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Encyclopedia > Paul Celan
Paul Celan
Paul Celan

Paul Celan (November 23, 1920 – approximately April 20, 1970) was the most frequently used pseudonym of Paul Antschel, one of the major poets of the post-World War II era. Celan is widely considered one of the finest European lyric poets of his time and one of the most profound, innovative and original poets of the 20th century.[1]. Image File history File linksMetadata Celan_. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Celan_. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... A pseudonym (Greek pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons true name. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... // Lyric poetry is a form of poetry that does not attempt to tell a story, as do epic poetry dramatic poetry, but is of a more personal nature instead. ...



Early life

Celan was born in 1920 into a German-speaking Jewish family in Cernăuţi, Bukovina, then part of Romania. His father, Leo Antschel, was a Zionist who advocated his son's education in Hebrew at Safah Ivriah, an institution previously convinced of the wisdom of assimilation into Austrian culture, and one which favourably received Chaim Weizmann of the World Zionist Organization in 1927. His mother, Fritzi, was an avid reader of German literature who insisted German be the language of the house. After his Bar Mitzvah in 1933, Celan abandoned Zionism (at least to some extent) and terminated his formal Hebrew education, instead becoming active in Jewish Socialist organizations and fostering support for the Republican cause in the Spanish Civil War. His earliest known poem, titled Mother's Day 1938 was a sentimental, if earnest, profession of love. For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Chernivtsi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: CernăuÅ£i; German: Czernowitz or Tschernowitz; Polish: Czerniowce; Hungarian: Csernovic; Yiddish: Tshernovits; Russian: , Chernovtsy) is a city in Northern Bukovina, Ukraine, capital of the Chernivtsi Oblast. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Chaim Weizmann and Harry S. Truman, May 25, 1948 Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים ויצמן) (also: Chaijim W., Haim W.) (November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected May 16, 1948, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in... The World Zionist Organization, or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization, or ZO, on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... German literature comprises those literary texts originating within Germany proper and written in the German language. ... When a Jewish child reaches the age of maturity (12 years and one day for girls, 13 years and one day for boys) that child becomes responsible for him/herself under Jewish law; at this point a boy is said to become Bar Mitzvah (בר מצו&#1493... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Anthem: El Himno de Riego The situation near the beginning of the Spanish Civil War Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic President of the Government  - April 14, 1931-October 14, 1931 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - May 17 1937-January 30 1939 Juan Negrín Legislature Congress of... This article is about the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ...

In 1938, Celan travelled to Tours, France to study medicine (the newly-imposed Jewish quota in Romanian universities and the Anschluss precluded Bucharest and Vienna), but returned to Cernăuţi in 1939 to study literature and Romance languages. His journey to France took him through Berlin as the events of Kristallnacht unfolded, and also introduced him to his uncle, Bruno Schrager, who later was among the French detainees who died at Birkenau. The Soviet occupation in June 1940 deprived Celan of any lingering illusions about Stalinism and Soviet Communism stemming from his earlier socialist engagements; the Soviets quickly imposed bureaucratic reforms on the university where he was studying Romance philology, and the Red Army brought deportations to Siberia, just as Nazi Germany and Romania brought ghettos, internment, and forced labour a year later (see Romania during World War II). Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Jewish quota was a percentage that limited the number of Jews in various establishments. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 238 km² Population (2005) 1,924,959[1] Density 8,088 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–10, 1938. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background are united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... In June of 1941, after a brief period of nominal neutrality under King Carol, Romania joined the Axis Powers. ...

Life during World War II

On arrival in July 1941 the German SS Einsatzkommando and their Romanian allies burned down the city's six-hundred-year-old Great Synagogue. In October, the Romanians deported a large number of Jews after forcing them into a ghetto, where Celan translated William Shakespeare's Sonnets and continued to write his own poetry, all the while being exposed to traditional Yiddish songs and culture. Before the ghetto was dissolved in the fall of that year, Celan was pressed into labor, first clearing the debris of a demolished post office, and then gathering and destroying Russian books. The double-Sig Rune SS insignia. ... Einsatzkommando is a German military term with the literal translation of mission commando, roughly equivalent to the English term task force. The Nazi-era Einsatzkommando refers to a subgroup of the four Einsatzgruppen, killing squads in Operation Barbarossa that were responsible for carrying out mass executions behind the German lines. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets Dedication page from The Sonnets SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS, or simply The Sonnets comprise a collection of 154 poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ...

