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Encyclopedia > Paul Scherrer Institute

The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a multi-disciplinary research institute which belongs to the Swiss ETH-Komplex covering also the ETH Zurich and EPFL. It was established in 1988 by merging in 1960 established EIR (Eidgenössisches Institut für Reaktorforschung = Federal Institure for Reactor Research) and in 1968 established SIN (Schweizerisches Institut für Nuklearphysik = Swiss Institue for Nuclearphysics). Paul Scherrer (1890-1969) was a Swiss physicist. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ...


The PSI is a multi-disciplinary research centre for natural sciences and technology. In national and international collaboration with universities, other research institutes and industry, PSI is active in solid state physics, materials sciences, elementary particle physics, life sciences, nuclear and non-nuclear energy research, and energy-related ecology.


It is the largest Swiss national research institute with about 1,250 (year 2006) members of staff, and is the only one of its kind in Switzerland.


PSI is a User Laboratory and runs several Particle accelerators. The 590MeV Cyclotron, with its 72MeV companion pre-accelerator, is one of them. At present (2006), it delivers up to 2mA proton beam, which is the world record for such proton cyclotrons. It drives the Spallation-neutron-source complex. The latest built (in 2001) is the Synchrotron Light Source (SLS), with a 2.4GeV electron Storage-ring. It is one of the world's best in electron beam brilliance and stability. For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ... A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... In general, spallation is a process in which fragments of material are ejected from a body due to impact or stress. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Synchrotrons are now mostly used for producing monochromatic high intensity X-ray beams; here, the synchrotron is the circular track, off which the beamlines branch. ... e- redirects here. ...


The proton accelerators are also used for the proton therapy program.

Contents

Research fields

Solid-state physics, the largest branch of condensed matter physics, is the study of rigid matter, or solids. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... medicines, see Medication. ... Nuclear energy is energy released from the atomic nucleus. ... This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Proton accelerators

Injektor-1

Injektor-1
Type: Cyclotron
Magnet: H-Form
Magnet mass: 500t
Poll-plates Radius: 125cm
Poll=plates Distance: 20cm
Vakuumchamber Volume: 20m3
Energy: Variable

Injector 1 is a variable energy cyclotron built by the Dutch company Philips Gloeilampen-Fabrieken. Its one-piece magnet has an azimuthally varying magnetic field for vertical focusing even at relativistic energies. The beam energy goes up to 72 MeV for protons and 120 MeV Z2/A for ions with charge Z and mass number A. Equipped with several ion sources, Injector 1 offers a wide variety of beams ranging from protons and deuterons to light and heavy ions. Polarized beams of protons and deuterons are also available. In 1994 an ECR ion source was installed to extend its ability to accelerate heavy ions. A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ...


At present (2004) it is used mainly for low-energy experiments, OPTIS eye tumor therapy, and for the LiSoR experiment in the scope of the future Megapie project.




Injektor-2

Injektor-2
Image:Psiinj2cyc.jpg
Type: Isochronous-Cyclotron
Magnets: 4
Total Magnet mass: 760t
Accelerating elements: 4 Resonators (50 MHz)
Energy: 72MeV

The Injector 2 cyclotron has been built to replace the multiparticle variable energy Injector 1. It provides high intensity, high quality beams of 72 MeV protons to be injected into the 590 MeV Ring cyclotron. A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... A resonator is a device or part that vibrates (or oscillates) with waves. ...


The Injector 2 is itself a ring cyclotron, but with 4 sectormagnets and with an extremely low injection energy of 870 keV. The 870 keV beam comes from the Cockcroft-Walton Pre-Injector.


It was put in operation in 1984.




Ring

PSI Ring Cyclotron
Image:Psiringcyc.jpg
Type: Isochronous-Cyclotron
Magnets: 8
Total Magnet mass: 2000t
Accelerating elements: 4 (5) Cavities (50 MHz)
Energy: 590MeV

The Ring Cyclotron is a separated sector cyclotron with a fixed beam energy of 590 MeV, built by PSI and commissioned in 1974. The 72 MeV beam from either one of two injector cyclotron enters from the back of the cyclotron, is injected into an orbit in the center of the Ring, accelerated over about 220 revolutions and extracted at the full energy. A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ...


