBC (a portmanteau of Microsoft and NBC) is a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States. ... Thomas Leo Clancy Jr. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... Red is any of a number of similar colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of light discernible by the human eye, in the wavelength range of roughly 625–750 nm. ...

Wolfowitz talks with former First Lady Nancy Reagan aboard the USS Ronald Reagan in 2004.

Journalist and polemicist Christopher Hitchens stated in an interview with Johann Hari published on September 23, 2004: "The thing that would most surprise people about Wolfowitz if they met him is that he's a real bleeding heart."[75] In a piece that Hitchens contributed later to Slate, he elaborates: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... First Lady Laura Bush and former first ladies, from left, Rosalynn Carter, Sen. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of former United States President Ronald Reagan and was an influential First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76), the ninth and penultimate Nimitz-class supercarrier, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for former President of the United States Ronald Reagan. ... Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is an Anglo-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... Johann Hari (born January 21, 1979) is a British journalist and writer. ... A bleeding heart can be: A term, usually critical, for someone who is held to be overly sympathetic to another persons (or group of peoples) plight; usually used by people who are not as (or not at all) sympathetic. ... Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ...

I can't exactly say that I know the man, but on the occasions that I have met him I have been very struck by the difference between his manner and the amazing volleys of obloquy and abuse that have been flung at him. (This is made easier, for savants such as Maureen Dowd, by the fact that the first four letters of his surname spell an animal that is known in nursery rhymes to be big and bad. How satirical can one possibly get?) The truth is, he's a bit bleeding heart for my taste, even though I know some very tough Kurdish and Iraqi and Iranian and Lebanese antifascist militants who would welcome him as a blood-brother. No shame in that, I think.[76] Maureen Dowd (born January 14, 1952) is a columnist for The New York Times. ...

Bloomberg News reported on March 24, 2005 that Malaysian politician Anwar Ibrahim, Wolfowitz's longtime friend, had said in an interview that Wolfowitz "passionately believes in freedom and understands the issues of poverty, environment degradation, living conditions and health issues which (are) very much a World Bank agenda."[77] Bloomberg Television is a cable television network that broadcasts business and financial news 24 hours a day. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anwar Ibrahim has been touring the lecture circuit around the world since his release in 2004. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...


According to Sipress and Nakashima, reporting in the The Washington Post several days later, Abdurrahman Wahid, Indonesia's first democratically-elected president after the fall of Suharto, "was so taken by Wolfowitz's 1989 speech [see above] that he asked to be introduced. Wahid, a leader of Indonesia's largest Muslim organization and staunch proponent of political pluralism said in an interview … that they became friends and he remains proud of that relationship today despite differences over the U.S. invasion of Iraq. Wahid was impeached by his political rivals in 2001 but remains highly influential."[40] The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... Abdurrahman Wahid (also known as Gus Dur) (born August 4, 1940) was the President of Indonesia from 1999 to 2001, and founder of the National Awakening Party (PKB). ... Pluralism is used, often in different ways, across a wide range of topics: In science, the concept often describes the view that several methods, theories or points of view are legitimate or plausible, see Scientific pluralism. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the...


On April 6, 2005, after Wolfowitz was appointed to the World Bank, the East Timor Action Network (ETAN) quoted East Timorese Nobel Peace Prize-winner Jose Ramos-Horta's comment that "Those who have suspicions and reservations should not have them because Wolfowitz is very humane and sensitive," adding: "Ramos-Horta said he had met with Wolfowitz several times when the current US deputy defense secretary was Washington's envoy to Indonesia between 1986 and 1989, a time when East Timor was still under occupation by Jakarta."[78] is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize Image:Nobel-medal. ... Jos Ramos Horta (born December 26, 1949) has been Foreign Minister of East Timor since independence in 2002, having previously been a spokesman for the East Timorese resistance in exile during the years of Indonesian occupation betweeen 1975 and 1999. ...


In his article about Wolfowitz's problems as president of the World Bank Group, published in The New Statesman on May 15, 2006, for which he interviewed Bank "insiders", Robert Calderisi, who "worked at the World Bank from 1979 to 2002," wonders whether Wolfowitz is "The Worst Man in the World?", concluding, in retrospect it seems in part rather prophetically: "most insiders believe the bank is becoming the very caricature of a US-dominated, ideological agency that they have always denied it was. Its critics may feel vindicated, but friends of international development will worry that the Europeans - who are the largest providers of aid to poor countries - will lose confidence in using the bank as an objective channel. Or they may bide their time and decide that Paul Wolfowitz will be the last US-appointed president of the World Bank."[79] World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... Rik Mayall as Alan Bstard in The New Statesman The New Statesman was an award-winning British sitcom of the late 1980s and early 1990s satirising the Conservative government of the time. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A year later, in mid-May 2007, as a result of the more-current controversy in the media about his leadership of the World Bank Group, according to Washington Post op-ed columnist Sebastian Mallaby, Wolfowitz became involved in an "endgame" both for his career and for the institution of the World Bank itself.[80] World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ...

Further information: #Current controversies and #Wolfowitz's leadership of the World Bank

Some cultural portrayals of Wolfowitz

The title character of the novel Ravelstein (2000) by Saul Bellow was based on Wolfowitz’s mentor at Cornell University Allan Bloom, while the character of one of his students, Philip Gorman, whose father is a fellow professor who comes into conflict with Ravelstein and who goes on to work for the U.S. Department of Defense, is believed to be based on Wolfowitz.[81][82] According to James Mann, in Rise of the Vulcans (New York: Vintage, 2004), "Wolfowitz thought that the novelist’s portrait was simply inaccurate or possibly a composite based in part on some other Bloom students and their fathers."[citation needed][83] Ravelstein cover Ravelstein is Saul Bellows final novel. ... Saul Bellow (left) with Keith Botsford Saul Bellow, born Solomon Bellows, (Lachine, Quebec, Canada, June 10, 1915 – April 5, 2005 in Brookline, Massachusetts) was an acclaimed Canadian-born American writer. ... Cornell University is a university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ... Allan Blooms translation and interpretation, Second edition 1991. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... James Mann, senior writer-in-residence in the CSIS International Security Program, is the author of two books: Beijing Jeep (Simon & Schuster, 1989) and About Face: A History of Americas Curious Relationship With China From Nixon to Clinton (Knopf, 1999). ...


Wolfowitz found public prominence through his involvement in the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq, criticized in Fahrenheit 9/11, the film by Michael Moore. According to Suzanne Goldenberg's profile of Wolfowitz published in The Guardian, "one of the most indelible moments of the film … is when Paul Wolfowitz … puts a generous dollop of spit on his comb before smoothing his hair for a television appearance."[10] She describes Wolfowitz as the "intellectual high priest of the Bush administration's hawks," observing prophetically: "Iffy grooming habits are the least of Wolfowitz's worries as he takes on the presidency of the World Bank."[10] The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Fahrenheit 9/11 is an award-winning documentary film by American filmmaker Michael Moore, which had a general release in the United States and Canada on June 25, 2004. ... Michael Francis Moore (born April 23, 1954) is an American political-activist, a film director, author, social commentator, and political humorist. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...


Wolfowitz is featured in the Autumn 2004 BBC Two television documentary film series The Power of Nightmares: The Rise of the Politics of Fear, directed by Adam Curtis, which compares the rise of the American neoconservatives and radical Islamists, arguing that there are close connections between them, that some popular beliefs about these groups are inaccurate, and that both movements have benefited from exaggerating the scale of the terrorist threat, inflating a myth of a dangerous enemy in order to draw people to support them.[84] Curtis' documentary series examines Wolfowitz's work with Team B and his various other roles in various administrations leading up to the 2003 U.S. Invasion of Iraq: "According to Curtis' BBC documentary, Wolfowitz's group, known as "Team B," came to the conclusion that the Soviets had developed several terrifying new weapons of mass destruction, featuring a nuclear-armed submarine fleet that used a sonar system that didn't depend on sound and was, thus, undetectable with our current technology."[84] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Power of Nightmares is a BBC documentary film series, written and produced by Adam Curtis. ... Adam Curtis at the San Francisco International Film Festival in 2005 Adam Curtis (born 1955) is a British television documentary producer. ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ...


On 30 January 2007, after his visit to Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, Turkey, news media released photographs of Paul Wolfowitz's socks, which had holes in them.[85] A few days later, Today's Zaman announced that the Turkish Hosiery Manufacturers' Association sent him twelve pairs of socks.[86] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne (Greek: Αδριανούπολη, Bulgarian: Одрин) is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Todays Zaman is a major Turkish daily newspaper. ...


