FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Paul Greengard

Paul Greengard (b. December 11, 1925) is an American neuroscientist best known for his work on the molecular and cellular function of neurons. In 2000, Greengard, Arvid Carlsson and Eric Kandel were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. He is currently Vincent Astor Professor at Rockefeller University [1]. December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system. ... In chemistry, a molecule is an aggregate of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by special forces. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of cells in the pigeon cerebellum. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Arvid Carlsson (b. ... Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is a neuroscientist who won a Nobel Prize in the year 2000 for his research on the physiological basis of memory storage in neurons. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Vincent Astor by Benjamin N. Duke William Vincent Astor (November 15, 1891, New York, New York, United States - February 3, 1959) was a businessman and philanthropist and a member of the prominent Astor family. ... Rockefeller University is a private university focusing primarily on graduate education and research in the biomedical fields, located between 63rd and 68th street on York Avenue on the Upper East Side of Manhattan island in New York City, New York. ...

Contents


Research

Greengard's research has focused on events inside the neuron caused by neurotransmitters. Specifically, Greengard and his fellow researchers studied the behavior of second messenger cascades that transform the docking of a neurotransmitter with a receptor into permanent changes in the neuron. In a series of experiments, Greengard and his colleagues showed that when dopamine interacts with a receptor on the cell membrane of a neuron, it causes an increase in cyclic AMP inside the cell. This increase of cyclic AMP, in turn activates a protein called protein kinase A, which turns the function other proteins on or off by adding phosphate groups in a reaction known as phosphorylation. The proteins activated by phosphorylation can then perform a number of changes in the cell: transcribing DNA to make new proteins, moving more receptors to the synapse (and thus increasing the neuron's sensitivity), or moving ion channels to the cell surface (and thus increasing the cell's excitability). He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2000 "for showing how neurotransmitters act on the cell and can activate a central molecule known as DARPP-32" Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a neuron and another cell. ... In biology, second messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used in signal transduction to relay signals within a cell. ... Dopamine is a chemical naturally produced in the body. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the selectively permeable cell membrane (or plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell. ... Structure of cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3-5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in many biological processes; it is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ... In cell biology, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), also known as protein kinase A (PKA)(EC 2. ... In inorganic chemistry, a phosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein or a small molecule. ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid —usually in the form of a double helix— that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life, and most viruses. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... Another, unrelated ion channeling process is part of ion implantation. ... DARPP-32 stands for dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein with molecular weight 32 kDa. ...


Biography

Greengard was born in New York City. During World War II, he served in the United States Navy as an electronics technician at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology working on an early warning system against Japanese kamikaze planes. After the war, he attended Hamilton College where he graduated in 1948 with a bachelor's degree in mathematics and physics. He decided against graduate school in physics because most post-war physics research was focusing on nuclear weapons, and instead became interested in biophysics. He began his graduate studies at Johns Hopkins University in the lab of Haldan Keffer Hartline. Inspired by a lecture by Alan Hodgkin, Greengard began work on the molecular and cellular function of neurons. In 1953, Greengard received his PhD and began postdoctoral work at the University of London, Cambridge University, and the University of Amsterdam. As a professor, he has worked at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Yale University, and Rockefeller University. Flag Seal Nickname: Big Apple Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,214. ... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France/Free France, United States, China, Canada, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma, Slovakia Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... The field of electronics is the study and use of systems that operate by controlling the flow of electrons (or other charge carriers) in devices such as thermionic valves and semiconductors. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university located in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Its mission and culture are guided by an emphasis on teaching and research grounded in practical applications of science and technology. ... Kamikaze pilot Hachiro Hosokawa during World War II. He survived the war, because he belonged to a covering fighter squadron. ... Hamilton College is a private, independent liberal arts college located in Clinton, New York. ... Euclid, a famous Greek mathematician known as the father of geometry, is shown here in detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physical sciences, especially those of physics, to questions of biology. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... Haldan Keffer Hartline (December 22, 1903 - March 17, 1983) was an American physiologist who was a cowinner (with George Wald and Ragnar Granit) of the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work in analyzing the neurophysiological mechanisms of vision. ... Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (February 5, 1914 _ December 20, 1998) was a British physiologist and biophysicist, who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work with Andrew Fielding Huxley on the basis of nerve action potentials, the electrical impulses that enable the activity of an... The University of London is a federation of colleges and institutes which together constitute one of the worlds largest universities. ... The University of Cambridge (often called Cambridge University, or just Cambridge), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... From Athenaeum Illustre to University In January 1632 two internationally acclaimed scientists, Caspar Barlaeus and Gerardus Vossius, held their inaugural speech in the Athenaeum Illustre - the illustrious school - which had its seat in the 14th-century Agnietenkapel. ... The Albert Einstein College of Medicine (AECOM) is a private medical school located at 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, New York (see website link). ... Vanderbilt University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in Nashville, Tennessee. ... Yale redirects here. ... Rockefeller University is a private university focusing primarily on graduate education and research in the biomedical fields, located between 63rd and 68th street on York Avenue on the Upper East Side of Manhattan island in New York City, New York. ...


References

  • Les Prix Nobel. 2001. The Nobel Prizes 2000, Editor Tore Frängsmyr, Nobel Foundation: Stockholm.

External link

  • Nobel Prize Biography

  Results from FactBites:
 
Paul Greengard - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (455 words)
In 2000, Greengard, Arvid Carlsson and Eric Kandel were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.
Specifically, Greengard and his fellow researchers studied the behavior of second messenger cascades that transform the docking of a neurotransmitter with a receptor into permanent changes in the neuron.
In a series of experiments, Greengard and his colleagues showed that when dopamine interacts with a receptor on the cell membrane of a neuron, it causes an increase in cyclic AMP inside the cell.
Schizophrenia.com - Biology and Research; Greengard lecture on DARPP-32 (2720 words)
Paul Greengard is an internationally-recognized researcher, currently investigating molecular signalling in the brain and its ramifications for neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Because Dr. Greengard received the Nobel prize for his work in slow-transmission dopamine signalling in the brain, he begins with an overview of different types of signalling, and then goes into greater detail on his own work with dopamine slow-transmission signalling and the post-synaptic proteins involved in that process.
Dr. Paul Greengard’s research shows that some very complex behaviors can be altered (at least in a mouse model), simply by making very small changes to a single protein contained in neurons.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m