The local mayor strove to mitigate the harsh circumstances until the governor of Bukovina had the Jews rounded up and deported, starting on a Saturday night in June 1942. Accounts of his whereabouts on that evening vary, but it is certain that Celan was not with his parents when they were taken from their home on June 21 and sent by train to an internment camp in Transnistria, where two-thirds of the deportees perished. Celan's parents were taken across the Southern Bug and handed over to the Germans, where his father likely perished of typhus and his mother was shot dead after being exhausted by forced labour. Later on, after having himself been taken to the labour camps in the Old Kingdom, Celan would receive reports of his parents' deaths earlier that year. June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Romania controlled (August 19 1941 - January 29 1944) the whole Transnistrian region between Dniester, Bug rivers and Black Sea coast. ... The Southern Buh, Bug, or Boh River (Південний Буг, Pivdennyi Buh in Ukrainian; Hipanis in ancient Greek) is entirely located in Ukraine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Epidemic typhus. ... The Romanian Old Kingdom (in Romanian, Vechiul Regat) refers to the territory covered by the first independent Romanian nation-state, which was composed of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia. ...

Celan remained in these labour camps until February 1944, when the Red Army's advance forced the Romanians to abandon them, whereupon he returned to Cernăuţi shortly before the Soviets returned to reassert their control. There, he worked briefly as a male nurse in the mental hospital. Early versions of Todesfuge were circulated at this time, a poem that clearly relied on accounts coming from the now-liberated camps in Poland. Friends from this period recall expression of immense guilt over his separation from his parents, whom he had tried to convince to go into hiding prior to the deportations, shortly before their death.

Life after the war

Paul Celan in the years following the war
Paul Celan in the years following the war

Considering emigration to Palestine and wary of widespread Soviet antisemitism, Celan left Soviet-occupied territory in 1945 for Bucharest, where he remained until 1947. He was active in the Jewish literary community as both a translator of Russian literature into Romanian, and as a poet, publishing his work under a variety of pseudonyms. The literary scene of the time was richly populated with surrealistsGellu Naum, Ilarie Voronca, Gherasim Luca, Paul Păun, and Dolfi Trost —, and it was in this period that Celan developed pseudonyms both for himself and his friends, including the one he took as his pen name. Image File history File links Paul_Celan_Instaplanet_Archive. ... Image File history File links Paul_Celan_Instaplanet_Archive. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Soviet redirects here. ... Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its émigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a movement stating that the liberation of our mind, and subsequently the liberation of the individual self and society, can be achieved by exercising the imaginative faculties of the unconscious mind to the attainment of a dream-like state different from, or... Gellu Naum (1915-2001) was a prominent Romanian Surrealist poet. ... A sketch by Robert Delaunay depicting Ilarie Voronca Ilarie Voronca (pen name of Eduard Marcus; December 31, 1903, Brăila—April 8, 1946, Paris) was a Romanian-French avant-garde poet and essayist of Jewish ethnicity. ... Gherasim Luca (or Gherashim Luca) (July 23, 1913 - February 9, 1994) was a surrealist theorist and Romanian poet, frequently cited in the works of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. ... Dolfi Trost was a Romanian surrealist poet and theorist, and the instigator of entopic graphomania. ...

A version of Todesfuge appeared as Tangoul Morţii ("Death Tango") in a Romanian translation of May 1947. The surrealist ferment of the time was such that additional remarks had to be published explaining that the dancing and musical performances of the poem were realities of the extermination camp life. Night and Fog, another poem from that era, includes a description of the Auschwitz Orchestra, an institution organized by the SS to assemble and play selections of German dances and popular songs. (The SS man interviewed by Claude Lanzmann for his film Shoah, who rehearsed the songs prisoners were made to sing in the death camp, remarking that no Jews taught the song survived.) Look up tango in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Prior to and during World War II Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager or KZ) throughout the territory it controlled. ... Nacht und Nebel (Night and Fog ) was an incident and edict in Nazi Germany. ... Claude Lanzmann is a Paris-based filmmaker and professor of documentary film at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland where he conducts a summer workshop. ... Shoah is a nine-hour documentary film completed by Claude Lanzmann in 1985 about the Holocaust (or Shoah). ...