Recent controversies

Wolfowitz's economic arguments pertaining to the Iraq War

On March 27, 2003, Wolfowitz told a Congressional panel that oil revenue earned by Iraq alone would pay for Iraq's reconstruction after the Iraq war; he testified: "The oil revenues of that country could bring between $50 and $100 billion over the course of the next two or three years. Now, there are a lot of claims on that money, but … We are dealing with a country that can really finance its own reconstruction and relatively soon.”[87][88][9] By March 2005, two years later, oil revenues were not paying for the occupation and reconstruction of Iraq, Wolfowitz's estimation of 50 to 100 billion US dollars had not materialized, and, in light of his miscalculation, detractors criticized his appointment to head of the World Bank.[89] is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Wolfowitz's relationship with Shaha Riza

Main article: Shaha Riza

After President George W. Bush's nomination of Wolfowitz as president of the World Bank, journalists reported that Wolfowitz had become involved in a relationship with World Bank Senior Communications Officer (and Acting Manager of External Affairs) for the Middle East and North Africa Regional Office Shaha Ali Riza.[90] According to Richard Leiby, of The Washington Post, Riza is "an Oxford-educated British citizen, was born in Tunisia and grew up in Saudi Arabia. She's known for her expertise on women's rights and has been listed on the bank's Web site as a media contact for Iraq reconstruction issues."[91] According to Leiby and Leiby and Linton Weeks, in their more recent essay "In the Shadow of a Scandal", Riza's employment at the World Bank predated Wolfowitz's nomination as Bank president: "Riza started at the World Bank as a consultant in July 1997 and became a full-time employee in 1999"; and the relationship between Riza and Wolfowitz pre-dated it as well: Shaha Riza Shaha Ali Riza, (Arabic: ) (born 1953 or 1954), is a World Bank staffer who is currently on external assignment. ... ... Shaha Ali Riza works for the World Bank. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ...

In the early 1990s, Riza joined the National Endowment for Democracy and is credited there with development of the organization's Middle East program. Wolfowitz was on the endowment's board—which is how Riza first met him, according to Turkish journalist Cengiz Candar, a friend of the couple. "Shaha was married at the time and Paul was married," Candar recalled, and it wasn't until late 1999—after Riza divorced and Wolfowitz had separated from his wife of 30 years, Clare Selgin Wolfowitz—that the couple began dating."[91][3] The National Endowment for Democracy, or NED, is a U.S. non-profit organization that was founded in 1983 to promote democracy by providing cash grants funded primarily through an annual allocation from the U.S. Congress. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Cengiz Çandar (1948) is a renowned Turkish journalist and a former war correspondent. ... Clare Selgin Wolfowitz is an expert on Indonesian anthropology and currently works for IRIS at the University of Maryland, College Park in the Governance Institutions Group, primarily on its projects in Indonesia and with the Programs and Policy Coordination office of USAID. She is the estranged wife of World Bank...

According to the profile of Wolfowitz published in the London Sunday Times on March 20, 2005, cited earlier, despite their cultural differences, "Riza, an Arab feminist who confounds portrayals of Wolfowitz as a leader of a 'Zionist conspiracy' of Jewish neoconservatives in Washington … [and who] works as the bank’s senior gender co-ordinator for the Middle East and north Africa … not only shares Wolfowitz’s passion for spreading democracy in the Arab world, but is said to have reinforced his determination to remove Saddam Hussein’s oppressive regime."[18] The Sunday Times is the name of several Sunday newspapers. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Neoconservatism is a political movement that emerged as a rejection of liberalism and the New Left counter-culture of the 1960s. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


The reported relationship created further controversy concerning Wolfowitz’s nomination to head the World Bank, because the organization's own ethics rules preclude sexual relationships between a manager and a staff member serving under that manager, even if one reports to the other only indirectly through a chain of supervision. Sharon Churcher and Annette Witheridge, in The Daily Mail, quote one World Bank employee's statement that "Unless Riza gives up her job, this will be an impossible conflict of interest"; the observation of "a Washington insider": "His womanizing has come home to roost … Paul was a foreign policy hawk long before he met Shaha, but it doesn't look good to be accused of being under the thumb of your mistress"; and Wolfowitz's response: "If a personal relationship presents a potential conflict of interest, I will comply with Bank policies to resolve the issue."[19]


Wolfowitz initially proposed to the World Bank's Ethics Committee that he recuse himself from personnel matters regarding Riza, but the committee rejected that proposal.[92] Riza was "seconded to the State Department", or placed on "external assignment," assigned "a job at the state department under Liz Cheney, the daughter of the vice-president, promoting democracy in the Middle East … "[93] She "was also moved up to a managerial pay grade in compensation for the disruption to her career," resulting in a raise of over $60,000, as well as guarantees of future increases; "The staff association claims that the pay rise was more than double the amount allowed under employee guidelines."[93][94] A promotion and raise had been among the options suggested by a World Bank ethics committee that was set up to advise on the situation.[95] According to Steven R. Weisman, however, in a report published in The New York Times, the then-current chair of the committee emphasized that he was not informed at the time of the details or extent of the present and future raises built into the agreement with Riza.[96] Wolfowitz refers to the controversy concerning his relationship with Riza in his recent statement posted on the website of the World Bank (April 12, 2007).[97] The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Elizabeth Cheney (born July 28, 1966), an American attorney. ... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Wolfowitz's leadership of the World Bank Group

Beginning early in 2007, Fox News published on its website a series of investigative stories on the World Bank, based in part on leaks to Fox of internal bank documents. On February 8, 2007, Fox News reported that the Bank had launched a probe of Fox's sources.[98] Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ...


On April 11, 2007, Reuters and Al Kamen, in his column in The Washington Post, reported that Wolfowitz and the World Bank board had hired the Williams and Connolly law firm to oversee an investigation into the leaking of internal bank documents to Fox News.[99][100] Those reports cite an internal memo to the bank staff later posted on the internet, dated April 9, 2007, in which the World Bank's general counsel, Ana Palacio, states that the Bank's legal staff was scrutinizing two articles by investigative reporter Richard Behar published on the website of Fox News on January 31 and March 27, 2007.[101][102] A day after the second report published by Behar, on March 28, 2007, Kamen had disclosed that "Bank records obtained by the Government Accountability Project" documented pay raises in excess of Bank policies given to Shaha Riza, with whom Wolfowitz was "romantically linked."[103] is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Richard Behar is an investigative journalist who has written on the staffs of leading magazines including Forbes, Time and Fortune over a twenty-two year period from 1982-2004. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Shaha Riza Shaha Ali Riza, (Arabic: ) (born 1953 or 1954), is a World Bank staffer who is currently on external assignment. ...


On April 12, 2007 Krishna Guha and Eoin Callan reported in the London Financial Times that, in a 2005 memorandum, Wolfowitz had personally directed the Bank's human resources chief to offer Riza a large pay rise and promotion, according to two anonymous sources who told the Financial Times that they had seen the memo.[104] The memo was part of a package of 102 pages of documents publicly released by the bank on April 14, 2007.[104] is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Financial Times (FT) is an international business newspaper printed on distinctive salmon pink broadsheet paper. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


On April 14, 2007, after reviewing the 102-page document package, the Financial Times concluded that it was "a potentially fatal blow" to Wolfowitz.[104] In contrast, Fox News concluded that the new documents might offer Wolfowitz a "new lifeline" in the scandal, particularly because of new evidence in the paper trail that the Bank's ethics committee had launched a review of the Riza compensation case in early 2006 and concluded that it did not warrant any further attention by the committee.[105] April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ...


Media speculations about Wolfowitz quitting his position as president of the World Bank intensified on April 19, 2007 after his failure to attend a high-profile meeting.[106] The controversy about Wolfowitz's girlfriend, former Senior Communications Officer Shaha Riza led to disruption at the World Bank when some employees wore blue ribbons "in a display of defiance against his leadership."[107] World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Shaha Riza Shaha Ali Riza, (Arabic: ) (born 1953 or 1954), is a World Bank staffer who is currently on external assignment. ... This article is about the symbol. ...


