FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Paul Samuelson
Paul Samuelson

Born May 15, 1915 (1915-05-15) (age 93)
Gary, Indiana
Residence U.S.
Nationality American
Fields Economist
Institutions Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Alma mater Harvard University (Ph.D.)
University of Chicago (B.A.)
Doctoral advisor Edwin Bidwell Wilson
Doctoral students Stanley Fischer
Lawrence Klein
Robert C. Merton
Known for Mathematical economics
Economic methodology
Revealed preferences theory
International trade theory
Economic growth theory
Public goods theory
Notable awards John Bates Clark Medal (1947)
Nobel Memorial Prize (1970)

Paul Anthony Samuelson (born May 15, 1915) is an American neoclassical economist known for his contributions to many fields of economics, beginning with his general statement of the comparative statics method in his 1947 book Foundations of Economic Analysis. Samuelson was awarded the John Bates Clark Medal in 1947 and was sole recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1970, the second year of the Prize.[1] Image File history File links Paul_Samuelson. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Gary redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... Harvard redirects here. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Edwin Bidwell Wilson was a mathematician and polymath. ... Stanley Fischer, Governor of the Bank of Israel Stanley Fischer (Hebrew: סטנלי פישר) is an economist and the current Governor of the Bank of Israel. ... Lawrence Robert Klein (born September 14, 1920) is an American economist. ... Robert C. Merton (born July 31, 1944), a leading scholar in the field of finance, was one of three men who, in the early 1970s, developed the mathematics of the stock options markets. ... Mathematical economics is the sub-field of economics that explores the mathematical aspects of economic systems. ... Economic methodology is the study of scientific method in relation to economics. ... Pioneered by American economist Paul Samuelson (1915- ), revealed preference theory is a method by which it is possible to discern the best possible option on the basis of consumer behaviour. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... In economics, a public good is a good that is non-rival and non-excludable. ... The biennial John Bates Clark Medal is awarded by the American Economic Association to that American economist under the age of forty who is adjudged to have made a significant contribution to economic thought and knowledge. Named after the American Neoclassical economist John Bates Clark (1847-1938), it is considered... The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, commonly called the Nobel Prize in Economics, is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach in economics focusing on the determination of prices, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand. ... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Comparative statics is the comparison of two different equilibrium states, before and after a change in one of the variables. ... Foundations of Economic Analysis is a book by Paul A. Samuelson published in 1947 (Enlarged ed. ... The biennial John Bates Clark Medal is awarded by the American Economic Association to that American economist under the age of forty who is adjudged to have made a significant contribution to economic thought and knowledge. Named after the American Neoclassical economist John Bates Clark (1847-1938), it is considered... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, commonly called the Nobel Prize in Economics, is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Biography

Samuelson was born in Gary, Indiana on May 15, 1915. His father was a pharmacist and he was brought up in a practicing Jewish family. In 1923 Paul moved to Chicago. He studied at the University of Chicago and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1935. He then completed his Master of Arts degree in 1936, and his Doctor of Philosophy in 1941 from Harvard University. As a graduate student at Harvard, Samuelson studied economics under Joseph Schumpeter, Wassily Leontief, Gottfried Haberler, and the "American Keynes" Alvin Hansen. Gary redirects here. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Harvard redirects here. ... Joseph Alois Schumpeter (February 8, 1883 – January 8, 1950) was economist and political scientist born in Moravia. ... Wassily Leontief (August 5, 1905, Munich, Germany – February 5, 1999, New York)[1], was an economist notable for his research on how changes in one economic sector may have an effect on other sectors. ... Gottfried Haberler (1901-1995) was an economist. ... Alvin Harvey Hansen (1887-1975), at times referred to as the American Keynes, brought the 1930s Keynesian economics revolution to the United States. ...


Professional positions

  • Came to M.I.T. in 1940 as an Assistant Professor of Economics and was appointed Associate Professor in 1944.
  • Served as a staff member of the Radiation Laboratory from 1944-1945
  • Professor of International Economic Relations (part-time) at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy in 1945.
  • Professor at M.I.T. in 1947 and now an Institute Professor.
  • Guggenheim Fellow from 1948-1949.

