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Encyclopedia > Paul V. McNutt
Paul V. McNutt in his Washington office, 1941.
Paul V. McNutt in his Washington office, 1941.

Paul Vories McNutt (July 19, 1891 - March 24, 1955) was an American politician who served as governor of Indiana, high commissioner of the Philippines, administrator of the Federal Security Agency, chairman of the War Manpower Commission and ambassador to the Philippines. This image was cropped from a larger photo of Paul V. McNutt, former governor of Indiana, who headed the Federal Security Agency and the War Manpower Commission. ... This image was cropped from a larger photo of Paul V. McNutt, former governor of Indiana, who headed the Federal Security Agency and the War Manpower Commission. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 1891 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A governor is also a device that regulates the speed of a machine. ... State nickname: The Hoosier State Official languages English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Governor Mitch Daniels (R) Senators Richard Lugar (R) Evan Bayh (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 38th 94,321 km² 1. ... High Commissioner of the Philippines was the title of the personal representative of the President of the United States to the Commonwealth of the Philippines during the period 1935-1946. ... The War Manpower Commission was a committee formed in April 1942, which governed the mobilization of the United States military. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ...

Contents


Early years

Born in Franklin, Indiana, McNutt was the only child of John C. McNutt and Ruth McNeely McNutt. He grew up in Indianapolis where his father had become librarian of the Indiana Supreme Court and in Martinsville where his father later practiced law. In 1909, McNutt entered Indiana University where he was active in campus politics, acted in student theater productions and was a close friend of Wendell Willkie, future Republican candidate for president of the United States who, like McNutt, was then a Democrat. Franklin is a city located in Johnson County, Indiana. ... Nickname: Circle City, Indy, Naptown Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: http://www. ... The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A librarian is a person who develops procedures for organizing information and provides services that assist and instruct people in the most efficient ways to identify and access any needed information or information resource (article, book, magazine, etc. ... Martinsville is a city located in Morgan County, Indiana. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Indiana University Bloomington is the principal campus of the Indiana University system. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer, born in Elwood, Indiana, the only native of Indiana to be nominated as the presidential candidate for a national party, having never held any sort of high elected office. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Democratic Party. ... The President of the United States (unofficially abbreviated “POTUS”) is the head of state of the United States. ... The Democratic Party, which traces its heritage back to 1792, is the longest-standing political party in the world (unless one considers the British Conservative Party to be an extension of the much older Tories). ...


After graduating from Indiana in 1913, McNutt went to Harvard Law School, taking an extracurricular job as a United Press reporter and sports writer. McNutt took his law degree from Harvard in 1916, then returned to Martinsville to be narrowly defeated in a race for Morgan County prosecutor. The following year he took a job as assistant professor at the Indiana University School of Law, but quit to enlist in the army when the United States entered World War I. 1913 (MCMXIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Harvard Law School (HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. United Press International (UPI) is a global news agency headquartered in the United States filing news in English, Spanish and Arabic. ... A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... Morgan County is a county located in the state of Indiana. ... The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system. ... A professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) (prof for short) is a senior teacher, lecturer and researcher, usually in a college or university. ... US Army Seal HHC, US Army Distinctive Unit Insignia The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces that has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Clockwise from top: Trenches in frontline, a British Mark I Tank crossing a trench, the Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the battle of the Dardanelles, a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks and a Sopwith Camel biplane. ...


Although McNutt became a major in the field artillery, he spent the war at bases in Texas and South Carolina. While in Texas, he met and married his wife Kathleen Timolat McNutt. He left active service in 1919, but later became a full colonel in the reserves. Major is a military rank denoting an officer of mid-level command status. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... ... State nickname: Palmetto State Official languages English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Governor Mark Sanford (R) Senators Lindsey Graham (R) Jim DeMint (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 6 Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012,012 51. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Colonel is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ...


After leaving military service, McNutt returned to his law school teaching job, becoming a full professor in 1920 and then, in 1925, the youngest dean in the school's history. He skillfully used both his university connections and his wartime experience to launch his political career. As law school dean, he forcefully attacked pacifists and opponents of compulsory military training on college campuses. In 1927, he was elected commander of the Indiana department of the American Legion, an influential veterans' organization, and spoke frequently throughout the state. In 1928, he decided that a run for governor would be too risky with the Catholic Al Smith likely to be the Democratic nominee for president. Instead, McNutt sought and won the post of national commander of the American Legion. In 1932, Indiana's Democrats nominated him for governor. He won easily, swept along in that year's national Democratic landslide led by Franklin D. Roosevelt. 1920 (MCMXX) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... In an educational setting, a dean is a person with significant authority . ... Look up Career in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A career is traditionally seen as a course of successive situations that make up a persons worklife. ... Pacifism is opposition to war. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Insignia of a United States Navy Commander Commander is a military rank used in many navies but not generally in armies or air forces. ... The American Legion is a organization of veterans of the United States armed forces who served in wartime, seen by many to be conservative. ... A veteran refers to a person who is experienced in a particular area, particularly referring to people in the armed forces. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Al Smith waves to crowds, 1928 Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, a leading Catholic, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) is a leap year starting on Friday. ... In politics, a landslide victory (or just a landslide) is the victory of a candidate or political party by an overwhelming majority in an election. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States (1933-1945), is best known for his leading the U.S. through the Great Depression via his New Deal, his building a powerful political coalition, the New Deal Coalition, that dominated American politics for decades...


