FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Paul Reynaud
Paul Reynaud
Date of birth: October 15, 1878
Place of birth: Barcelonnette, France
Date of death: September 21, 1966
Place of death: Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
Political party: Alliance Democratique
Office(s): Prime Minister of France
(1940)

Paul Reynaud (October 15, 1878 - September 21, 1966) was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany. He was the penultimate Prime Minister of the Third Republic. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in Leap years). ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Barcelonnette is a small town in the Southern French Alps, in Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... Neuilly-sur-Seine is a commune in the Hauts-de-Seine département in France. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in Leap years). ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, Troisième Republique, sometimes written as IIIème Republique) (1870/75-1940/46), was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Fourth Republic. ...

Contents


Early life and politics

Reynaud was born in Barcelonnette, France. His father had made a fortune in the textile industry, enabling Reynaud to study law at the Sorbonne. Reynaud was elected to the French Chamber of Deputies from 1919 to 1924, representing Basses-Alpes, and again from 1928, representing a Paris district. Although he was first elected as part of the conservative "Blue Horizon" bloc in 1919, Reynaud shortly thereafter switched his allegiance to the center-right Alliance Démocratique party. Reynaud later became the vice-president of his party. Barcelonnette is a small town in the Southern French Alps, in Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The Sorbonne today, from the same point of view The Sorbonne is frequently used in ordinary parlance as synonymous with the faculty of theology of Paris or the University of Paris in its entirety. ... The Chamber of Deputies is the name given to the lower house of the bicameral legislatures of the following countries: It is also the name given to the unicameral parliaments of the following countries: Historically, the Chamber of Deputies (fr:Chambre des députés) was the lower house of... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Alpes_de_Haute_Provence is a French département in the south of France, it was formerly part of the province of Provence. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


In the 1920s, Reynaud developed a reputation for laxity on German reparations, at a time when many in the French government backed harsher terms for Germany. In the 1930s, particularly after 1933, Reynaud's stance hardened against the Germans. Reynaud backed a strong alliance with the United Kingdom and, unlike many others on the French Right, better relations with the Soviet Union as a counterweight against the Germans.[1] Sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or primarily in North America and in Australia as the Roaring Twenties . In Europe it is sometimes refered to as the Golden Twenties. ... // Events and trends The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the global depression. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Reynaud held several cabinet posts in the early 1930s, but he clashed with members of his party after 1932 over French foreign and defense policy and was not given another cabinet position until 1938. Like Winston Churchill, Reynaud was a maverick in his party and often alone in his calls for rearmament and resistance to German aggrandizement. Reynaud was a supporter of Charles de Gaulle's theories of mechanized warfare in contrast to the static defense doctrines that were in vogue among many of his countrymen, symbolized by the Maginot Line, and was an outspoken opponent of appeasement in the run-up to the Second World War. He also clashed with his party on economic policy, backing the devaluation of the franc as a solution to France's economic woes. However, Pierre Étienne Flandin, the leader of the Alliance Démocratique, agreed with several of Reynaud's key policy stances, particularly on Reynaud's defense of economic liberalism. // Events and trends The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the global depression. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, best known as prime minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... General Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (listen â–¶(?)) (November 22, 1890 – November 9, 1970), in France commonly referred to as général de Gaulle or Le Général, was a French military leader and statesman. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Maginot Line (named after French minister of defence André Maginot) was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses which France constructed along its borders with Germany and with Italy in the wake of World War I. Generally the term describes either the entire... Appeasement is a strategic manoeuvre, based on either pragmatism, fear of war, or moral conviction, that leads to acceptance of imposed conditions in lieu of armed resistance. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Pierre Étienne Flandin, French politician Pierre Étienne Flandin (April 12, 1889 at Paris, France-June 13, 1958 at Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, France) was a French conservative politician of the Third Republic and Prime Minister of France from November 8, 1934 to May 31, 1935. ...