The Cabot Intercultural Center of The Fletcher School at Tufts University The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, also called simply The Fletcher School, is the oldest graduate school of international relations in the United States. ... Institute Professor is the highest title that can be awarded to a faculty member at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ...

Memberships

The House of the Academy, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded as the Junto in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin. ... The British Academy is the United Kingdoms national academy for the humanities and the social sciences. ... The American Economic Association, or AEA, is the oldest and most important professional organization in the field of economics. ... The Econometric Society The Econometric Society, an International Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory in its Relation with Statistics and Mathematics was founded on December 29, 1930 at the Stalton Hotel in Cleveland, Ohio. ... The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an honor society which considers its mission to be fostering and recognizing excellence in undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ...

Fields of interest

As professor of economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Samuelson has worked in many fields including: “MIT” redirects here. ...

  • Welfare economics, in which he popularised the Lindahl-Bowen-Samuelson conditions (criteria for deciding whether an action will improve welfare) and demonstrated in 1950 the insufficiency of a national-income index to reveal which of two social options was uniformly outside the other's (feasible) Possibility function (Collected Scientific Papers, v. 2, ch. 77; Fischer, 1987, p. 236).
  • Public finance theory, in which he is particularly known for his work on determining the optimal allocation of resources in the presence of both public goods and private goods.
  • International economics, where he influenced the development of two important international trade models: the Balassa-Samuelson effect, and the Heckscher-Ohlin model (with the Stolper-Samuelson theorem).
  • Macroeconomics, where he devised the overlapping generations model as a way to analyze economic agents' behavior across multiple periods of time (Collected Scientific Papers, v. 1, ch. 21).
  • Consumer theory, he pioneered the Revealed Preference Theory, which is a method by which it is possible to discern the best possible option, and thus define consumer's utility functions, by observing the consumer behaviour.

Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to simultaneously determine the allocational efficiency of a macroeconomy and the income distribution associated with it. ... The Samuelson condition, authored by Paul Samuelson, is a condition for the efficient production of public goods. ... A social welfare function, in welfare economics, is a function which gives a measure of the material welfare of society, given a number of economic variables as inputs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In economics, a public good is a good that is non-rival and non-excludable. ... In economics Private good is an opposite of the public good. ... International economics is a branch of economics with two main subdisciplines international trade and international finance. ... The Balassa-Samuelson effect is either of two related things: The observation that consumer price levels in wealthier countries are systematically higher than in poorer ones (the Penn effect). An economic model predicting the above, based on the assumption that productivity or productivity growth-rates vary more by country in... The Heckscher-Ohlin model (H-O model) is a general equilibrium mathematical model of international trade, developed by Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin at the Stockholm School of Economics. ... The Stolper-Samuelson theorem is a basic theorem in trade theory. ... Circulation in macroeconomics Macroeconomics is a branch of economics that deals with the performance, structure, and behavior of a national economy as a whole. ... The overlapping generations model, abbreviated to OLG Model, is an economic model in which agents live a finite length of time, but long enough to live at least one period with the next generations of agents. ... Consumer theory is a theory of economics. ... Pioneered by American economist Paul Samuelson (1915- ), revealed preference theory is a method by which it is possible to discern the best possible option on the basis of consumer behaviour. ... Consumer behaviour is the study of how people buy, what they buy, when they buy and why they buy. ...

Publications

Samuelson's book Foundations of Economic Analysis (1947, Enlarged ed. 1983), is considered his magnum opus. It is derived from his doctoral dissertation at Harvard University, and makes use of the classical thermodynamic methods of American thermodynamicist Willard Gibbs.[2] The book proposes to: Foundations of Economic Analysis is a book by Paul A. Samuelson published in 1947 (Enlarged ed. ... Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Willard Gibbs - founder of chemical thermodynamics In thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics is the mathematical study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. ... In thermodynamics, a thermodynamicist is one who studies thermodynamic processes and phenomena, i. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American mathematical physicist who contributed much of the theoretical foundation that led to the development of chemical thermodynamics and was one of the founders of vector analysis. ...