Governor of Indiana

McNutt was a forceful and controversial governor. With an overwhelming Democratic majority in the legislature, he reorganized state government, enacted a gross income tax, legalized beer and wine sales in anticipation of the repeal of federal prohibition, expanded welfare and relief programs and balanced the state budget. All of this nurtured McNutt's hopes that he might be nominated for president by the Democrats in 1940. A legislature is a governmental deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... A repeal is the removal or reversal of a law. ... // Legislative branch Article I of the Constitution grants all legislative powers of the federal government to the Congress, which is divided into two chambers, a Senate and a House of Representatives. ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


On the negative side, McNutt earned the reputation of an old-style machine politician by using the reorganization of state government to oust his opponents, both Republican and Democratic, from state jobs and by forcing state employees to pay two percent of their salaries to the Indiana Democratic Party. He had the legislature set up a system of exclusive franchises for beer distribution that went to his campaign contributors. He also had the legislature postpone the 1933 municipal elections, adding an extra year to the terms of local officials, a majority of whom were Democrats. A political machine is an unofficial system of political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, and behind-the-scenes control within the structure of a representative democracy. ... Meanings of franchise: Full rights of citizenship given by a country or a town, especially suffrage (political franchise) In a wider sense: any right or privilege granted by constitution or statute. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ...


Although McNutt's administration curtailed the use of court injunctions to prevent labor picketing, McNutt did not hesitate to declare martial law in eleven coal-mining counties where major violence accompanied union efforts to organize the miners. In all, McNutt called out the Indiana National Guard three times in response to labor-related violence. An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that either prohibits or compels (enjoins or restrains) a party from continuing a particular activity. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (strip mining). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Seal of the National Guard Bureau Seal of the Army National Guard Seal of the Air National Guard // Background The United States National Guard is a significant component of the United States armed forces military reserve. ...


Later career

Paul V. McNutt on the cover of Time Magazine, October 5, 1942.
Paul V. McNutt on the cover of Time Magazine, October 5, 1942.

Indiana's constitution kept McNutt from seeking re-election as governor in 1936, but he campaigned strongly for Roosevelt's re-election as president, making up for his failure to give early support to Roosevelt in 1932. In 1937, Roosevelt made him high commissioner of the Philippines, a post that McNutt thought would help him in a presidential bid in 1940 and which Roosevelt, contemplating a third term for himself, thought would effectively sideline McNutt. Image File history File links Time_Cover_Paul_V_McNutt_1942. ... Image File history File links Time_Cover_Paul_V_McNutt_1942. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


With the Philippines largely self-governing, the post of high commissioner was mostly ceremonial. Nevertheless, McNutt managed to stir controversy by appearing fussy over details of protocol. He also questioned the wisdom of giving early independence to the islands as promised in the 1934 Tydings-McDuffie Act, believing that the small country could not defend itself. In a notable humanitarian act, McNutt, in cooperation with Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon, quietly persuaded the US Department of State to allow the entry each year into the Philippines of a thousand Jewish refugees fleeing fascist regimes in Europe. The quota was raised to 1,200 in 1939. This was at a time when the refugees could not legally enter the United States itself in large numbers. A ceremony is an activity, infused with ritual significance, performed on a certain occasion. ... The word protocol derives from a Greek phrase meaning first leaf, referring to the first draft of a treaty. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Tydings-McDuffie Act or the Philippine Independence Act (Public Law 73-127) approved on March 24, 1934 is a piece of U.S. legislation which provided for the independence of the Philippines (from the United States) on July 4, 1946. ... The Commonwealth of the Philippines was the political designation of the Philippines from 1935 to 1946 when the country was a commonwealth of the United States. ... Seal of the President of the Philippines The President of the Philippines is the head of state and of the government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) was the first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... // The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי transliterated: Yehudi) is used in many ways, but generally refers to a follower of Judaism, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity; and often a combination of these attributes. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... A satellite composite image of Europe // Etymology Picture of Europa, carried away by bull-shaped Zeus. ...