Return to government

Reynaud returned to the cabinet in 1938 as Minister of Justice under Édouard Daladier. The Munich crisis, which began not long after Reynaud was named Minister of Justice, again revealed the divide between Reynaud and the rest of the Alliance Démocratique; Reynaud adamantly opposed abandoning the Czechs to the Germans, while Flandin felt that allowing Germany to expand eastward would inevitably lead to a conflict with the Soviets that would weaken both. Reynaud publicly made his case, and in response Flandin pamphleted Paris in order to pressure the government to agree to Hitler's demands.[2] Reynaud subsequently left his party to become an independent. Reynaud still had Daladier's support, however, whose politique de fermeté was very similar to Reynaud's notion of deterrence. The French Minister of Justice (Ministre de la Justice) is an important cabinet official in the Government of France. ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ...


Reynaud, however, had always wanted the Finance ministry. He endorsed radically liberal economic policies in order to draw France's economy out of stagnation, centered on a massive program of deregulation, including the elimination of the forty-hour work week[3]. The notion of deregulation was very popular among France's businessmen, and Reynaud believed that it was the best way for France to regain investors' confidence again and escape the stagnation its economy had fallen into. The collapse of Leon Blum's government in 1938 was a response to Blum's attempt to expand the regulatory powers of the French government; there was therefore considerable support in the French government for an alternative approach like Reynaud's. Léon Blum Léon Blum (9 April 1872 - 30 March 1950), French socialist leader and Prime Minister, was born in Paris, into a middle-class Jewish family. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Paul Marchandeau, Daladier's first choice for finance minister, offered a limited program of economic reform that was not to Daladier's satisfaction; Reynaud and Daladier swapped portfolios, and Reynaud went ahead with his radical liberalization reforms. Reynaud's reforms were successfully implemented, and the government stood down a one-day strike in opposition. Reynaud addressed France's business community, arguing that "We live in a capitalist system. For it to function we must obey its laws. These are the laws of profits, individual risk, free markets, and growth by competition."[4]


Reynaud's reforms proved remarkably successful; a massive austerity program was implemented (although armament measures were not cut) and France's coffers expanded from 37 billion francs in September 1938 to 48 billion francs at the outbreak of war a year later. More importantly, France's industrial productivity jumped from 76 to 100 (base=1929) from October 1938 to May 1939.[5] At the outbreak of war, however, Reynaud was not bullish on France's economy; he felt that the massive increase in spending that a war would mean would stamp out France's recovery.


The French Right was ambivalent about the war in late 1939 and early 1940, feeling that the greater threat was from the Soviets.[6] The Winter War put these problems into stark relief; Daladier refused to send aid to the Finns while war with Germany continued. News of the Soviet-Finnish armistice in March 1940 prompted Flandin and Pierre Laval to hold secret sessions of the legislature that denounced Daladier's actions; the government fell on March 19. The government named Reynaud Prime Minister of France two days later. 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Winter War (also known as the Soviet-Finnish War or the Russo-Finnish War) broke out when the Soviet Union attacked Finland on November 30, 1939, three months after the start of World War II. As a consequence, the Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations on... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (June 28, 1883 – October 15, 1945) was a French politician and thrice Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ...


Prime minister and arrest

Although Reynaud was increasingly popular, the Chamber of Deputies elected Reynaud premier by only a single vote with most of his own party abstaining; over half of the votes for Reynaud came from the socialist SFIO party. With so much support from the left - and the opposition from many parties on the right - Reynaud's government was especially unstable; many on the Right demanded that Reynaud attack not Germany, but the Soviet Union.[7] The Chamber also forced Daladier, who Reynaud held personally responsible for France's weakness, to be Reynaud's Minister of National Defense and War. One of Reynaud's first acts was to sign a declaration with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain that neither of the two countries would sign a separate peace. Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ... The Minister of Defence (Ministre de la Défense) is the French government official charged with running Frances military. ... The Right Honourable Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937–1940. ...


Reynaud abandoned any notion of a "long war strategy" based on attrition. Reynaud entertained suggestions to expand the war to the Balkans or northern Europe; he was instrumental in launching the allied campaign in Norway, though it ended in failure. Britain's decision to withdraw on April 26 prompted Reynaud to travel to London to personally lobby the British to stand and fight in Norway.[8] The Allied campaign in Norway took place from April 1940 until early June 1940. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (117th in leap years). ...


