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Encyclopedia > Paul Verlaine
Paul Verlaine
Paul Verlaine
French literature
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Paul-Marie Verlaine (IPA: [vɛʁ'lɛn]; March 30, 1844January 8, 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the fin de siècle in international and French poetry. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... La mort du fossoyeur (The death of the gravedigger) by Carlos Schwabe is a visual compendium of Symbolist motifs. ... Fin de siècle is French for end of the century. The term turn-of-the-century is sometimes used as a synonym, but is more neutral (lacking some or most of the connotations described below), and can include the first years of a new century. ... French poetry is a category of French literature. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Born in Metz, he was educated at lycée in Paris and then took up a post in the civil service. He began writing poetry at an early age, and was initially influenced by the Parnassien movement and its leader, Charles Leconte de Lisle. Verlaine's first published collection, Poèmes saturniens (1866),[1] though adversely commented upon by Sainte-Beuve, established him as a poet of promise and originality. City flag City coat of arms Motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) Cathedral St. ... In France, secondary education is divided into two schools: the collège (IPA: ) (somewhat comparable to U.S. junior high school) for the first four years directly following primary school; the lycée (IPA: ) (comparable to a U.S. high school) for the next three years. ... It has been suggested that List of visitor attractions in Paris be merged into this article or section. ... The Byzantine civil service in action. ... ... Charles-Marie-René Leconte de Lisle (October 22, 1818 - July 17, 1894), was a French poet of the Parnassian movement. ... Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve. ...


Marriage and military service

Verlaine's private life spills over into his work, beginning with his love for Mathilde Mauté. Mauté became Verlaine's wife in 1870. At the proclamation of the Third Republic in the same year, Verlaine joined the 160th battalion of the Garde nationale, turning Communard on March 18, 1871. The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Founded in Paris after the fall of the Bastille in July 1789, the National Guard passed from the historical stage in the wake of the destruction of the Paris Commune in May 1871. ... Communards killed in 1871. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


He became head of the press bureau of the Central Committee of the Paris Commune. Verlaine escaped the deadly street fighting known as the Bloody Week, or Semaine Sanglante, and went into hiding at Pas-de-Calais. Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of...


Imprisonment

Verlaine returned to Paris in August 1871, and, in September, he received the first love letter from the poet Arthur Rimbaud. By 1872, he had lost interest in Mathilde, and effectively abandoned her and their son, preferring the company of his new lover.[1] Rimbaud and Verlaine's stormy love affair took them to London in 1872, and in July 1873 he shot Rimbaud in the hand in a drunken, jealous rage. As an indirect result of this incident, he was arrested and imprisoned at Mons, where he underwent a conversion to Roman Catholicism, which again influenced his work and provoked Rimbaud's sharp criticism. Romances sans paroles was the poetic outcome of this period. Rimbaud redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Hainaut Arrondissement Mons Coordinates , , Area 146. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ...


Following his release from prison, Verlaine again traveled to England, where he worked for some years as a teacher and produced another successful collection, Sagesse. He returned to France in 1877 and, while teaching English at a school in Rethel, became infatuated with one of his pupils, Lucien Létinois, who inspired Verlaine to write further poems. Verlaine was devastated when the boy died of typhus in 1883. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Rethel is a commune of northeastern France, in the Ardennes département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Final years

Verlaine's last years witnessed a descent into drug addiction, alcoholism, and poverty. He lived in slums and public hospitals, and spent his days drinking absinthe in Paris cafes. Fortunately, the French people's love of the arts was able to resurrect support and bring in an income for Verlaine: his early poetry was rediscovered, his lifestyle and strange behavior in front of crowds attracted admiration, and in 1894 he was elected France's "Prince of Poets" by his peers. His poetry was admired and recognized as ground-breaking, serving as a source of inspiration to famous composers, such as Gabriel Fauré, who set many of his poems to music, including La bonne chanson, and Claude Debussy, who set five of the Fêtes galantes poems to music, forming part of the mélodie collection known as the Recueil Vasnier.[2] Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Gabriel Urbain Fauré (May 12, 1845 – November 4, 1924) was a French composer, organist, pianist, and teacher. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Mélodie refers to French art songs of the mid 19th century to today; it is the French equivalent of the German Lied. ...


Paul Verlaine died in Paris at the age of 52 on January 8, 1896., and was interred in the Cimetière de Batignolles. The Cimetière des Batignolles is a cemetery in Paris. ...


Style

Verlaine in a café
Verlaine in a café

Much of the French poetry produced during the fin de siècle was characterized as "decadent" for its lurid content or moral vision. In a similar vein, Verlaine used the expression poète maudit ("accursed poet") in 1884 to refer to a number of poets like Stéphane Mallarmé and Arthur Rimbaud who had fought against poetic conventions and suffered social rebuke or were ignored by the critics. But with the publication of Jean Moréas' Symbolist Manifesto in 1886, it was the term symbolism which was most often applied to the new literary environment. Along with Verlaine, Mallarmé, Rimbaud, Paul Valéry, Albert Samain and many others began to be referred to as "Symbolists". These poets would often share themes that parallel Schopenhauer's aesthetics and notions of will, fatality and unconscious forces, and used themes of sex (such as prostitutes), the city, irrational phenomena (delirium, dreams, narcotics, alcohol), and sometimes a vaguely medieval setting. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1452x979, 264 KB) Paul Verlaine, photographed by Dornac Source: scanned myself Musée Carnavalet, Paris File links The following pages link to this file: Paul Verlaine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1452x979, 264 KB) Paul Verlaine, photographed by Dornac Source: scanned myself Musée Carnavalet, Paris File links The following pages link to this file: Paul Verlaine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... French poetry is a category of French literature. ... Fin de siècle is French for end of the century. The term turn-of-the-century is sometimes used as a synonym, but is more neutral (lacking some or most of the connotations described below), and can include the first years of a new century. ... In 19th century European and especially French literature, decadence was the name given, first by hostile critics, and then triumphantly adopted by some writers themselves, to a number of late nineteenth century fin de siècle writers who were associated with Symbolism or the Aesthetic movement and who relished artifice... A poète maudit (French: accursed poet) is a poet living a life outside or against society. ... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Jean Moréas (April 15, 1856 - April 30, 1910), born Iannis Papadiamontopolos, was a Greek poet who wrote in the French language. ... For other people of the same name, see Valery. ... Albert Samain (1858-1900) was a French poet and writer of the Symbolist school. ... Arthur Schopenhauers aesthetics flow from his doctrine of the primacy of the Will as the thing in itself, the ground of life and all being; and from his judgment that the Will is evil. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Whore redirects here. ... This article is about the mental state and medical condition. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


