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Encyclopedia > Paul Nitze
Paul Nitze
Paul Nitze

Paul Henry Nitze (January 16, 1907October 19, 2004) was a high-ranking United States government official who helped shape Cold War defense policy over the course of numerous presidential administrations. http://www. ... http://www. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early life, education, and family

Nitze was born in Amherst, Massachusetts. His German ancestors came from the region of Magdeburg. Paul Nitze's father was a professor of Romance Linguistics who concluded his career at the University of Chicago. In his memoir, From Hiroshima to Glasnost, Paul Nitze describes how as a young boy he witnessed the outbreak of World War I while traveling in Germany with his father, mother, and sister, arriving in Munich just in time to be struck by the city crowds' patriotic enthusiasm for the imminent conflict.   Amherst is a town in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna...


Nitze attended the Hotchkiss School and graduated from Harvard University in 1928 and entered the field of investment banking. The Hotchkiss School is an independent, American college preparatory boarding school located in Lakeville, Connecticut. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) , is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. One of the eight Ivies, it was founded in 1636. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Investment banks help companies and governments and their agencies to raise money by issuing and selling securities in the primary market. ...


In 1928-1929 the Chicago brokerage firm of Bacon, Whipple and Company sent Nitze to Europe. Upon his return, he heard Clarence Dillon predict the depression and the decline of the importance of finance. Having attained financial independence through the sale to Revlon of his interest in a French laboratory producing pharmaceutical products in the U.S., Nitze took an intellectual sabbatical that included a year of graduate study at Harvard in sociology, philosophy, and constitutional and international law. CLARENCE DILLON (1882-1979) Born in San Antonio, Texas, son of Samuel Dillon and Bertha Lapowitz. ... Revlon (NYSE: REV) is an American cosmetics company. ...


In 1932, he married Phyllis Pratt, daughter of John Teele Pratt, Standard Oil financier and Ruth Baker Pratt Republican Congresswoman for New York. She died in 1987. They had four children: Peter, William, Phyllis Anina (Nina) and Heidi. He was married to Elisabeth Scott Porter from 1993 until his death in 2004. John Teele Pratt (25 December 1873 - 17 June 1927) was an American corporate attorney, philanthropist, music impresario, and financier. ... Ruth Baker Pratt (nee Baker) (24 August 1877 - 23 August 1965) was a politician and the first congresswoman to be elected from New York. ...


Nitze's brother-in-law Walter Paepcke founded the Aspen Institute and Aspen Skiing Company. Nitze continued to ski in Aspen until well into his 80s. Walter Paepcke (1896–1960) was a U.S. industrialist and philanthropist prominent in the middle 20th century. ... The Aspen Institute is a U.S. nonprofit cultural organization founded in 1950 dedicated to fostering enlightened leadership and open-minded dialogue. ... The Aspen Skiing Company is a commercial enterprise based in Aspen, Colorado in the United States. ...


Political career

Nitze entered government service during World War II, serving first on the staff of James Forrestal when Forrestal became an administrative assistant to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In 1942, he was chief of the Metals and Minerals Branch of the Board of Economic Warfare, until he was named director, Foreign Procurement and Development Branch of the Foreign Economic Administration in 1943. From 1944 - 1946, Nitze served as director and then as vice chairman of the Strategic Bombing Survey for which President Truman awarded him the Legion of Merit. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892 – May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The term strategic bombing survey refers to a series of American examinations of many topics related to their involvement in World War II. Some areas covered were the effectiveness of strategic bombing, medical treatment of casualties, inelegance/counter inelegance, and munitions construction and distribution. ... The surname Truman is usually English in origin. ... The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. ...


In the early post-war era, he served in the Truman Administration as Director of Policy Planning for the State Department (1950-1953). He was also principal author in 1950 of a highly influential secret National Security Council document (NSC-68), which provided the strategic outline for increased U.S. expenditures to counter the perceived threat of Soviet armament. For the victim of Mt. ... The Director of Policy Planning is the United States Department of State official in charge of the Departments internal think tank, the Policy Planning Staff. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States Government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The National Security Council (NSC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. ... NSC 68 was a policy paper written by the National Security Council for President Harry Truman providing a comprehensive analysis of the capabilities of the Soviet Union and of the United States of America from military, economic, political and psychological standpoints. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922–1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944–1991) Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian (the de facto official language), 14 other official languages Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1922–1924 Vladimir Lenin  - 1924–1953 Joseph Stalin...


From 1953 to 1961, Nitze served as president of the Foreign Service Educational Foundation while concurrently serving as associate of the Washington Center of Foreign Policy Research and the School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) of the Johns Hopkins University. 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), based in Washington D.C., is one of the worlds leading graduate schools devoted to the study of international affairs, economics, diplomacy, and policy research and education. ... Look up sais in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ...