The Battle of France began less than two months after Reynaud came to office. France was badly mauled by the initial attack in early May 1940, and Paris was threatened. On May 15, five days after the invasion began, Reynaud contacted his British counterpart and famously remarked, "We have been defeated...we are beaten; we have lost the battle...The front is broken near Sedan." Charles de Gaulle, whom Reynaud had long supported and the only French commander who had won a battle, was promoted to brigadier general and named undersecretary of defense. [9] In World War II, Battle of France was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, executed 10 May 1940 which ended the Phony War. ... This article is about the month of May. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... A Ford Taurus, one of the most recognizable sedans built to date. ... General Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (listen ▶(?)) (November 22, 1890 – November 9, 1970), in France commonly referred to as général de Gaulle or Le Général, was a French military leader and statesman. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ...


As France's situation grew increasingly desperate, Reynaud accepted Philippe Pétain as Minister of State. Pétain, an aged veteran of the First World War, advised an armistice. Soon after the occupation of Paris, there was increasing pressure on Reynaud to come to a separate peace with Germany. Reynaud refused to be a party to such an undertaking, and resigned on June 16 rather than sign it. Pétain, who became the leader of the new Vichy government, signed the armistice on June 22. Reynaud was arrested on Petain's orders and given to the Germans, who kept him prisoner until the end of the war. Philippe Pétain Marshal Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general and war hero, and Head of State of Vichy France, from 1940 to 1944. ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... Presidential flag of Vichy France Vichy France, or the Vichy regime (in French, now called: Régime de Vichy or Vichy; at the time, called itself: État Français, or French State) was the de facto French government of 1940-1944 during the Nazi Germany occupation of World War II... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ...


Postwar life

After the war, Reynaud was made again a member of the Chamber of Deputies in 1946. Reynaud was in several cabinet positions in the postwar period and remained a prominent figure in French politics, although his attempts to form governments in 1952 and 1953 in the turbulent politics of the French Fourth Republic were failures. Reynaud supported the idea of a United States of Europe, along with a number of prominent contemporaries. Reynaud presided over the consultative committee that drafted the constitution of France's (current) Fifth Republic. In 1962, Reynaud denounced his old friend de Gaulle's attempt to eliminate the electoral college systemin favor of direct vote. Reynaud left office the same year. 1952 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Fourth Republic existed in France between 1946 and 1958. ... The United States of Europe is a name occasionally given to one version of the possible future unification of Europe as a national and sovereign federation of states similar in formation to the United States of America. ... The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on October 5, 1958. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... An electoral college is a set of electors who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect someone to a particular office. ...


Reynaud remarried in 1949 at the age of 71 and went on to father three children. Reynaud died on 21 September 1966 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, leaving a number of writings. 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... Neuilly-sur-Seine is a commune in the Hauts-de-Seine département in France. ...


Reynaud's Government, 21 March - 16 June 1940

  • Paul Reynaud - President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Camille Chautemps - Vice President of the Council
  • Édouard Daladier - Minister of National Defense and War
  • Raoul Dautry - Minister of Armaments
  • Henri Roy - Minister of the Interior
  • Lucien Lamoureux - Minister of Finance
  • Charles Pomaret - Minister of Labour
  • Albert Sérol - Minister of Justice
  • César Campinchi - Minister of Military Marine
  • Alphonse Rio - Minister of Merchant Marine
  • Laurent Eynac - Minister of Air
  • Albert Sarraut - Minister of National Education
  • Albert Rivière - Minister of Veterans and Pensioners
  • Paul Thellier - Minister of Agriculture
  • Henri Queuille - Minister of Supply
  • Georges Mandel - Minister of Colonies
  • Anatole de Monzie - Minister of Public Works
  • Marcel Héraud - Minister of Public Health
  • Alfred Jules-Julien - Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, Telephones, and Transmissions
  • Ludovic-Oscar-Frossard - Minister of Information
  • Louis Rollin - Minister of Commerce and Industry
  • Georges Monnet - Minister of Blockade

Changes March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Camille Chautemps, French politician Camille Chautemps (February 1, 1885 at Paris - July 1, 1963 at Washington, US) French Radical Politician of the Third Republic, three times Prime Minister. ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ... Lucien Lamoureux (August 3, 1920 - July 16, 1998) was a Canadian politician and Speaker of the Canadian House of Commons from 1966 to 1974. ... Albert Sarraut, French politician Albert-Pierre Sarraut (July 28, 1872 at Bordeaux, France - November 26, 1962 at Paris, France) was a French Radical politician, twice Prime Minister during the Third Republic. ... Henry Queuille, French prime minister Henri Queuille (1884-1970) was a French Radical politician prominent in governments of the Third and Fourth Republics. ... Georges Mandel was the adopted name of Louis George Rothschild (his family was not related to the famous banking dynasty). ... Anatole de Monzie (1876 - 1947) was a French administrator, encyclopaedist, political figure and scholar. ...