World Bank Group's board of executive directors and staffers complained also that Wolfowitz was imposing Bush Administration policies to eliminate family planning from World Bank programs. According to Nicole Gaouette, in her report published in the Los Angeles Times on April 19, 2007, Juan José Daboub—the managing director whom Wolfowitz had appointed who has also been criticized for overly-conservative policies concerning climate change[66] and "a Roman Catholic with ties to a conservative Salvadoran political party"—repeatedly deleted references to family planning from World Bank proposals: "A copy of the report obtained by the Los Angeles Times [entitled "Strategy for Health, Nutrition and Population Results"] shows repeated deletions of references to family planning and contraception."[65] According to Gaouette, "Women's health advocates said the situation was worrisome. 'There's mismanagement there,' said Carmen Barroso, a regional director for the International Planned Parenthood Federation. 'Wolfowitz appointed a guy in a very high position who felt free to censor in line with his personal beliefs. I think that's good grounds for sacking.'" According to Gaouette's account, Daboub "questioned staff outrage directed at him: 'To me this sounds like a storm in a glass of water,' he said in a recent interview. 'There is no reason understandable for this.'" In an email obtained by the Government Accountability Project and quoted by Gaouette, Madagascar country program coordinator Lilia Burunciuc wrote, "'One of the requests received from [Daboub] was to take out all references to family planning. We did that.'" Moreover, "Bank staff members dispute Daboub's claim that he made no changes to the Madagascar report. 'It's a blatant lie,' said one staffer who has seen the document. Like other internal critics, the employee requested anonymity because he said he feared for his job."[65] The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... Oral contraceptives. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Juan José Daboub is a former Minister of Finance in El Salvador and member of the right-wing ARENA party, closely affiliated with the Catholic Church. ... The International Planned Parenthood Federation [1] is a global not for profit organization (or charity) with the broad aims of promoting sexual/reproductive health, and advocating the right of individuals to make their own choices in this area. ... The Government Accountability Project (GAP) is a 29-year-old nonprofit public interest group that promotes government and corporate accountability by advancing occupational free speech, defending whistleblowers, and empowering citizen activists. ...


On May 14, 2007 the World Bank committee investigating the alleged ethics violations reported (in part): May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

  • "[Provisions of] Mr. Wolfowitz's contract requiring that he adhere to the Code of Conduct for board officials and that he avoid any conflict of interest, real or apparent, were violated";
  • "The salary increase Ms. Riza received at Mr. Wolfowitz's direction was in excess of the range established by Rule 6.01";
  • "The ad hoc group concludes that in actuality, Mr Wolfowitz from the outset cast himself in opposition to the established rules of the institution"; and
  • "He did not accept the bank's policy on conflict of interest, so he sought to negotiate for himself a resolution different from that which would have applied to the staff he was selected to head."[108]

According to Richard Adams, in The Guardian Unlimited, Wolfowitz appeared before the World Bank Group's board of executive directors to respond on Tuesday, May 15, 2007, and, the following day, on Wednesday, May 16, in another board meeting, its executive directors would "consider the report and make a statement later in the week." Adams speculates that "With Mr Wolfowitz so far refusing to step down, the board may need to take radical action to break the stalemate. Members have discussed a range of options, including sacking Mr Wolfowitz, issuing a vote of no confidence or reprimanding him. Some board members argue that a vote of no confidence would make it impossible for him to stay in the job."[109] If the World Bank's board of directors "votes him out," according to Michael Hirsh, in the May 21, 2007 issue of Newsweek, he would be "the first president dismissed in [its] 62-year history … "[110] By mid-afternoon, Wednesday, May 16, 2007, Steven Weisman reported in The New York Times, according to "bank officials," "After six weeks of fighting efforts to oust him as president … Wolfowitz began today to negotiate the terms of his possible resignation, in return for the bank dropping or softening the charge that he had engaged in misconduct … "[111] After recent expressions from the Bush administration that it "fully" supported Wolfowitz as World Bank president and its urging a "fair hearing" for him, President Bush has expressed "regret" at Wolfowitz's then-impending resignation.[112] The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ...


On May 17, 2007, in a statement published on its website, the World Bank Group's board of Executive Directors announced that Paul Wolfowitz would resign as World Bank Group president at the end of June 2007; their statement is followed by a statement from Wolfowitz about his tenure as president and his hopes for the World Bank's future success.[1] is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ...


Steven R. Weisman, of The New York Times, has updated his earlier articles and the Times' "Timeline" for the "World Bank controversy", providing an account of why Wolfowitz's so-called "'second chance' at [his] career" has turned "sour" for him.[113] The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ...


Wolfowitz biography

A biography, entitled Paul D. Wolfowitz: Visionary Intellectual, Policymaker, and Strategist, by Lewis D. Solomon, Van Vleck Professor of Law at George Washington University, is published by Praeger Security International, a division of Greenwood Publishing Group.[114] The George Washington University (GW), is a private, coeducational university located in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The school was founded in 1821 as The Columbian College in the District of Columbia by Baptist ministers using funds bequeathed by George Washington. ...


See also

U.S. President George W. Bush addresses AIPAC members in Washington on May 18, 2004. ... Full-spectrum dominance is the proposed ability of United States armed forces, operating alone or with allies, to defeat any adversary and control any situation across the range of military operations. ... The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) is a Washington, D.C.-based non-profit think-tank focusing on issues of United States national security. ... Joint Vision 2020 was a document released on May 30, 2000, by the United States Department of Defense proclaiming the need for full-spectrum dominance on the battlefield. ... Neoconservatism is a political movement that emerged as a rejection of liberalism and the New Left counter-culture of the 1960s. ... The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... Wolfowitz Doctrine is a pseudo-name given to the 1992 Defense Planning Guidance authored by Paul Wolfowitz and I. Lewis Libby. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Statements of Executive Directors and President Wolfowitz", World Bank Group, May 17, 2007, accessed May 17, 2007.
  2. ^ a b c Matthew Jones, "Wolfowitz Exit Seen Clearing Way for Progress", Reuters (UK), May 18, 2007, accessed May 18, 2007. (For qtd. caption, click on photo, by Yuri Gripas for Reuters: "World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz leaves his house in the Washington suburb of Chevy Chase, Maryland, May 17, 2007. Wolfowitz said on Thursday he was resigning as of June 30, ending a protracted and tumultuous battle over his stewardship, sparked by a promotion he arranged for his companion.")
  3. ^ a b c d Linton Weeks and Richard Leiby, "In the Shadow of a Scandal", The Washington Post, May 10, 2007, accessed May 10, 2007. (3 pages.)
  4. ^ "Press Release Regarding the Selection of Mr. Robert B. Zoellick as President of the World Bank", World Bank Group, June 25, 2007, accessed June 26, 2007.
  5. ^ Zachary A. Goldfarb, "Wolfowitz Joins Think Tank as Visiting Scholar", online posting, The New Yorker, July 3, 2007, accessed July 3, 2007.
  6. ^ a b c Peter J. Boyer, "The Believer: Paul Wolfowitz Defends His War", online posting, The New Yorker, November 1, 2004, accessed June 20, 2007 (7 pages).
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h John Cassidy, "The Next Crusade: Paul Wolfowitz at the World Bank", online posting, The New Yorker, April 9, 2007, accessed May 7, 2007.
  8. ^ Cf. Amy Goodman, "Bush Names Iraq War Architect Paul Wolfowitz to Head World Bank", transcript, Democracy Now!, March 17, 2005, accessed May 17, 2007.
  9. ^ a b c Cf. Ibrahim Warde, "Iraq: Looter's License", 16-22 in America's Gulag: Full Spectrum Dominance Versus Universal Human Rights, ed. Ken Coates (London: Spokesman Books, 2004), ISBN 0851246915; Warde describes Wolfowitz as "theoretician of the neo-conservative movement and principal architect of the Iraq adventure" (18).
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Suzanne Goldenberg, "Guardian Profile: Paul Wolfowitz", The Guardian, April 1, 2005, accessed May 1, 2007.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o David Dudley, "Paul's Choice", Cornell Alumni Magazine Online 107.1 (July/August 2004), accessed May 17, 2007.
  12. ^ a b Shelemyahu Zacks, "Biographical Memories: Jacob Wolfowitz (March 19, 1910–July 16, 1981)", National Academy of Sciences, n.d., accessed May 3, 2007.
  13. ^ a b c d e Eric Schmitt, "The Busy Life of Being a Lightning Rod for Bush", The New York Times, April 22, 2002, accessed June 20, 2007. (TimesSelect subscription required.)
  14. ^ Nile Gardiner, "Paul Wolfowitz: Freedom Fighter", The Heritage Foundation, June 1, 2005, accessed June 4, 2007. (Originally published in Internationale Politik.)
  15. ^ a b c "U.S. Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) News Transcript" of telephone interview of Paul Wolfowitz, conducted by Sam Tanenhaus, "Presenter: Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz", press release, United States Department of Defense, May 9, 2003, accessed May 2, 2007. ["Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz Interview with Sam Tannenhaus [sic], Vanity Fair."]
  16. ^ a b c Sam Tanenhaus, "Bush's Brain Trust", "(George W. Bush, Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, Weekly Standard Editor William Kristol, former Pentagon official Richard Perle)", Vanity Fair July 2003, AccessMyLibrary, July 1, 2003, accessed May 1, 2007.
  17. ^ Associated Press, "Paul Wolfowitz '65 Sparks Controversy at World Bank", Cornell Daily Sun, April 17, 2007, accessed May 19, 2007.
  18. ^ a b "Profile: Paul Wolfowitz: Hawk with a Lot of Loot Needs a Bit of Lady Luck", The Sunday Times, March 20, 2005, accessed April 18, 2007.
  19. ^ a b Sharon Churcher and Annette Witheridge, "Will a British Divorcee Cost 'Wolfie' His Job?" The Daily Mail, March 20, 2005, accessed April 14, 2007.
  20. ^ From "About Telluride Association", tellurideassociation.org, accessed June 12, 2007.
  21. ^ "Life at the House" and "Self-Governance", tellurideassociation.org, accessed June 12, 2007.
  22. ^ Dudley observes:

    At the University of South Florida in Tampa, where he taught from 1978 until his death in 1981, he often spoke with pride about Paul's accomplishments as a rising policymaker. Manoug Manougian, chairman of the USF math department, grew close to the distinguished mathematician in his final years. "Jack was a very down-to-earth, peace-loving person," he says. When Paul visited, they played tennis and argued about books. "What a shame," Jack sometimes said of his son, "that Paul didn't continue in math." ... Often, Jack Wolfowitz and Manougian, born to Armenian immigrants, would reflect ruefully on the world's troubles--the ethnic strife that bedeviled their native countries earlier in the century, the smoldering Israeli-Palestinian issue, the incalculable horrors of war and genocide that had dogged human history. "The question was always, how can a person in his right mind do these things?" Manougian remembers. "How can we change the world?" ... Jack Wolfowitz, like any mathematician, believed that there was a correct answer. "Every problem has a solution," he always told Manougian. "There is a solution to this that doesn't require a war." But, in the end, he admitted that he didn't know what it was. World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... Chevy Chase is the name of both a town and an unincorporated Census-Designated Place in Montgomery County, Maryland (see Chevy Chase (CDP), Maryland). ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... John Cassidy is an American business journalist. ... The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Amy Goodman on Democracy Now! Amy Goodman (b. ... Democracy Now! logo. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Ken Coates (1930 - ) is a British Marxist. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank located in Washington, D.C., is widely regarded as one of the worlds most influential public policy research institutes. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Internationale Politik is the journal of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für auswärtige Politik (German Council on Foreign Relations). ... Sam Tanenhaus (born October 31, 1955) is an American author, historian and biographer. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Sam Tanenhaus (born October 31, 1955) is an American author, historian and biographer. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... William Bill Kristol (born December 23, 1952 in New York City) is an American conservative pundit, inspired in part by the ideas of Leo Strauss. ... Richard Norman Perle (born 16 September 1941 in New York City) is an American political advisor and lobbyist who worked for the Reagan administration as an assistant Secretary of Defense and worked on the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee from 1987 to 2004. ... American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ... AccessMyLibrary. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The Cornell Daily Sun, of Cornell University, is an independent daily newspaper published in Ithaca, New York. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Daily Mail and its Sunday edition the Mail on Sunday are British newspapers, first published in 1896. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Telluride Association is a non-profit organization in the United States that provides young people with free educational programs emphasizing intellectual curiosity, democratic self-governance, and social responsibility. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Telluride Association is a non-profit organization in the United States that provides young people with free educational programs emphasizing intellectual curiosity, democratic self-governance, and social responsibility. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The University of South Florida (USF), known within its system as USF Tampa, is a public university system located in Tampa, Florida, USA, with an autonomous campus in St. ...

  23. ^ a b Alterman, as cited in Richard H. King, "Intellectuals and the State: The Case of the Straussians", Comparative American Studies 4.4 (2006): 395-408 (402), accessed June 5, 2007.
  24. ^ Cf. Eric Alterman, "Wolfowitz on the Record – My Tuna Sushi Canapés with Paul...", Altercation (political blog), March 8, 2005, featured by MSNBC.com, accessed June 4, 2007; Alterman says that he takes the conversation as "on the record" because Wolfowitz did not specify that it was "off the record":

    I asked if he thought it was important that so many people associated with the ideas behind U.S. foreign policy were Straussians. He definitely demurred. Wolfowitz does not consider himself to be a Straussian. He says he does not find political philosophy all that exciting and Allan Bloom found him to be a disappointment in this regard, but a 'successful disappointment,' which appealed to Bloom. He says when he gets together with real Straussians he becomes impatient with the level of abstraction of the discussion. He does not think Strauss is in any way important to the conduct of U.S. foreign policy. is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Eric Alterman is a liberal American journalist, author, media critic, blogger, and educator, possibly best known for the political weblog named Altercation, which was hosted by MSNBC.com from 2002 until 2006, and now is hosted by Media Matters for America. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... MSNBC logo MSNBC (Microsoft & National Broadcasting Company) is a 24-hour news channel in the United States. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Allan Blooms translation and interpretation, Second edition 1991. ...

  25. ^ Clifford Orwin, "The Straussians are Coming!" The Claremont Institute, April 25, 2005, accessed June 5, 2007, as cited by King 402.
  26. ^ First King gives "A couple of examples" in order to "help convey a better sense of the pathways to power that Straussians have taken":

    For instance, while an undergraduate at Cornell, Francis Fukuyama got to know Paul Wolfowitz, who was then teaching political science at Yale, but had a link with Cornell’s Telluride House, a special honors house run by Allan Bloom where Fukuyama lived. Fukuyama later interned for Wolfowitz at the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency in the mid-1970s and then went to the State Department with him in the early Reagan years (Boynton, 2005: 1). Significantly, Wolfowitz himself completed his PhD dissertation at Chicago under defense analyst Albert Wohlstetter, who was at Chicago and fairly close to Strauss (Norton, 2004: 182–3). Though Wolfowitz took several courses with Bloom, he claims to have been more influenced by Wohlstetter and, according to historian and media critic Eric Alterman, does 'not consider himself to be a Straussian ... he becomes impatient with the high level of abstraction of the discussion. He does not think Strauss is in any way important to the conduct of American foreign policy' (Alterman, n.d.; Orwin, 2005). (401-402). Clifford Orwin is a Canadian scholar of ancient, modern, contemporary and Jewish political thought. ... The Claremont Institute is a conservative think tank based in Claremont, California. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (b. ... Allan Blooms translation and interpretation, Second edition 1991. ... Scud Missile The U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) was established as an independent agency by the Arms Control and Disarmament Act (75 Stat. ... Albert Wohlstetter (born 1913, died January 10, 1997) was a major intellectual force behind efforts to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons and the need to develop nonnuclear alternatives. ... Eric Alterman is a liberal American journalist, author, media critic, blogger, and educator, possibly best known for the political weblog named Altercation, which was hosted by MSNBC.com from 2002 until 2006, and now is hosted by Media Matters for America. ...

    Then King qualifies his citations of Alterman and Orwin, concluding:

    It is not being overly conspiratorial, then, to assume that there is a Straussian network within which figures such as Wolfowitz and Fukuyama have found their intellectual and political bearings, even as they reject this or that aspect of the Straussian view of politics and history. Indeed, Fukuyama’s vision of the end of history is far from triumphalist or celebratory. Beyond that, the influence of Wohlstetter is one that needs more emphasis if the complexities of the paths to power taken by the Straussians are to be fully measured. Finally, in assessing the influence of Strauss and the Straussians, it is best not to emphasize specific ideas deriving from them but rather the importance of a complex criss-crossing network of personal, institutional and ideological influences. Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (b. ...

