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Encyclopedia > Paul Ehrlich
Paul Ehrlich
Paul Ehrlich
Paul Ehrlich in his workroom

Paul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854August 20, 1915) was a German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He is noted for his work in hematology, immunology, and chemotherapy. Ehrlich predicted autoimmunity calling it "horror autotoxicus". He coined the term "chemotherapy" and popularized the concept of a "magic bullet". He is credited with the first empirical observation of the blood-brain barrier and the development of the first antibiotic drug in modern medicine. Image File history File links Paul_Ehrlich. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 587 pixel Image in higher resolution (1870 × 1372 pixel, file size: 423 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Paul Ehrlich Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 587 pixel Image in higher resolution (1870 × 1372 pixel, file size: 423 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Paul Ehrlich Metadata... For the Lebanese political coalition, see March 14 Alliance. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Hematology is the branch of medicine that is concerned with blood and its disorders. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts (down to the sub-molecular levels) as self, which results in an immune response against its own cells and tissues. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Magic bullet has several meanings and uses: It is used disparagingly by conspiracy theorists to describe the projectile which the Warren Commission concluded under its single bullet theory to have hit both President John F. Kennedy and Governor John Connally. ... Freeze-fracture morphology of the blood-brain barrier of a rat The blood-brain barrier (abbreviated BBB, not to be confused with the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, a function of the choroid plexus) is a membrane that controls the passage of substances from the blood into the central nervous system. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


Biography

Paul Ehrlich was born into a Jewish family in Strehlen, in the Prussian Province of Silesia (now in Poland). As a schoolboy and student of medicine he was interested in staining microscopic tissue substances. In his dissertation at the University of Leipzig, he picked up the topic again ("Beiträge zur Theorie und Praxis der histologischen Färbung"). He married Hedwig Pinkus (then aged 19) in 1883. They had two daughters named Stephanie and Marianne. After his clinical education and habilitation ("Das Sauerstoffbedürfnis des Organismus") at the Charité in Berlin in 1886 he received a call from Robert Koch to join the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin (1891). For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Strzelin (German Strehlen) is a town in south-west Poland, in Lower Silesia voivodship, about 45 km south of WrocÅ‚aw. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... The University of Leipzig (German Universität Leipzig), located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony (former Kingdom of Saxony), Germany, is one of the oldest universities in Europe. ... The Charité is the largest university hospital in Europe. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ...


Ehrlich spent two years in Egypt, recovering from tuberculosis. Thereafter he worked with his friend Emil Adolf von Behring on the development of the diphtheria serum. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Emil Adolf von Behring( March 15, 1854 – March 31, 1917) was born at Hansdorf, Eylau, Germany(as Emil Adolf Behring) . Between 1874 and 1878, he studied medicine at the Army Medical College in Berlin. ...


These works inspired Ehrlich's famous side-chain theory (Seitenkettentheorie) from 1897. This theory explained the effects of serum and enabled measurement of the amount of antigen. In 1896 Ehrlich became the director of the newly founded Institute of Serum Research and Examination (Institut für Serumforschung und Serumprüfung) in Steglitz (Berlin). In 1899 the institute was moved to Frankfurt (Main) and extended into the Royal Institute of Experimental Therapy (Institut für experimentelle Therapie). Here Ehrlich researched chemotherapy and infectious diseases. In 1904 Ehrlich became honorary professor of the University of Göttingen. Side-chain theory is a theory proposed by Paul Ehrlich (1854 - 1915) to explain the immune response living cells. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ...