Nitze co-founded SAIS with Christian Herter in 1943 and the world renowned graduate school, based in Washington, D.C., is currently named in his honor. His publications during this period include U.S. Foreign Policy: 1945-1955. In 1961 President Kennedy appointed Nitze assistant secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs and in 1963 he became the Secretary of the Navy, serving until 1967. Look up sais in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Christian Herter For Christian Herter, 19th-century New York decorator, see Herter Brothers. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...


Following his term as secretary of the Navy, he served as deputy secretary of Defense (1967-1969), as a member of the U.S. delegation to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) (1969-1973), and assistant secretary of Defense for International Affairs (1973-1976). Later, fearing Soviet rearmament, he opposed the ratification of SALT II (1979). For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... nSALT II was a second round of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks from 1972-1979 between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ...


Paul Nitze was a co-founder of Team B, a 1970s intelligence think tank that challenged the National Intelligence Estimates provided by the CIA. The Team B reports became the intellectual foundation for the idea of "the window of vulnerability" and of the massive arms buildup that began toward the end of the Carter administration and accelerated under President Reagan. Team B came to the conclusion that the Soviets had developed new weapons of mass destruction and had aggressive strategies with regard to a potential nuclear war. Team B's analysis of Soviet weapon systems was later proven to be largely exaggerated. Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ... National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) express the coordinated judgments of the US Intelligence Community, and thus represent the most authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) with respect to a particular national security issue. ... Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ...


According to Dr. Anne Cahn (Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 1977-1980) "if you go through most of Team B's specific allegations about weapons systems, and you just examine them one by one, they were all wrong." Nonetheless, some still claim that its conclusions about Soviet strategical aims were largely proven to be true[1], although this hardly squares with the elevation of Gorbachev in 1985. Scud Missile The U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) was established as an independent agency by the Arms Control and Disarmament Act (75 Stat. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: , Michail Sergeevič Gorbačëv), IPA: , surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


Nitze was President Ronald Reagan's chief negotiator of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (1981 - 1984). In 1984, Nitze was named special advisor to the president and secretary of State on Arms Control. Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... U.S. President Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev signing the INF Treaty, 1987. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


For more than forty years, Nitze was one of the chief architects of U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union. President Reagan awarded Nitze the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1985 for his contributions to the freedom and security of the United States. In 1991, he was awarded the prestigious United States Military Academy's Sylvanus Thayer Award for his commitment to the Academy's ideals of "Duty, Honor, Country." The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other major civilian award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor, which... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... USMA is an acronym for the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. ... The Sylvanus Thayer Award is a military award that is given each year by the United States Military Academy at West Point. ...


Death and legacy

Nitze died in Washington, D.C, aged 97 in October, 2004. ...


The Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Nitze is named in his honor. Nitze visited the ship for several ceremonial occasions prior to his death. The Arleigh Burke class of guided missile destroyers, one of the destroyer classes of the United States Navy, is built around the Aegis combat system and the SPY-1D multi-function phased array radar. ... USS Nitze (DDG-94), a Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Paul H. Nitze, the former Secretary of the Navy and chief arms control adviser in the administration of President of the United States Ronald Reagan. ...


The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of The Johns Hopkins University is named in his honor. The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), based in Washington D.C., is one of the worlds leading graduate schools devoted to the study of international affairs, economics, diplomacy, and policy research and education. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ...


St. Mary's College of Maryland, where he served as a trustee, has an honors program in his name. St. ...


List of Offices and Positions Held

1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Director of Policy Planning is the United States Department of State official in charge of the Departments internal think tank, the Policy Planning Staff. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States Government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes and references

This article incorporates public domain text from the U.S. Navy. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...

  1. ^ Tanenhaus, Sam (November 11, 2003). The Hard Liner. The Boston Globe. Retrieved on June 9, 2006.

Sam Tanenhaus (born October 31, 1955) is an American author, historian and biographer. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Quotes

  • "I have been around at a time when important things needed to be done."

External links

Preceded by
Paul B. Fay (acting)
Secretary of the Navy
19631967
Succeeded by
Charles F. Baird (acting)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Paul Nitze - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (849 words)
Paul Nitze's father was a professor of Romance Linguistics who concluded his career at the University of Chicago.
Nitze co-founded SAIS with Christian Herter in 1943 and the world renowned graduate school, based in Washington, D.C., is currently named in his honor.
Paul Nitze was co-founder of the 1970's Team B, created by conservative cold warriors determined to stop détente and the SALT process.
washingtonpost.com: Architect of Cold War Had Role in Ending It (1720 words)
Nitze, whose senior government posts spanned nearly a half-century and eight presidents, from World War II to the end of the Reagan administration, was nearly without parallel for the breadth and depth of his experience in world affairs.
Nitze was born in Amherst, Mass., on Jan. 16, 1907, the son of a college professor of Romance languages.
Nitze was among the negotiators of the 1972 SALT I offensive arms accord and the companion Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty on defensive arms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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