In poetry, the symbolist procedure - as typified by Verlaine - was to use subtle suggestion instead of precise statement (rhetoric was banned) and to evoke moods and feelings through the magic of words and repeated sounds and the cadence of verse (musicality) and metrical innovation. Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of spoken language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Meter (British English spelling: metre) describes the linguistic sound patterns of a verse. ...


Portrayals

Rimbaud as drawn by Verlaine
Rimbaud as drawn by Verlaine

Numerous artists painted Verlaine's portrait. Among the most illustrious were Henri Fantin-Latour, Antonio de la Gándara, Eugène Carrière, Frédéric Cazalis, and Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Self Portrait by Henri Fantin-Latour (1859), at the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Grenoble Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Henri Fantin-Latour Henri Fantin-Latour (January 14, 1836 - August 25, 1904) was a French painter and lithographer. ... Antonio de La Gandara Antonio de La Gandara (December 16, 1861 - June 30, 1917) was a painter, pastellist and draughtsman. ... Eugène Anatole Carrière (1849-1906) was a French Symbolist, Fin de siècle artist. ... Théophile Alexandre Steinlen, born November 10, 1859 – died December 13, 1923, was a Swiss-born French Art Nouveau painter and printmaker. ...


The life of Verlaine and Rimbaud was the subject of the 1995 film Total Eclipse, directed by Agnieszka Holland and with a screenplay by Christopher Hampton, based on his play. Verlaine was portrayed by David Thewlis. Total Eclipse is a 1995 movie directed by Agnieszka Holland that depicts a fictionalized account of the passionate and violent homosexual relationship between the two 19th century French poets, Paul Verlaine (David Thewlis) and Arthur Rimbaud (Leonardo DiCaprio), a time when both of them experienced a height of creativity. ... Agnieszka Holland (born November 28, 1948 in Warsaw, Poland) is a film and TV director and screenplay writer. ... Christopher Hampton (born January 26, 1946) is a British playwright, screen writer and film director. ... David Thewlis in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. ...


Works

Verlaine's Complete Works are available in critical editions from the Bibliothèque de la Pléiade. Cover of the edition of the works of C.F. Ramuz in Bibliothèque de la Pléiade The Bibliothèque de la Pléiade is a prestigious French collection of books which has been created in the thirties by Gallimard under the impulsion of André Gide. ...

  • Poèmes saturniens (1866)
  • Les Amies (1867)
  • Fêtes galantes (1869)
  • La Bonne chanson (1870)
  • Romances sans paroles (1874)
  • Sagesse (1880)
  • Les Poètes maudits (1884)
  • Jadis et naguère (1884)
  • Amour (1888)
  • Parallèlement (1889)
  • Dédicaces (1890)
  • Femmes (1890)
  • Hombres (1891)
  • Bonheur (1891)
  • Mes hôpitaux (1891)
  • Chansons pour elle (1891)
  • Liturgies intimes (1892)
  • Mes prisons (1893)
  • Élégies (1893)
  • Odes en son honneur (1893)
  • Dans les limbes (1894)
  • Épigrammes (1894)
  • Confessions (1895)

Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of , 1902 Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets. ... Fête Galante is a French term referring to some of the celebrated pursuits of the idle, rich aristocrats in the 18th century -- from 1715 until the 1770s. ... Sagesse (literal trans. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Paul Verlaine. Litweb.net. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  2. ^ Rolf, Marie. Page 7 of liner notes to Forgotten Songs by Claude Debussy, with Dawn Upshaw and James Levine, Sony SK 67190.
  • Paul Verlaine, Correspondance générale : [Vol.] I, 1857-1885 (edited and annotated by Michael Pakenham). Paris : Fayard, 2005. 16 x 24 cm. 1,122 pages. ISBN 2-213-61950-6

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Dawn Upshaw (born July 17, 1960 in Nashville, Tennessee), is an American soprano. ... James Levine (born June 23, 1943 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American orchestral pianist and conductor and most well known as the music director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ...

External links

Wikisource
French Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Paul Verlaine
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Paul Verlaine
  • Works by Paul Verlaine at Project Gutenberg
  • Works by Paul Verlaine at Poésie française

  Results from FactBites:
 
Paul Verlaine - definition of Paul Verlaine in Encyclopedia (389 words)
Paul Verlaine (March 30, 1844 - January 8, 1896) is one of the greatest and most popular of French poets.
Verlaine was a heavy drinker, and shot Rimbaud in a jealous rage, fortunately not killing him.
On his death in 1896, Paul Verlaine was interred in the Cimetière des Batignolles in Paris.
Paul Verlaine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (487 words)
Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of Oeuvres complètes de Paul Verlaine, Vol.
Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets.
Verlaine's poetry was also popular with musicians, such as Gabriel Fauré, who set several of his poems to music, including La bonne chanson.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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