Exodus and Paris years

As Romanian autonomy became increasingly tenuous in the course of that year, Celan fled Romania for Vienna, Austria. It was there that he befriended Ingeborg Bachmann, who had just completed a dissertation on Martin Heidegger. Facing a city divided between occupying powers and with little resemblance to the mythic city it once was, when it had harboured an Austro-Hungarian Jewish community shattered by then, he moved to Paris in 1948, where he found a publisher for his first poetry collection, Der Sand aus den Urnen ("Sand from the Urns"). His first few years in Paris were marked by intense feelings of loneliness and isolation, as expressed in letters to his colleagues, including his longtime friend from Cernăuţi, Petre Solomon. It was also during this time that he exchanged many letters with Diet Kloos, a Dutch chanteuse. She visited him twice in Paris between 1949 and 1951. In a published edition of these letters, near the end of the exchange, Celan seems to be entertaining an amorous interest in her. Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Ingeborg Bachmann Ingeborg Bachmann (June 25, 1926 Klagenfurt, Austria - October 17, 1973 Rome, Italy) was an Austrian poet and author. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (pronounced ) was an influential German philosopher, best known as the author of Being and Time (1927). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...

In 1952 Celan received an invitation to the semiannual meetings of Group 47. At a 1953 meeting he read his poem Todesfuge ("Death Fugue"), a depiction of concentration camp life. His reading style, which was based on Hungarian folk poems, was off-putting to the German audience. His poetry was sharply criticized. When Ingeborg Bachmann. with whom Celan had an affair, won the Group's prize for her collection Die gestundete Zeit (The Extended Hours), Celan (whose work had received only six votes) said "After the meeting, only six people remembered my name". He was not invited again. 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Gruppe 47 (Group 47) was a literary association in Germany after WW II. // Early history The beginnings reach back to 1946 when Alfred Andersch and Walter Kolbenhoff founded the literary magazine Der Ruf (The Call) in Munich. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Ingeborg Bachmann Ingeborg Bachmann (June 25, 1926 Klagenfurt, Austria - October 17, 1973 Rome, Italy) was an Austrian poet and author. ...

In November 1951, he met the graphic artist Gisèle Lestrange, in Paris. They married on December 21, 1952 despite the opposition of her aristocratic family, and during the following 18 years they wrote over 700 letters, including a very active exchange with Siegfried Lenz and his wife, Hanna. He made his living as a translator and lecturer in German at the École Normale Supérieure. Graphic design is the applied art of arranging image and text to communicate a message. ... Gisèle Lestrange or Gisèle Celan-Lestrange (March 19, 1927 - December 9, 1991) was a French graphic artist. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Siegfried Lenz (b. ... The quadrangle at the main ENS building on rue dUlm is known as the Cour aux Ernests – the Ernests being the goldfish in the pond. ...

Celan became a French citizen in 1955 and lived in Paris until his suicide by drowning in the Seine river in late April 1970. It has been suggested that The Pros of suicide be merged into this article or section. ... The Seine (pronounced in French) is a major river of north-western France, and one of its commercial waterways. ...

Celan: poetry and poetics

Poetry after Auschwitz

The death of his parents and the experience of the Shoah (or Holocaust) are defining forces in Celan's poetry and his use of language. In his Bremen Prize speech, Celan said of language after Auschwitz that: kobe is the best NOT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! yesssssssssss not because KG is. ... ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ...

"Only one thing remained reachable, close and secure amid all losses: language. Yes, language. In spite of everything, it remained secure against loss. But it had to go through its own lack of answers, through terrifying silence, through the thousand darknesses of murderous speech. It went through. It gave me no words for what was happening, but went through it. Went through and could resurface, 'enriched' by it all." [2]

Despite his declaration that language remains, it is indeed only remnants that are left him; even within the word "enriched" – "angereichert" (the quotations are Celan's) lies buried the word Reich, just as its thousand years echo in the thousand darknesses of murderous speech – language, perhaps, has been "through" too much.   (IPA: ; German: IPA: ), is the German word for realm or empire, cognate with Scandinavian rike/rige, Dutch rijk and English ric as found in bishopric. ...