    In his "Conclusion" to the article, King emphasizes further that it is important not to oversimplify complex aspects of influence on U.S. foreign policy leading to the Iraq War:

    All of this is merely suggestive rather than definitive of the case to be made for the influence of Leo Strauss, via his students and disciples, on American foreign policy. It is a long way from Strauss’s core focus on classical natural right thinking to regime change in Iraq and to a vision of the spread of democracy and American values in the Middle East. Thinking forward from any point in the past, it would have been impossible to imagine such a linkage; thinking backward from the present, certain influences and tendencies allow us to speculate with some plausibility about causal links. Beyond that, we must also ask whether the causal chain linking Strauss, the Straussians and the war in Iraq is enough to explain that policy or if it is 'only' one aspect of a more complex explanation. ... I strongly lean toward the latter. Whatever the political and moral problems with Leo Strauss’s political philosophy – and I would identify two large ones: the lack of any concept of social justice in the modern sense and the neglect of democratic political participation – Strauss can hardly be convincingly charged with providing the intellectual rationale for the (Theodore) Rooseveltian (not Wilsonian) dimension of the Bush administration’s post-9/11 foreign policy. The final irony is that, insofar as foreign policy intellectuals of the Straussian persuasion have become politicized, they manifest those negative characteristics that, as already mentioned, Strauss identified in the first decade of the Cold War – the tendency of sectarian intellectuals to oversimplify complex ideas and to pursue power and influence rather than the nature of the good. (406-407) For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... This article is about the act of overthrowing a government. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

  27. ^ Alain Frachon and Daniel Vernet, "The Strategist and the Philosopher", trans. Mark K. Jensen, orig. published in French as "Le stratège et le philosophe", Le Monde, April 15, 2003, online posting, Information Clearing House, April 15, 2003, accessed May 22, 2007; cf. "The Strategist and the Philosopher: Leo Strauss and Albert Wohlstetter", trans. (for CounterPunch) Norman Madarasz, online posting, CounterPunch, June 2, 2003, accessed May 22, 2007 (rpt. with permission): In the era of the Cold War, opposed to treaties based on the concept of MAD,

    Wohlstetter proposed on the contrary a "graduated deterrence," i.e. the acceptance of limited wars, possibly using tactical nuclear arms, together with "smart" precision-guided weapons capable of hitting the enemy's military apparatus. ... He criticized the politics of nuclear arms limitations conducted together with Moscow. It amounted, according to him, to constraining the technological creativity of the United States in order to maintain an artificial equilibrium with the USSR. Le Monde is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Counterpunch can refer to: In traditional typography, a counterpunch is a type of punch used to create the negative space in or around a character. ... Counterpunch can refer to: In traditional typography, a counterpunch is a type of punch used to create the negative space in or around a character. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...

  28. ^ a b "Profile: Paul Wolfowitz, Right Web (International Relations Center), updated April 19, 2007, accessed May 21, 2007.
  29. ^ "Biography" of Paul Wolfowitz, World Bank Group, accessed May 21, 2007; cf. official government biographical accounts.
  30. ^ Cf. the perspective of James Mann, in "Interview with James Mann", Rumsfeld's War, Frontline, Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), online posting, October 26, 2004, accessed May 22, 2007; see segment on Paul Wolfowitz (inc. audio and video links to full program first broadcast in June 2004):

    Wolfowitz has an academic background. He's different from many other members of the administration. He goes to college at Cornell, where he's one of a group of students associated with a professor named Alan Bloom [sic], who is a disciple of a very famous conservative named Leo Strauss … When he starts graduate school, he meets a University of Chicago professor who is a specialist in nuclear theory named Albert Wohlstetter, and Wolfowitz latches on to him as his mentor and does his thesis with him. It's not so much conservative theory; he's involved in strategy of nuclear weapons. That's his main interest, his involvement. Interestingly enough, when he does his doctoral dissertation, the subject is the spread of nuclear weapons in the Middle East. The International Relations Center (IRC) is a policy studies institute based in Silver City, New Mexico, United States. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... James Mann, senior writer-in-residence in the CSIS International Security Program, is the author of two books: Beijing Jeep (Simon & Schuster, 1989) and About Face: A History of Americas Curious Relationship With China From Nixon to Clinton (Knopf, 1999). ... FRONTLINE is a public affairs television program of varying length produced at WGBH in Boston, Massachusetts, and distributed through the Public Broadcasting Service network in the United States. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Cornell University is a university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ... Allan Blooms translation and interpretation, Second edition 1991. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Nuclear energy is energy released from the atomic nucleus. ... Albert Wohlstetter (born 1913, died January 10, 1997) was a major intellectual force behind efforts to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons and the need to develop nonnuclear alternatives. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

  31. ^ Kit Oldham, "Cyberpedia Library: Jackson, Henry M. 'Scoop' (1912–1983): HistoryLink.org Essay 5516", historylink.org (The Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History), August 19, 2003, accessed May 17, 2007.
  32. ^ Sam Tanenhaus, "The Hard Liner: Harvard Historian Richard Pipes Shaped the Reagan Administration's Aggressive Approach to the Soviet Union. His Support for Confrontation Over Containment Prefigured the Bush Foreign Policy of Today", The Boston Globe, November 2, 2003, accessed May 21, 2007. (Part 4 of "The Mind of the Administration").
  33. ^ a b "Profile: Richard Pipes", Right Web (International Relations Center), last updated December 12, 2003, accessed May 21, 2007.
  34. ^ Anne Hessing Cahn, the author of Killing Detente: The Right Attacks the CIA (University Park: Pennsylvania State UP, 1998), is President George W. Bush's current nominee to the Board of Directors of the United States Institute of Peace.
  35. ^ Qtd. by Jack Davis, "The Challenge of Managing Uncertainty: Paul Wolfowitz on Intelligence-Policy Relations", Studies in Intelligence 39.5 (1996): 35-42, accessed May 21, 2007. ("Jack Davis served in the Directorate of Intelligence.") [Corrected title.]
  36. ^ Tom Barry, "A History of Threat Escalation: Remembering Team B", Right Web, International Relations Center, February 12, 2004, accessed May 21, 2007. As documented by Barry,

    as Anne Hessing Cahn establishes in her history of the Team B affair [Killing Detente], some of the CIA estimates critiqued by Team B were themselves exaggerations, particularly the estimates of Soviet military spending. "With the advantage of hindsight," she explains, "we now know that Soviet military spending increases began to slow down precisely as Team B was writing about an 'intense military buildup in nuclear as well as conventional forces of all sorts, not moderated either by the West's self-imposed restraints or by the [Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)]'." "But even at the time of the affair," continues Cahn, "Team B had at its disposal sufficient information to know that the Soviet Union was in severe decline. As Soviet defectors were telling us in anguished terms that the system was collapsing, Team B looked at the quantity but not the quality of missiles, tanks, and planes, at the quantity of Soviet men under arms, but not their morale, leadership, alcoholism, or training." August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... The Boston Globe (and Boston Sunday Globe) is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and New England. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The International Relations Center (IRC) is a policy studies institute based in Silver City, New Mexico, United States. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Proposed new USIP headquarters, construction to begin 2007. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ... The International Relations Center (IRC) is a policy studies institute based in Silver City, New Mexico, United States. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ...