  • examine underlying analogies between central features in theoretical and applied economics and
  • study how operationally meaningful theorems can be derived with a small number of analogous methods (p. 3),

in order to derive "a general theory of economic theories" (Samuelson, 1983, p. xxvi). The book showed how these goals could be parsimoniously and fruitfully achieved, using the language of the mathematics applied to diverse subfields of economics. The book proposes two general hypotheses as sufficient for its purposes: An operational definition is a description of something — such as a variable, term or object — in terms of the specific process or set of validation tests used to determine its presence and quantity. ...

  • maximizing behavior of agents (including consumers as to utility and business firms as to profit) and
  • economic systems (including a market and an economy) in stable equilibrium.

In the course of analysis, comparative statics, (the analysis of changes in equilibrium of the system that result from a parameter change of the system) is formalized and clearly stated. Comparative statics is the comparison of two different equilibrium states, before and after a change in one of the variables. ...


The chapter on welfare economics "attempt(s) to give a brief but fairly complete survey of the whole field of welfare economics" (Samuelson, 1947, p. 252). It also exposits on and develops what became commonly called the Bergson-Samuelson social welfare function. It shows how to represent (in the maximization calculus) all real-valued economic measures of any belief system that is required to rank consistently different feasible social configurations in an ethical sense as "better than," "worse than," or "indifferent to" each other (p. 221). Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to simultaneously determine the allocational efficiency of a macroeconomy and the income distribution associated with it. ... Abram Bergson, born Abram Burk (April 21, 1914, New York City - April 23, 2003), was an American economist. ... A social welfare function, in welfare economics, is a function which gives a measure of the material welfare of society, given a number of economic variables as inputs. ...


There are 388 papers to date in Samuelson's Collected Scientific Papers. Stanley Fischer (1987, p. 234) writes that taken together they are unique in their verve, breadth of economic and general knowledge, mastery of setting, and generosity of allusions to predecessors. Stanley Fischer, Governor of the Bank of Israel Stanley Fischer (Hebrew: סטנלי פישר) is an economist and the current Governor of the Bank of Israel. ...


Samuelson is also author (and since 1985 co-author) of an influential principles textbook, Economics, first published in 1948, now in its 18th edition.[3] The book has been translated into forty-one languages and sold over four million copies. Economics is a textbook by American economists Paul Samuelson and William Nordhaus. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


He is editor of Inside the Economist's Mind: Conversations with Eminent Economists (Blackwell Publishing, 2007), along with William A. Barnett, a collection of candid interviews with top economists of the 20th century.


Impact

Along with Kenneth Arrow, Samuelson is considered one of the founders of modern neoclassical economics. The following is an excerpt on the reasons for awarding him the Nobel Prize: Kenneth Joseph Arrow (born August 23, 1921) is an American economist, joint winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics with John Hicks in 1972, and the youngest person ever to receive this award, at 51. ... Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach (a metatheory) to economics based on supply and demand which depends on individuals (or any economic agent) operating rationally, each seeking to maximize their individual utility or profit by making choices based on available information. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ...

More than any other contemporary economist, Samuelson has helped to raise the general analytical and methodological level in economic science. He has simply rewritten considerable parts of economic theory. He has also shown the fundamental unity of both the problems and analytical techniques in economics, partly by a systematic application of the methodology of maximization for a broad set of problems. This means that Samuelson's contributions range over a large number of different fields.

He was also essential to creating the Neoclassical synthesis, which incorporates Keynesian principles with neoclassical principles and dominates current mainstream economics. In 2003, Samuelson was one of the 10 Nobel Prize winning economists signing the Economists' statement opposing the Bush tax cuts.[4] Keynesian economics (pronounced kainzian, IPA ), also called Keynesianism, or Keynesian Theory, is an economic theory based on the ideas of the 20th-century British economist John Maynard Keynes. ... Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach (a metatheory) to economics based on supply and demand which depends on individuals (or any economic agent) operating rationally, each seeking to maximize their individual utility or profit by making choices based on available information. ... Mainstream economics is the term used to distinguish the economics profession in general from advocates of various heterodox schools, including Austrian economics and Marxian economics. ...