McNutt left the Philippines in 1939 to become head of Roosevelt's new Federal Security Agency, an umbrella office that managed an array of New Deal programs that ranged from the Civilian Conservation Corps to Social Security. It also served as a cover agency from 1942 to 1944 for the War Research Service, a secret program to develop chemical and biological weapons. The FSA job gave McNutt high visibility, but his presidential hopes dissolved in the face of Roosevelt's determination to seek a third term. Although McNutt's name was floated as a possible vice-presidential running mate, Roosevelt apparently did not seriously consider the possibility, preferring the more liberal Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace. Ironically, Roosevelt's opponent in 1940 was McNutt's Indiana University classmate Wendell Willkie, now a Republican. 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal The New Deal is the name given to the series of programs used by Franklin Delano Roosevelt with the goal of stabilizing, reforming and stimulating the United States economy in the Great Depression. ... Civilian Conservation Corps workers restoring the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. ... Social Security in the United States is a social insurance program funded through a dedicated payroll tax. ... This article is about the year. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate the enemy. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States, the 11th Secretary of Agriculture, and the 10th Secretary of Commerce. ...


Final years

McNutt loyally supported Roosevelt in 1940 and was given added responsibilities at the FSA in managing defense-related health and safety programs. In 1942, Roosevelt appointed him chairman of the War Manpower Commission, which was charged with planning to balance the labor needs of agriculture, industry and the armed forces, but the position carried little real power. After Japan's surrender in 1945, President Harry S. Truman sent McNutt back to the Philippines for a second tour as high commissioner. Following Philippine independence on July 4, 1946, McNutt served as America's first ambassador to the islands, a post he left in 1947 to take up law practice in New York and Washington. After serving as ambassador, he also chaired the Philippine-American Trade Council, a business organization, and was a director of several firms in Manila. This article is about the year. ... The War Manpower Commission was a committee formed in April 1942, which governed the mobilization of the United States military. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-fourth Vice President (1945) and the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–53), succeeding to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The construction of the Empire State Building, 1930. ... Washington, D.C. is the capital city of the United States of America. ... Manilas President Manuel Roxas Boulevard also known as the Baywalk Manila is the capital of the Philippines. ...


McNutt died in New York City and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Arlington Cemetery Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington, Virginia, is an American military cemetery established during the American Civil War on the grounds of Robert E. Lees home. ...


External links

  • Bonnie Harris, Cantor Joseph Cysner: From Zbaszyn to Manila -- The Creation of an American Holocaust Haven, [1] describes McNutt's role in helping Jewish refugees find asylum in the Philippines.
  • Arlington National Cemetery Web Site: Paul Vories McNutt

References

  • I. George Blake, Paul V. McNutt: Portrait of a Hoosier Statesman, (Indianapolis, 1966).
  • Frank Ephraim, Escape to Manila: From Nazi Tyranny to Japanese Terror, (University of Illinois Press, 2003). ISBN 0-252-02845-7
  • John A. Garraty (ed.), Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement Five (1951-1955), (New York:Charles Scribner's Sons, 1977), pp. 459-461.
  • Stanley Karnow, In Our Image, (New York:Random House, 1989). ISBN 0-394-54975-9
Preceded by:
Harry G. Leslie
Governor of Indiana
1933-1937
Succeeded by:
M. Clifford Townsend
Preceded by:
Frank Murphy
High Commissioner of the Philippines
1937-1939
Succeeded by:
Francis B. Sayre
Preceded by:
Francis B. Sayre
High Commissioner of the Philippines
1945-1946
Succeeded by:
none


Governor Harry G. Leslie Harry Guyer Leslie (April 6, 1878 - December 10, 1937) was born of pioneer parents in West Lafayette, Indiana. ... List of Indiana Governors Jonathan Jennings Dem. ... William Francis Murphy culminated his political career as a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... High Commissioner of the Philippines was the title of the personal representative of the President of the United States to the Commonwealth of the Philippines during the period 1935-1946. ... Francis Bowes Sayre (April 30, 1885 -- March 29, 1972) was a professor at Harvard Law School. ... Francis Bowes Sayre (April 30, 1885 -- March 29, 1972) was a professor at Harvard Law School. ... High Commissioner of the Philippines was the title of the personal representative of the President of the United States to the Commonwealth of the Philippines during the period 1935-1946. ...

Governors of Indiana
Jennings | Boon | W. Hendricks | Ray | Noble | Wallace | Bigger | J. Whitcomb | Dunning | Wright | Willard | Hammond | Lane | Morton | Baker | T. Hendricks | Williams | Gray | Hovey | Chase | Matthews | Mount | Durbin | Hanly | Marshall | Ralston | Goodrich | McCray | Branch | Jackson | Leslie | McNutt | Townsend | Schricker | Gates | Schricker | Craig | Handley | Welsh | Branigin | E. Whitcomb | Bowen | Orr | Bayh | O'Bannon | Kernan | Daniels

 
 

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