  37. ^ Michael Dobbs, "For Wolfowitz, a Vision May Be Realized", The Washington Post,April 7, 2003, accessed April 16, 2007.
  38. ^ "Crying Wolfowitz", The Times, March 18, 2005, accessed May 23, 2007: "Mr Wolfowitz is not a cynic about outside financial backing for developing nations. In the right circumstances, he believes it can be transforming. For that reason, perhaps, despite a caricature as a 'right-wing hawk', he has not ceased being a registered Democrat. The World Bank needs a man who can think unconventionally. Mr Wolfowitz is that person."
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h AP, "Indonesian Rights Groups Denounce Wolfowitz' World Bank Nomination", online posting, Alliance for Reform and Democracy in Asia, March 22, 2005, accessed June 20, 2007.
  40. ^ a b c d e Alan Sipress and Ellen Nakashima, "Jakarta Tenure Offers Glimpse of Wolfowitz", The Washington Post, March 28, 2005, accessed April 16, 2007.
  41. ^ a b c Paul Wolfowitz, "The Tragedy of Suharto", The Wall Street Journal, May 27, 1998, accessed April 16, 2007.
  42. ^ As qtd. in Scott Burchill, "What the West Wants from Indonesia"m Z Magazine, October 1, 2003, accessed June 7, 2007.
  43. ^ Transcript of hearing, Committee on International Relations, "U.S. Options in Confronting Iraq", February 25, 1998, accessed April 17, 2007.
  44. ^ Elliott Abrams, et al., "Statement of Principles", Project for the New American Century, June 3, 1997, accessed May 27, 2007. In addition to Abrams and Wolfowitz, other signatories are: Gary Bauer, William J. Bennett, Jeb Bush, Dick Cheney, Eliot A. Cohen, Midge Decter, Paula Dobriansky, Steve Forbes, Aaron Friedberg, Francis Fukuyama, Frank Gaffney, Fred C. Ikle, Donald Kagan, Zalmay Khalilzad, I. Lewis Libby, Norman Podhoretz, Dan Quayle, Peter W. Rodman, Stephen P. Rosen, Henry S. Rowen, Donald Rumsfeld, Vin Weber, and George Weigel.
  45. ^ Elliott Abrams, et al., "Open letter to President Bill Clinton," Project for the New American Century, January 26, 1998, accessed May 24, 2007. In addition to Abrams and Wolfowitz, signatories are: Richard L. Armitage, William J. Bennett, Jeffrey Bergner, John Bolton, Paula Dobriansky, Francis Fukuyama, Robert Kagan, Zalmay Khalilzad, William Kristol, Richard Perle, Peter W. Rodman, Donald Rumsfeld, William Schneider, Jr., Vin Weber, R. James Woolsey, and Robert B. Zoellick.
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  55. ^ Qtd. in Associated Press, "Wolfowitz Comments Revive Doubts Over Iraq's WMD", USA Today, May 30, 2003, accessed May 8, 2007.
  56. ^ a b Danny Postel, "Noble Lies and Perpetual War: Leo Strauss, the Neo-cons, and Iraq", interview with Shadia Drury, Open Democracy, October 18, 2003, rpt. in Information Clearing House, October 18, 2003, accessed May 26, 2007.
  57. ^ a b Cf. Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber, Weapons of Mass Deception: The Uses of Propaganda in Bush's War on Iraq (New York: Tarcher/Penguin, 2003).
  58. ^ Jane Arraf, "Bold, Well-executed Attack", CNN, October 26, 2003, accessed April 18, 2007.
  59. ^ "DoD Identifies Army Casualty", United States Department of Defense, October 27, 2003, accessed April 18, 2007.
  60. ^ Alan Beattie and Edward Alden, "Shareholders' dismay at lack of consultation", The Financial Times, March 16, 2005, accessed April 16, 2007.
  61. ^ Qtd. in Robert Preston, "Stiglitz Warns of Violence If Wolfowitz Goes to World Bank", The Daily Telegraph, March 20, 2005 (Registration required), rpt. in Common Dreams NewsCenter, March 20, 2005, accessed May 7, 2007. [Updated link for defunct Daily Telegraph URL.
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  63. ^ "Banking on Wolfowitz: And You Thought Iraq Was Difficult", The Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2005, accessed April 16, 2007, Review & Outlook (Past Featured Article), accessed June 8, 2007.
  64. ^ Karen DeYoung, "Wolfowitz Clashed Repeatedly With World Bank Staff: Tenure as President Has Been Rocky", The Washington Post, April 15, 2007: A12, accessed May 1, 2007.
  65. ^ a b c Nicole Gaouette, "World Bank May Target Family Planning: Repeated Absence of References to Birth Control in Internal Reports Alarms Women's Health Advocates", The Los Angeles Times, April 19, 2007, accessed May 1, 2007.
  66. ^ a b Krishna Guha, "Wolfowitz Deputy Under Fire for Climate Change", The Financial Times, April 24, 2007, updated April 25, 2007, accessed May 2, 2007.
  67. ^ John Kampfner, "The British Neo-Conservatives", The New Statesman, May 12, 2003, accessed May 28, 2007; cf. Interventionism and Liberal internationalism.
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    Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defence shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security. The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an influential international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers [2]. It was the... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... ZNet, of Z Communications, founded in 1995, is a large website updated many times daily to convey information and provide community, generally focusing on politics from a left-wing perspective. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Elliot Abrams Elliott Abrams (born January 24, 1948) is an American lawyer who has served in foreign policy positions for a number of U.S. Presidents, most recently George W. Bush. ... The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... William John Bennett (born July 31, 1943) is an American conservative pundit and politician. ... John Ellis Jeb Bush (born February 11, 1953), a Republican, is the forty-third and current Governor of Florida. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Eliot A. Cohen Eliot A. Cohen a professor at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University. ... Midge Decter (b. ... Dr. Paula J. Dobriansky (born September 14, 1955) is a neo-conservative politician, pundit, and author, and graduate of Georgetown University and Harvard University. ... Malcolm Stevenson Steve Forbes Jr. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (b. ... Frank J. Gaffney Jr. ... Dr. Fred Charles Ikle is a Distinguished Scholar with the Center for Strategic and International Studies. ... Donald Kagan (born 1932) is a Yale historian specializing in ancient Greece, notable for his four-volume history of the Peloponnesian War. ... Dr. Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad (Pashtu/Persian: ‎ ) (born 22 March 1951) is the U.S. Ambassador to Iraq. ... I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... Norman Podhoretz (born January 16, 1930) is a Jewish-American intellectual considered to be a prominent neo-conservative thinker and writer. ... James Danforth Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ... Peter W. Rodman (born November 24, 1943 in Boston). ... Stephen Peter Rosen is the Beton Michael Kaneb Professor of National Security and Military Affairs at Harvard University. ... Henry S. Rowen (October 11, 1925–) is an American politician, economist, and academician. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... John Vincent Weber, a Congressman from Minnesota; born in Slayton, Murray County, Minnesota, July 24, 1952; attended the public schools; attended the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, 1970-1974; copublisher, Murray County newspaper; president, Weber Publishing Co. ... George Weigel (Baltimore, 1951 - ) is an American conservative author, Roman Catholic theologian and political and social activist. ... Elliot Abrams Elliott Abrams (born January 24, 1948) is an American lawyer who has served in foreign policy positions for a number of U.S. Presidents, most recently George W. Bush. ... The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... William Schneider, Jr. ... John Vincent Weber, a Congressman from Minnesota; born in Slayton, Murray County, Minnesota, July 24, 1952; attended the public schools; attended the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, 1970-1974; copublisher, Murray County newspaper; president, Weber Publishing Co. ... Robert James Woolsey, Jr. ... Robert B. Zoellick Robert Bruce Zoellick (IPA: ) (born July 25, 1953) is an American politician and (effective July 1, 2007) the eleventh president of the World Bank. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Seymour Myron Sy Hersh (born April 8, 1937 Chicago) is an American Pulitzer Prize winning investigative journalist and author based in Washington, DC. He is a regular contributor to The New Yorker magazine on military and security matters. ... The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The United Jewish Communities (UJC) is an American Jewish umbrella organization representing 155 Jewish federations and 400 independent Jewish communities across North America. ... The Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) is an international news agency serving Jewish community newspapers and media around the world. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Interventionism is a term for a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy or society. ... Liberal internationalism is an american doctrine which says that the United States should support and respect more the United Nations and the other countries of the world. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

  69. ^ Tom Regan, "More Charges to Come in Pentagon Analyst Affair?", The Christian Science Monitor, May 5, 2005, accessed April 18, 2007.
  70. ^ Jerry Markon,"Defense Analyst Guilty in Israeli Espionage Case", The Washington Post, October 5, 2005, accessed May 22, 2007:

    Franklin, 58, a specialist on Iran, pleaded guilty to two conspiracy counts and a third charge of possessing classified documents … [Those guilty counts include] two counts of conspiring to communicate secret information and a third charge of keeping numerous classified documents at his West Virginia home. He said he took the documents home to keep up his expertise and prepare for "point-blank questions" from his bosses, including Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld." The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ...