His most famous poem, the early Todesfuge, commemorates the death camps, negating Theodor Adorno's famous caveat that "writing poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric". Celan, always sensitive to criticism, took the dictum personally; his later poem, Engführung (Stretto or "The Straitening") was his own re-writing of "Death Fugue" into ever-more desperate language. Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... Caveat, the third-person singular present subjunctive of the Latin cavere, means warning (or more literally, let him beware); it can be shorthand for Latin phrases such as Caveat lector Caveat emptor Caveat venditor More narrowly, caveat can also refer to CAVEAT, a Canadian lobby group; The Paulette Caveat about...

In later years his poetry became progressively more cryptic, fractured and monosyllabic, bearing comparison to the music of Anton Webern. He also increased his use of German neologisms, especially in his later works Fadensonnen ("Threadsuns") and Eingedunkelt ("Benighted"). In the eyes of some, Celan attempted in his poetry either to destroy or remake the German language. The urgency and power of Celan's work stem from his attempt to find words "after", to bear (impossible) witness in a language that gives back no words "for that which happened". Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor. ... A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...

In addition to writing poetry (in German and, earlier, in Romanian), he was an extremely active translator and polyglot, translating literature from Romanian, French, Portuguese, Russian, and English into German. Look up multilingual, multilingualism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Germany and German guilt

Recent commentaries on Celan's relationship to Germany (its "irreparable offense", it's "guilt" and — for many others — "silence" on the exterminations after 1945, and after the war) often point to Celan's poem "Todtnauberg" . This poem was engendered by Celan's meeting and single encounter with one of the most famous and (arguably) the most important philosophers of the 20th century: Martin Heidegger. Celan had read Heidegger beginning in 1951, and exclamation marks in his margin notes testify to an awareness that Heidegger had allowed his remarks on the "greatness" of National Socialism in the 1953 edition of Introduction to Metaphysics to stand without further comment. Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (pronounced ) was an influential German philosopher, best known as the author of Being and Time (1927). ... National Socialism redirects here. ...

Celan visited West Germany periodically, including trips arranged by Hanna Lenz, who worked in a publishing house in Stuttgart. Celan and his wife Gisèle often visited Stuttgart and the area on stopovers during their many vacations to Austria. On one of his trips, Celan gave a lecture at the University of Freiburg (on July 24, 1967) which was attended by Heidegger, who gave Celan a copy of Was heißt Denken? and invited him to visit his work retreat "die Hütte" ("the hut") at Todtnauberg the following day and walk in the Schwarzwald. Although he may not have been willing to be photographed with Heidegger after the Freiburg lecture (or to contribute to Festschriften honoring Heidegger's work) Celan accepted the invitation and even signed Heidegger's guest book at the famous "hut". City Center seen from Weinsteige Road Stuttgart Palace Square - New Palace Solitude Palace The 1956 TV Tower U.S. Army Kelley Barracks Stuttgart [], located in southern Germany, is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg with a population of 591,528 (as of April 2006) in the city... Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg was founded 1457 in Freiburg by the Habsburgs. ... Todtnauberg is a town in Germanys Black Forest where German philosopher Martin Heidegger had a chalet. ... A map of Germany, showing the Black Forest in red. ... In academia, a Festschrift (; plural, Festschriften, ) is a book honouring a respected academic. ...

The two walked in the woods. Celan impressed Heidegger with his knowledge of botany and Heidegger is thought to have spoken about elements of his press interview Only a God can save us now, which he had just given to Der Spiegel on condition of posthumous publication. That would seem to be the extent of the meeting. Todtnauberg was written shortly thereafter and sent to Heidegger as the first copy of a limited bibliophile edition. Heidegger responded with no more than a letter of perfunctory thanks. Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Arnica, eyebright, the
draft from the well with the
star-die on top,
in the
written in the book
—whose name did it record
before mine — ?
in this book
the line about
a hope, today,
for a thinker's
to come,
in the heart,
forest sward, unleveled,
orchis and orchis, singly,
crudeness, later, while driving,
he who drives us, the man,
he who also hears it,
the half-
trod log-
trails on the highmoor,
Celan: "Todtnauberg" (translated by Pierre Joris} [3]
Used by permission of the translator [4]

Celan at "Todtnauberg"

In his Poetry as Experience, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe advances the argument that, although Celan's poetry was deeply informed by Heidegger's philosophy, Celan was long aware of Heidegger's association with the Nazi party. In other words, Celan remained fundamentally circumspect toward the man even while acknowledging the transformative power of his work. In his turn, Heidegger was a professed admirer of Celan's writing, although he did not attend to it as he did Hölderlin or even Trakl. Nor would Heidegger attend to Celan as a Jewish poet working within that German tradition. Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe (born 1940) is a contemporary French philosopher, literary critic, and translator. ... Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ... Georg Trakl A poem by Trakl inscribed on a plaque in Mirabell Garden, Salzburg. ...