The design is based on criteria that allow operation at very high beam intensities: an open structure of four large and powerful RF-cavities providing a high acceleration voltage, and a flat-top cavity operating at the third harmonic of the accelerating RF-voltage. The resulting strong, phase-independent energy gain per revolution gives good turn separation and hence beam extraction with low beam losses. This is a mandatory condition for high current operation in a cyclotron.


Spallation Neutron Source (SINQ)

Synchrotron Light Source (SLS)

Proton Therapy Program

Since 1984 PSI operates the OPTIS facility for treatment of eye tumours. It was the first such installation in Western Europe, developed by PSI physisists. In close cooperation with the 'Hôpital Opthalmique' of the University of Lausanne by the end of 2005 more than 4400 patients have been treated at PSI with this unique method, in which a proton beam is directed accurately onto the eye tumour.


Since 1996 PSI operates also the first and only compact scanning-Gantry worldwide for proton radiation therapy of deep-seated tumours. The spot-scanning technique developed at PSI enables malignant tumours to be targeted with high precision deep inside in the body, and their growth successfully stopped, without damaging healthy tissue around the target area. By the end of 2005 262 patients have been treated at the Gantry, suffering from brain, head and neck, skull-base, spinal cord or abdominal tumours.


The excellent and promising results of patient treatment have led to the (Project Proscan) with the objectives to install a dedicated and compact superconducting proton accelerator and to develop a new Gantry (Gantry 2) with advanced 2-dimensional and fast parallel scanning features. The Gantry 2 will be implemented in 2006/2007. Superconductivity is a phenomenon occurring in certain materials at low temperatures, characterised by the complete absence of electrical resistance and the damping of the interior magnetic field (the Meissner effect. ...


The goals of these developments are to increase radiation precision of even moving tumours and to transfer the knowledge and proton therapy technology into hospital-based projects.


With the expansion of the facility, PSI will be able to strengthen the clinical research program and to treat up to 500 patients per year, including those with eye tumours.


See also

Swiss federal institues of technology and research

Budget 2008 (CHF mil.) ISO 4217 Code CHF User(s) Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Campione dItalia Inflation 1. ...

ETH Institutes

1'939,0


Institues of technology

994,0
488,0 The ETH Zurich, often called Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, is a science and technology university in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. ... The École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland. ...


Research institutes

  • PSI
  • EMPA
  • EAWAG
  • WSL

238,0
86,3
49,9
49,1

Paul Scherrer (1890-1969) was a Swiss physicist. ... Proton therapy is a kind of external beam radiotherapy where protons are directed to a tumor site. ...

External links

  • PSI Homepage
  • Proton therapy program

Coordinates: 47°32′10″N, 8°13′22″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Paul Scherrer Institute - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (820 words)
The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a multi-disciplinary research institute.
It was established in 1988 by merging in 1960 established EIR (Eidgenössisches Institut für Reaktorforschung) and in 1968 established SIN (Schweizerisches Institut für Nuklearphysik).
In national and international collaboration with universities, other research institutes and industry, PSI is active in solid state physics, materials sciences, elementary particle physics, life sciences, nuclear and non-nuclear energy research, and energy-related ecology.
ETH-Rat | Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) (104 words)
With its large experimental research facilities, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) offers the international scientific community a unique combination of complementary methods for structural research and spectroscopy.
The Institute and the users’ laboratory are known in particular for their work in the area of bio- and materials sciences, solid-state and physics research, as well as a major part of the country’s energy research.
Established in 1988 from the merger of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research and the Federal Institute for Reactor Research, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), based in Villigen, has 1,200 full-time equivalent posts and a budget of about CHF 260 million.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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