  71. ^ a b Cf. Yossi Klein Halevi, "Twin Hatreds: Anti-Americanism and Anti-Semitism" and Robert Lieber, "Why Do They Hate Us and Why Do They Love Us", chap. 6 and 14, respectively, in Barry Rubin and Judith Colp Rubin, eds., Loathing America ( Herzliya, Israel: The Global Research in International Affairs [GLORIA] Center, 2004), accessed May 23, 2007. [GLORIA is part of the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) in Herzliya, Israel, which also publishes the Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA), ed. Barry Rubin.]
  72. ^ "Paul Wolfowitz, Velociraptor", The Economist, February 7, 2002, accessed April 18, 2007. (Premium content.)
  73. ^ Bret Stephens, "Man of the Year", The Jerusalem Post, Rosh Hashana 2003 (5764), accessed May 15, 2007.
  74. ^ Qtd. on Deborah Norville Tonight, MSNBC, June 3, 2004, accessed April 18, 2007.
  75. ^ Johann Hari, "In Enemy Territory? An Interview with Christopher Hitchens: Islamofascism and the Left", The Independent, September 23, 2004, accessed April 18, 2007.
  76. ^ Christopher Hitchens, "Fighting Words: A Wartime Lexicon: That Bleeding Heart Wolfowitz: He's Not Exactly Who You Think He Is", Slate, March 22, 2005, accessed May 15, 2007.
  77. ^ Bloomberg "'Passionate' Wolfowitz backed by Anwar for World Bank post", Bloomberg News, March 24, 2005, accessed May 4, 2007.
  78. ^ ETAN "E Timor welcomes Wolfowitz appointment to World Bank presidency", East Timor Action Network (ETAN), April 6, 2005, accessed May 4, 2007. At the time Ramos-Horta was the foreign minister of East Timor; he was appointed Prime Minister in July 2006.
  79. ^ Robert Calderisi, "The Worst Man in the World?", The New Statesman, May 15, 2006, accessed May 28, 2007.
  80. ^ Sebastian Mallaby, "Endgame at the World Bank", The Washington Post, May 14, 2007, Op-Ed: A15, accessed May 14, 2007.
  81. ^ David Plotz, "Paul Wolfowitz: Bush's Testosterone Man at Defense", Slate, October 12, 2001 May 7, 2007.
  82. ^ James Fallows, "The Unilateralist: A Conversation with Paul Wolfowitz", The Atlantic Monthly, March 2002, accessed May 28, 2007.
  83. ^ Cf. "U.S. Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) News Transcript" of telephone interview of Paul Wolfowitz, conducted by Sam Tanenhaus, "Presenter: Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz", press release, United States Department of Defense, May 9, 2003, accessed May 2, 2007 ["Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz Interview with Sam Tannenhaus [sic], Vanity Fair."] Cf. Tanenhaus, "Bush's Brain Trust", Vanity Fair July 2003.
  84. ^ a b See Thom Hartmann, "Hyping Terror For Fun, Profit—And Power", BBC News, December 7, 2004, rpt. in Common Dreams NewsCenter, December 7, 2004, accessed May 7, 2007.
  85. ^ "Holes Found in Wolfowitz's Style", BBC News, 31 January 2007, accessed 18 April 2007.
  86. ^ "Gift Knocks the Socks Off WB President Paul Wolfowitz", Today's Zaman, 2 February 2007, accessed 18 April 2007.
  87. ^ "The Wolfowitz Chronology: An Examination of the Presumptive World Bank President’s Works on Oil, National Security, Development, Corruption, Human Rights, and Debt" (Jan. 2001 – May 2005), Institute for Policy Studies (May 2005), accessed April 18, 2007.
  88. ^ Cf. Gore Vidal, "The Enemy Within", The Observer, October 27, 2002, Review, accessed May 7, 2007, rpt. in lawyersagainstthewar.org, accessed May 7, 2007; rpt. as "Goat Song: Unanswered Questions—Before, During, After 9/11", Dreaming War: Blood for Oil and the Cheney-Bush Junta (New York: Nation Books/Thunder's Mouth Press, 2002), ISBN 1560255021 (10), ISBN 978-1560255024 (13).
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  90. ^ Philip Sherwell, "Special 'relationship' Behind US West Asia policy", The Telegraph, August 1, 2002, accessed April 18, 2007.
  91. ^ a b Richard Leiby, "Reliable Source: What Will the Neighbors Say?", The Washington Post, March 22, 2007, C-03, accessed May 1, 2007.
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  95. ^ "Ethics Committee Case No 2 and President Papers"PDF , World Bank, worldbank.org, "strictly confidential" documents posted online at bicusa.org, April 12, 2007, accessed April 14, 2007.
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  98. ^ Richard Behar. "World Bank Launches Internal Probe to Root Out Leakers", Fox News, 2007-02-08. Retrieved on 2007-05-14. 
  99. ^ Reuters, "World Bank Launches Probe Into Leak of Confidential Documents to FOXNews.com", Fox News April 11, 2007, accessed May 16, 2007.
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  101. ^ Jeff Powell, online posting, Text of memorandum by Ana Palacio, worldbankpresident.org (self-published website), April 25, 2007, accessed May 14, 2007. ["Responding to our request yesterday about clarification of the mandate of the investigation into Bank leaks, we received the following: 'Updated Message from Ana Palacio, Sr. VP and Group General Counsel *Date: *April 11, 2007—12:43 *Sponsor: *Legal Department.'"]
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  108. ^ Reuters, "Wolfowitz Rejects World Bank Ethics Ruling": Bank Committee Determines That President Violated Ethics Standards Over His Girlfriend's Promotion; Wolfowitz Calls Findings 'unbalanced' and 'flawed'", online posting, CNNMoney.com ("The Internet home of Fortune, Money, Business 2.0"), May 15, 2007, accessed May 16, 2007.
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  110. ^ Michael Hirsh, "With the Best of Intentions", Newsweek, May 21, 2007, accessed May 12, 2007.
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  112. ^ Jeannine Aversa (Associated Press), "White House: Give Wolfowitz Fair Hearing", The Guardian, May 10, 2007, accessed May 9, 2007; "Markets: Bush Expresses Regret Over Wolfowitz", The Houston Chronicle, May 17, 2007, accessed May 17, 2007.
  113. ^ Steven R. Weisman, "'Second Chance' at Career Goes Sour for Wolfowitz", New York Times, May 18, 2007, accessed May 18, 2007.
  114. ^ Al Kamen, "EEOC Is Moving On … Wolfowitz the 'Visionary'", The Washington Post, April 27, 2007: A21, accessed May 8, 2007. [According to the publisher's website, linked in its subscriber e-mail announcement of June 13, 2007, the book was released on May 30, 2007.]
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Paul Wolfowitz

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Opposition to United States foreign policy. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews[1] as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Barry Rubin is a professor at the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) in Herzliya, Israel and the Director of the Global Research in International Affairs (GLORIA) Center of the IDC. He is also Research Director of the IDC’s Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy, and Strategy; the editor of the journal Turkish... Ben-Gūryōn Avenue in the centre of Herzliyyāh, facing north towards Sōkōlōv Street (1998) Herzliya (in Hebrew: הֶרְצְלִיָּה, without Niqqud: הרצלייה, commonly pronounced in Hebrew as Hertseliya) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip in the south of the Sharon region, just north... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... It has been suggested that Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya be merged into this article or section. ... Ben-Gūryōn Avenue in the centre of Herzliyyāh, facing north towards Sōkōlōv Street (1998) Herzliya (in Hebrew: הֶרְצְלִיָּה, without Niqqud: הרצלייה, commonly pronounced in Hebrew as Hertseliya) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip in the south of the Sharon region, just north... Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA) is a non-profit publication owned and edited by Professor Barry Rubin in conjunction with the Global Research in International Affairs Center (GLORIA) of the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) in Herzliya, Israel. ... Barry Rubin is a professor at the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) in Herzliya, Israel and the Director of the Global Research in International Affairs (GLORIA) Center of the IDC. He is also Research Director of the IDC’s Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy, and Strategy; the editor of the journal Turkish... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... MSNBC, a combination of MSN and NBC, is a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States and Canada, and a news website. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is an Anglo-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Bloomberg Television is a cable television network that broadcasts business and financial news 24 hours a day. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Rik Mayall as Alan Bstard in The New Statesman The New Statesman was an award-winning British sitcom of the late 1980s and early 1990s satirising the Conservative government of the time. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... James Fallows is an American print and radio journalist who has been associated with The Atlantic Monthly for many years and has written eight books. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Sam Tanenhaus (born October 31, 1955) is an American author, historian and biographer. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Common Dreams NewsCenter, according to its website, is based in Portland, Maine, and was founded in 1997. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Todays Zaman is a major Turkish daily newspaper. ... Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) is an American lobby for progressive or leftist causes based in Washington, DC. The organization was founded in 1963 with a stated mandate to provide an independent center of research and education on public policy problems in Washington. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced , occasionally , , etc) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an influential international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers [2]. It was the... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an influential international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers [2]. It was the... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Bloomberg Television is a cable television network that broadcasts business and financial news 24 hours a day. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems, in 1993, for document exchange. ... ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Richard Behar is an investigative journalist who has written on the staffs of leading magazines including Forbes, Time and Fortune over a twenty-two year period from 1982-2004. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Richard Behar is an investigative journalist who has written on the staffs of leading magazines including Forbes, Time and Fortune over a twenty-two year period from 1982-2004. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Financial Times (FT) is an international business newspaper printed on distinctive salmon pink broadsheet paper. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Richard Behar is an investigative journalist who has written on the staffs of leading magazines including Forbes, Time and Fortune over a twenty-two year period from 1982-2004. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Fortune magazine is Americas second longest-running business magazine after Forbes magazine. ... Money is a Time Warner financial magazine. ... cover Business 2. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Houston Chronicle is a daily newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Bibliography