Thermodynamics and economics

Samuelson was one of the first economists to generalize and apply mathematical methods developed for the study of thermodynamics to economics. As a graduate student at Harvard, he was the sole protegé of the polymath Edwin Bidwell Wilson, who had himself been the sole protegé of Yale's great physicist Willard Gibbs.[5] Gibbs, the founder of chemical thermodynamics, was also mentor to American economist Irving Fisher and he influenced them both in their ideas on the equilibrium of economic systems.[6][7] Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Edwin Bidwell Wilson was a mathematician and polymath. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American mathematical physicist who contributed much of the theoretical foundation that led to the development of chemical thermodynamics and was one of the founders of vector analysis. ... Willard Gibbs - founder of chemical thermodynamics In thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics is the mathematical study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. ... Irving Fisher, 1927. ...


Samuelson’s 1947 magnum opus Foundations of Economic Analysis, from his doctoral dissertation, is based on the classical thermodynamic methods of American thermodynamicist Willard Gibbs, specifically Gibbs' 1876 paper On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances. [8][9][10] Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... Foundations of Economic Analysis is a book by Paul A. Samuelson published in 1947 (Enlarged ed. ... Willard Gibbs - founder of chemical thermodynamics In thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics is the mathematical study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. ... In thermodynamics, a thermodynamicist is one who studies thermodynamic processes and phenomena, i. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American mathematical physicist who contributed much of the theoretical foundation that led to the development of chemical thermodynamics and was one of the founders of vector analysis. ... In the history of thermodynamics, On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances is a 300-page paper written by American mathematical-engineer Willard Gibbs. ...


In 1947, based on the Le Chatelier principle of thermodynamics, a principle taught to Samuelson by Wilson in lecture, he established the method of comparative statics in economics. This method explains the changes in the equilibrium solution of a constrained maximization problem (economic or thermodynamic) when one of the constraints is marginally tightened or relaxed. The Le Chatelier principle was developed by French chemist Henri Louis le Chatelier, who is notable for being one of the first to translate Gibbs’ equilibrium papers (in French, 1899). Samuelson’s use of the Le Chatelier principle has proven to be a very powerful tool and found widespread use in modern economics. [11] Attempts at neo-classical equilibrium economics analogies with thermodynamics generally, go back to Guillaume and Samuelson. [12] In chemistry, Le Chateliers principle, also called the Le Chatelier-Braun principle, can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium. ... Henri Louis Le Chatelier (Paris, October 8, 1850 - Miribel-les-Echelles September 17, 1936) was an influential French chemist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ...


Criticism

According to Canadian economist Paul Henderson, Samuelson erroneously assumes that people continuously act in a rational manner, omitting the effects of culture, advertisement and other influences on human decision making. He writes:[13]

Samuelson admits that utility is a construct that has no basis in psychology; although he uses the terms ‘consumer’ and ‘individual,’ his model is built around a fictional character that critics have dubbed Homo economicus. This economic man (yes, he is male) never had a childhood, never has children, has never depended upon a caregiver and does not have anyone he provides care for. He only experiences well-being by consuming. He is rational, selfish, a psychopath... he isn’t influenced by hundreds of billions of dollars in advertising or the purchases of his neighbors. If Homo economicus buys something, it gives him utility; his consumer sovereignty must be respected.

Miscellaneous

Stanislaw Ulam once challenged Samuelson to name one theory in all of the social sciences which is both true and nontrivial. Several years later, Samuelson responded with David Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage. Stanisław Ulam in the 1950s. ... David Ricardo (18 April 1772–11 September 1823), a political economist, is often credited with systematizing economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus and Adam Smith. ... In economics, David Ricardo is credited for the principle of comparative advantage to explain how it can be beneficial for two parties (countries, regions, individuals and so on) to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing some good. ...


See also

Guaranteed minimum income (GMI) is a proposed system of social welfare provision that guarantees that all citizens or families have an income sufficient to live on, provided they meet certain conditions. ... Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach (a metatheory) to economics based on supply and demand which depends on individuals (or any economic agent) operating rationally, each seeking to maximize their individual utility or profit by making choices based on available information. ... A social welfare function, in welfare economics, is a function which gives a measure of the material welfare of society, given a number of economic variables as inputs. ... This is an alphabetical list of notable economists, that is, experts in the social science of economics. ... It has been suggested that History of economics be merged into this article or section. ...