  • 10 May 1940 - Louis Marin and Jean Ybarnegaray enter the Cabinet as Ministers of State
  • 18 May 1940 - Philippe Pétain enters the Cabinet as Minister of State. Reynaud succeeds Daladier as Minister of National Defense and War. Daladier succeeds Reynaud as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Georges Mandel succeeds Roy as Minister of the Interior. Louis Rollin succeeds Mandel as Minister of Colonies. Léon Baréty succeeds Rollin as Minister of Commerce and Industry.
  • 5 June 1940 - Reynaud succeeds Daladier as Minister of Foreign Affairs, remaining also Minister of National Defense and War. Yves Bouthillier succeeds Lamoureux as Minister of Finance. Yvon Delbos succeeds Sarraut as Minister of National Education. Ludovic-Oscar Frossard succeeds Monzie as Minister of Public Works. Jean Prouvost succeeds Frossard as Minister of Information. Georges Pernot succeeds Héraud as Health Minister, with the new title of Minister of French Family. Albert Chichery succeeds Baréty as Minister of Commerce and Industry.

May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Philippe Pétain Marshal Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general and war hero, and Head of State of Vichy France, from 1940 to 1944. ... Georges Mandel was the adopted name of Louis George Rothschild (his family was not related to the famous banking dynasty). ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Yvon Delbos (1885-1956) was a French Radical politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Popular Front governments of Léon Blum and Camille Chautemps. ...

References

  1. ^  Imlay, Talbot C. "Paul Reynaud and France's Response to Nazi Germany, 1938–1940." French Historical Studies 26.3 (2003): 517.
  2. ^  Ibid., p. 519.
  3. ^  Ibid., p. 503.
  4. ^  Ibid., p. 504.
  5. ^  Ibid., p. 505.
  6. ^  Ibid., 522-523.
  7. ^  Ibid., 524
  8. ^  Ibid., 533

External links

  • World at war biography
  • Spartacus biography
  • 1939-45.org biography (in French)
Preceded by:
Charles Dumont
Minister of Finance
1930
Succeeded by:
Louis Germain-Martin
Preceded by:
Théodore Steeg
Minister of Colonies
1932
Succeeded by:
Louis de Chappedelaine
Preceded by:
Vice President of the Council
1932
Succeeded by:
Preceded by:
Léon Bérard
Minister of Justice
1932
Succeeded by:
René Renoult
Preceded by:
Marc Rucart
Minister of Justice
1938
Succeeded by:
Paul Marchandeau
Preceded by:
Paul Marchandeau
Minister of Finance
1938–1940
Succeeded by:
Lucien Lamoureux
Preceded by:
Édouard Daladier
President of the Council
1940
Succeeded by:
Philippe Pétain
Preceded by:
Édouard Daladier
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1940
Succeeded by:
Édouard Daladier
Preceded by:
Édouard Daladier
Minister of National Defense and War
1940
Succeeded by:
Maxime Weygand
Preceded by:
Édouard Daladier
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1940
Succeeded by:
Philippe Pétain
Preceded by:
René Mayer
Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs
1948
Succeeded by:
Christian Pineau
Preceded by:
Minister of Relations with Partner States and the Far East
1950
Succeeded by:
Jean Letourneau
Preceded by:
Vice President of the Council
with Henri Queuille and Pierre-Henri Teitgen
1953–1954
Succeeded by:

  Results from FactBites:
 
PAUL REYNAUD FACTS AND INFORMATION (299 words)
Paul Reynaud (October_15, 1878 - September_21, 1966) was a French politician and lawyer.
Reynaud resigned on June_16 1940, soon after the occupation of Paris, and was replaced by General Pétain, who organised an armistice.
After the war, Reynaud was made again a member of the Chamber of Deputies in 1946 and was an opponent of de Gaulle's Fifth Republic.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m