Ehrlich received the Nobel Prize for Medicine together with Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov in 1908. In 1906 he discovered the structural formula of atoxyl, a chemical compound that had been shown to be able to treat sleeping sickness. Following this discovery, he tried to create a less toxic version of the medicament. In 1909 he and his student Sahachiro Hata developed Salvarsan, a treatment effective against syphilis. This work was of epochal importance, stimulating research that led to the development of sulfa drugs, penicillin and other antibiotics. Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья Ильич Мечников, also known as Eli Metchnikoff, May 16, 1845, Ukraine – July 16, 1916, Paris) was a Russian microbiologist best remembered for his pioneering research into the immune system. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Structural formula of Atoxyl molecules Atoxyl® () is the name of a medicine which was common in the first decades of the 20th century, based on an Arsenic compound. ... Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease in people and in animals. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sahachiro Hata ); (23 March 1873 – 22 November 1938) is a Japanese physician who developed the Arsphenamine drug in 1908 in the laboratory of Paul Ehrlich. ... Arsphenamine is a drug that was used to treat syphilis and trypanosomiasis. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ...

200 Deutsche Mark banknote from Germany of 1996 showing Paul Ehrlich (http://www.germannotes.com)

Ehrlich died of a stroke in Bad Homburg in 1915, aged 61. 200 DM 1996 - Paul Ehrlich File links The following pages link to this file: Paul Ehrlich ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Stroke is the clinical designation for a rapidly developing loss of brain function due to an interruption in the blood supply to all or part of the brain. ... Bad Homburg is the capital city of the Hochtaunuskreis, Hessen, Germany, on the southern slope of the Taunus, bordering among others Frankfurt and Oberursel. ...


"Magic Bullet"

His life is depicted in the movie The Magic Bullet, which focused on Salvarsan® (arsphenamine, "compound 606"), his cure for syphilis. His work illuminated the existence of the blood-brain barrier. The Magic Bullet, also known as Dr. Ehrlichs Magic Bullets, is a 1940 movie starring Edward G. Robinson, based on a true story. ... Arsphenamine is a drug that was used to treat syphilis and trypanosomiasis. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Freeze-fracture morphology of the blood-brain barrier of a rat The blood-brain barrier (abbreviated BBB, not to be confused with the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, a function of the choroid plexus) is a membrane that controls the passage of substances from the blood into the central nervous system. ...


The "magic bullet" concept comes from the experience of 19th century German chemists with selectively staining tissues for histological examination, and in particular, selectively staining bacteria (Ehrlich was an exceptionally gifted histological chemist, and invented the precursor technique to Gram staining bacteria). Ehrlich figured that if a compound could be made that selectively targeted a disease causing organism, then a toxin for that organism could be delivered along with the agent of selectivity. Hence, a "magic bullet" would be created that killed only the organism targeted. Magic bullet has several meanings and uses: It is used disparagingly by conspiracy theorists to describe the projectile which the Warren Commission concluded under its single bullet theory to have hit both President John F. Kennedy and Governor John Connally. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


A problem with the use of the magic bullet concept as it emerged from its histological roots is that people confused the dye with the agent of tissue selectivity and antibiotic activity. Prontosil, a sulfa drug whose active component is sulfanilamide, is a classic example of the fact that color is not essential to antibiotic activity. Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Prontosil is the first successful oral antibiotic developed by Gerhard Domagk, who received the 1939 Nobel Prize in Medicine. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ...


The concept of a "magic bullet" was fully realized with the invention of monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ...


References and further reading

  • Nobel Museum: Biography of Paul Ehrlich
  • Paul Ehrlich, pharmaceutical achiever
  • Paul Ehrlich's publications (ordered chronologically, as full-text PDF)
  • Film Annotations Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet

  Results from FactBites:
 
Center for Conservation Biology (395 words)
Paul R. Ehrlich received his Ph.D. from the University of Kansas.
The Ehrlich group's policy research on the population-resource-environment crisis takes a broad overview of the world situation, but also works intensively in such areas of immediate legislative interests as endangered species and the preservation of genetic resources.
Professor Ehrlich is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
Paul Ehrlich - Biography (1225 words)
Paul Ehrlich was born on March 14, 1854 at Strehlen, in Upper Silesia*, Germany.
Ehrlich was educated at the Gymnasium at Breslau and subsequently at the Universities of Breslau, Strassburg, Freiburg-im-Breisgau and Leipzig.
Ehrlich showed that all the dyes used could be classified as being basic, acid or neutral and his work on the staining of granules in blood cells laid the foundations of future work on haematology and the staining of tissues.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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