Official biographical accounts
  • "Biography: Paul Wolfowitz: President, The World Bank Group", at web.worldbank.org (World Bank Group). Accessed May 4, 2007.
  • "Paul Wolfowitz—Department of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Defense". Search result in obsolete directory of "The President and His Leadership Team". Accessed May 4, 2007.
  • "Paul Wolfowitz, Deputy Secretary of Defense"—Archived biography at the United States Department of Defense. Last updated: March 16, 2005. Accessed May 2, 2007.
Other biographical accounts
Recent commentaries and speeches by Wolfowitz
Interviews
Other related sources
  • Brooks, David. "Giving Wolfowitz His Due". The New York Times, March 8, 2005, Op-Ed. (TimesSelect subscription required.)
  • "Challenges for Wolfowitz and the World Bank". Center for Global Development.
  • Churcher, Sharon, and Annette Witheridge. "Will a British Divorcee Cost 'Wolfie' His Job?" The Daily Mail, March 20, 2005. (About reaction to Wolfowitz's nomination to head the World Bank.)
  • Davis, Jack. "Paul Wolfowitz on Intelligence Policy-Relations", Studies in Intelligence, 39.5 (1996).
  • England, Phil. "Blair's Wars". Variant 2.21 (Winter 2004): 23-25. (Book rev. of John Kampfner, Blair's Wars.)
  • Goldenberg, Suzanne. "Bush Nominates Wolfowitz for World Bank". The Guardian, March 17, 2005.
  • "FACTBOX: Paul Wolfowitz's Turbulent Career". Inc. video clip: "The Update: Wolfowitz Resigns". Reuters (UK), May 18, 2007. Accessed May 18, 2007.
  • Gordon, Michael R., and Bernard E.. "Snowflakes from the Secretary". Excerpt from Chapter One of Cobra II: The Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq. New York: Random House, 2006. ISBN 0-375-42262-5 (10). ISBN 978-0-375-42262-1 (13).
  • Hersh, Seymour M. "Annals of National Security Selective Intelligence: Donald Rumsfeld Has His Own Special Sources. Are They Reliable?" The New Yorker, May 26, 2003. Accessed May 8, 2007. (6 pages.)
  • Hirsh, Michael. "With the Best of Intentions". Newsweek, May 21, 2007. Accessed May 26, 2007. (2 pages.)
  • Hughes, John. "A World Better Off with Wolfowitz at Bank Helm". The Christian Science Monitor, May 18, 2005. (Discusses Wolfowitz's personal character.)
  • Kampfner, John. "The Anatomy of a Propaganda War". The New Statesman, Politics, March 31, 2003. Accessed May 19, 2007. (Inc. link to: archive of articles by John Kampfner in the New Statesman.)
  • –––. Blair's Wars. London: Free Press, 2004. ISBN 0743248295 (10). ISBN 978-0743248297 (13). (See book rev. by Phil England.)
  • Lekic, Slobodan (The Associated Press). "Indonesia Rights Groups Decry Wolfowitz". ABC News, March 22, 2005. Cf. "Indonesia Rights Groups Decry Wolfowitz". Kabar-indonesia Indo News, March 22, 2005. Accessed April 16, 2007. (Defunct links.) See High Beam Research for alternative access. Accessed May 8, 2007.
  • Macewan, Arthur. "New Man at the World Bank: Wolfowitz at the World Bank". Dollars & Sense (archives), May 5, 2005. Accessed May 8, 2007.
  • Mallaby, Sebastian. "Endgame at the World Bank". The Washington Post, May 14, 2007, Op-Ed: A15. Accessed May 14, 2007.
  • Milbank, Dana. "Intelligence Design and the Architecture of War". Washington Post, December 8, 2005.
  • "Paul Wolfowitz" at The Huffington Post. News updates. Last accessed May 18, 2007.
  • Paul Wolfowitz's political donations listed by Newsmeat. Accessed May 5, 2007.
  • Purdum, Todd S. "The World Bank Nominee; Bush Makes His Mark". The New York Times, March 17, 2005. (TimesSelect subscription required.)
  • Rampton, Sheldon and John Stauber. Weapons of Mass Deception: The Uses of Propaganda in Bush's War on Iraq. New York: Tarcher/Penguin, 2003. ISBN 1-58542-276-2. London: Constable & Robinson, 2003. ISBN 1-84119-837-4. Sidney: Hodder Headline Australia, 2003. ISBN 0-73361-812-X.
  • Sipress, Alan, and Ellen Nakashima. "Jakarta Tenure Offers Glimpse of Wolfowitz". The Washington Post, March 28, 2005. (On Wolfowitz's tenure as Ambassador to Indonesia.)
  • "TimesTopics: Paul D. Wolfowitz". The New York Times News Archive. Updated to inc. "Timeline: World Bank Controversy". (Some articles require TimesSelect subscription for full access; others provide free full access.) Accessed May 18, 2007.
  • Vidal, Gore. "The Enemy Within". The Observer, October 27, 2002, Review. Rpt. in lawyersagainstthewar.org, accessed May 7, 2007. Rpt. as "Goat Song: Unanswered Questions—Before, During, After 9/11". Dreaming War: Blood for Oil and the Cheney-Bush Junta. New York: Nation Books/Thunder's Mouth Press, 2002. ISBN 1560255021 (10). ISBN 978-1560255024 (13).
  • "The War Behind Closed Doors". Frontline. Public Broadcasting Service. Online posting. www.pbs.org, February 20, 2003.
  • "Wolfowitz Watch". Bank Information Center, bicusa.org, May 7, 2007. Accessed May 8, 2007. ("BIC has specifically dedicated this webpage to monitoring Paul Wolfowitz’s presidency. The page is intended to inform individuals, civil society organizations and the media, by providing facts and linking to analysis on President Wolfowitz's appointments, speeches and travel schedule. BIC’s intention is to help the public both monitor President Wolfowitz's decisions and interpret their significance." Cf. Key Issues.)
  • Woodward, Bob. Bush at War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002. ISBN 0743204735 (10). ISBN 978-0743204736 (13).
  • –––. Plan of Attack. 2nd ed. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 074325547X (10). ISBN 978-0743255479 (13).
  • –––. State of Denial: Bush at War, Part III. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006. ISBN 0743272234 (10). ISBN 978-0743272230 (13).
Additional related official external links
  • "Communication from the Executive Directors of the World Bank Group". Online posting. World Bank Group, web.worldbank.org, May 1, 2007. Accessed May 5, 2007.
  • "Compensation of the President, Executive Directors and Alternates, Management and Staff". World Bank Annual Report 2005. Accessed May 8, 2007.
  • Wolfowitz, Paul. "Statement by Paul Wolfowitz, President of the World Bank Group WB/IMF Spring Meetings 2007". Online posting. World Bank Group, Worldbank.org, April 12, 2007. Accessed May 1, 2007. (Video and audio links.)
Preceded by
Anthony Lake
United States Department of State
Director of Policy Planning

1981–1982
Succeeded by
Stephen W. Bosworth
Preceded by
John H. Holdridge
Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs
1982–1986
Succeeded by
Gaston J. Sigur, Jr.
Preceded by
John H. Holdridge
United States Ambassador
to the Republic of Indonesia

1986–1989
Succeeded by
John C. Monjo
Preceded by
Fred Ikle
United States Department of Defense
Under Secretary of Defense for Policy

1989–1993
Succeeded by
Walter B. Slocombe
Preceded by
George Packard
Dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies
1993–2001
Succeeded by
Jessica Einhorn
Preceded by
Rudy deLeon
United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
2001–2005
Succeeded by
Gordon R. England
Preceded by
James Wolfensohn
President of the World Bank
2005–2007
Succeeded by
Robert Zoellick
Persondata
NAME Wolfowitz, Paul Dundes
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 10th President of the World Bank, Deputy Secretary of Defense in the administration of President George W. Bush
DATE OF BIRTH December 22, 1943
PLACE OF BIRTH Brooklyn, New York, USA
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Online NewsHour -- Newsmaker: Paul Wolfowitz -- March 18, 2004 (3316 words)
PAUL WOLFOWITZ: Not to my knowledge, but we obviously are -- work closely with the Pakistanis on the intelligence side, and we are in a broader sense trying to help repair a relationship with Pakistan in the military area that really suffered badly over the last 20 years.
PAUL WOLFOWITZ: I wouldn't deny that there's a certain problem, Jim, but I think what would be more helpful instead of implying that intelligence can be perfect, and if it's not perfect there's a credibility problem, and if there's a credibility problem someone was misled, that's the line that we're going down.
PAUL WOLFOWITZ: I guess the point that is important to understand and I and my colleagues I think may have been a little slow to understand it, this is a war of intelligence.
Paul Dundes Wolfowitz - dKosopedia (3301 words)
Paul Wolfowitz was one of the exceptions and would become one of the standard-bearers for neoconservatism in the administration as Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.
Wolfowitz dismissed Army Chief of Staff Gen. Eric Shinseki’s prediction that “several hundred thousand” troops would be required to stabilize post-war Iraq as “wildly off the mark.” Furthermore, he neglected to consult with James Dobbins who oversaw reconstruction in Bosnia and Kosovo.
Paul Wolfowitz has been instrumental in giving US foreign policy a neoconservative slant; thereby, he shares responsibility for the negative consequences of that foreign policy especially as it relates to the political, economic, military, and human costs of the Second Gulf War.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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