References

  1. ^ "Maximum Principles in Analytical Economics", Nobel Prize Lecture
  2. ^ Liossatos, Panagis, S. (2004). “Statistical Entropy in General Equilibrium Theory,” (pg. 3). Department of Economics, Florida International University.
  3. ^ Adbusters : The Magazine - #69 The Big Ideas of 2007 / The Revolution Will Begin with a Textbook (Part One). Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  4. ^ Economists' statement opposing the Bush tax cuts. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  5. ^ How I Became an Economist by Paul A. Samuelson, 1970 Laureate in Economics, 5 September 2003
  6. ^ Eric Smith, Duncan Foley (2005), Classical Thermodynamics and Economic General Equilibrium Theory
  7. ^ Mirowski, Philip (1989). More Heat than Light: Economics as Social Physics, Physics as Nature's Economics. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 0521426898. 
  8. ^ P A Samuelson, Gibbs in economics, Proceedings of the Gibbs Symposium (Providence, R.I., 1990), 255-267.
  9. ^ K R Jolls, Gibbs and the art of thermodynamics, Gibbs in economics, Proceedings of the Gibbs Symposium (Providence, R.I., 1990), 293-321.
  10. ^ Liossatos, Panagis, S. (2004). “Statistical Entropy in General Equilibrium Theory,” (pg. 3). Department of Economics, Florida International University.
  11. ^ Baumgarter, Stefan. (2004). Thermodynamic Models, Modeling in Ecological Economics (Ch. 18)
  12. ^ McCauley Joseph. l. (2004). “Thermodynamic analogies in economics and finance: instability of markets” Published in: Physica A.329 (2003): pp. 199-212.
  13. ^ Green, T. (2007). The Revolution Will Begin with a Textbook. Adbusters Magazine.. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Samuelson (born May 15, 1915) is an American economist known for his work in many fields of economics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Books by Paul Samuelson

v. 1 & 2, 1937-mid-1964 (1966)
v. 3., mid-1964-1970 (1970)
v. 4, 1971-76 (1977)
v. 5, 1977-1985 (1986)
v. 6 & 7, 1986- (in preparation)

Foundations of Economic Analysis is a book by Paul A. Samuelson published in 1947 (Enlarged ed. ... Robert Merton Solow (born August 23, 1924) is an American economist particularly known for his work on the theory of economic growth. ... Economics is a textbook by American economists Paul Samuelson and William Nordhaus. ... William D. Nordhaus (born May 31, 1941 in Albuquerque, New Mexico) is the Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University. ... Economics is a textbook by American economists Paul Samuelson and William Nordhaus. ... William Arnold Barnett is an American economist whose current work is in the field of chaos and nonlinearity in socioeconomic contexts, as well as the study of the aggregation problem. ...

Further reading

  • Stanley Fischer, 1987, “Samuelson, Paul Anthony," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 4, Macmillan, pp. 234-41
  • Leonard Silk, The Economists New York : Basic Books, (1976).
  • Robert Sobel, The Worldly Economists New York: Free Press, (1980).
  • Daniel R. Fusfeld, 2002, "The Neoclassical Synthesis." "The Age of the Economist", Ed 9, Addison Wesley, pp. 198-201

Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Sobel in a promotional photo for his publisher. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Samuelson, Paul
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Economist
DATE OF BIRTH May 15, 1915 (age 93)
PLACE OF BIRTH Gary, Indiana
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Gary redirects here. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Paul SAMUELSON (1205 words)
Samuelson was one of the progenitors of the Paretian revival in microeconomics and the Neo-Keynesian Synthesis in macroeconomics during the post-war period.
In macroeconomics, Samuelson's multiplier-accelerator macrodynamic model (1939) is justly famous, as is his presentation of the Phillips Curve (1960) to the world.
Paul Samuelson's many contributions to Neoclassical economic theory were recognized with a Nobel Memorial prize in 1970.
Paul Samuelson (1452 words)
Samuelson was awarded the John Bates Clark Medal in 1947 and was sole recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1970, the second year of the Prize.
Samuelson was born in 1915 in Gary, Indiana.
Samuelson was one of the first economists to generalize and apply mathematical methods developed for the study of thermodynamics to economics.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m