That being said, Celan's poem "Todtnauberg" seems to hold out for the unrealized possibility of a profound rapprochement between their work, albeit on the condition that Heidegger break a silence that virtually blanketed his work to the end (ie., Lacoue-Labarthe has commented on the insufficiency of Heidegger's one known remark about the gas chambers, made in 1949). In this respect Heidegger's work, in its transformative function, was echo to a redeemed humanity even if that possibility could not be reconciled or transacted between two men. For Celan, this irreconciliable complication (involving a dissolution of the sacred in the profane and vice versa) resided irrevocably and irreparably in a breach.

One implication here is that Celan is simply demanding an apology of Heidegger. However, there are reasonable grounds to argue that it was crucial for Celan that both of them be held accountable. Failing that "accounting"(whether in witness or testimony) must not one invoke a further questioning, and (at the very least) specify how the Nazi period is das Unheil (disaster, calamity)? Because to call it that as such, to use that precise terminology (das Unheil) signals toward something other than an official body count, does it not?. What would that call toward something "other" be? At the very least would not that which compelled Heidegger to write about poetry, technology, and truth have (by the same token) compelled him to write with commensurate rigor about the German disaster?

Lacoue-Labarthe and Jacques Derrida, perhaps following Celan to a degree, believed Heidegger capable of a profound criticism of Nazism and the horrors it brought forth. Therefore, they consider Heidegger's greatest failure not to be his involvement in the National Socialist movement but his "silence on the extermination" (Lacoue-Labarthe) and his refusal to engage in a thorough deconstruction of Nazism beyond laying out certain of his considerable objections to party orthodoxies that could appropriate passages from Nietzsche, Hölderlin, and Richard Wagner and subsume their "authority" or "intellectual property" behind the mask of fascism. Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy and social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning, when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ... Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ...

Writers translated by Celan

Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... Tudor Arghezi (May 21, 1880-1967) was a notable Romanian poet and childrens author. ... Antonin Artaud Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (born September 4, 1896, in Marseille; died March 4, 1948 in Paris) was a French playwright, poet, actor and director. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Blok in 1907 Alexander Blok (Александр Александрович Блок, November 28 [O.S. November 16] 1880 – August 7, 1921), was perhaps the most gifted lyrical poet produced by Russia after Alexander Pushkin. ... André Breton André Breton (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ... Jean Cayrol is a French poet, who wrote the emotionless narration in Alain Resnaiss 1955 documentary film, Night and Fog. ... Aimé Fernand David Césaire (born June 20, 1913) is a Martinican author and politician. ... René Char (1907 - 1988) René Char (June 14, 1907 - February 19, 1988) was a 20th century poet. ... Robert Desnos (July 4, 1900 - June 8, 1945) was a French surrealist poet. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... André du Bouchet (April 7, 1924, Paris - April 19, 2001, Truinas, Drôme) was a French poet. ... Jacques Dupin (born March 4, 1927) is a French poet. ... It appears that this entire article has been copied and pasted from http://www. ... Robert Frost (1941) Robert Frost (March 26, 1874 – January 29, 1963) was an American poet. ... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Alfred Edward Housman (March 26, 1859 - April 30, 1936), usually known as A.E. Housman, was an English poet and classical scholar, now best known for his cycle of poems A Shropshire Lad. ... Velemir Khlebnikov portrait by Wladimir Burliuk, 1913 Velimir Khlebnikov (Russian: Велимир Хлебников; first name also spelled Velemir; last name also spelled Chlebnikov, Hlebnikov, Xlebnikov), pseudonym of Viktor Vladimirovich Khlebnikov (November 9, 1885 (October 28, 1885 (O.S.)) – June 28, 1922), was a central part of the Russian Futurist movement but his work... Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, Belgian author Count Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (August 29, 1862 - May 6, 1949) was a Belgian poet, playwright, and essayist. ... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ... Osip Mandelstam Osip Emilyevich Mandelstam (also spelled Mandelshtam) (Russian: ) (January 15 [O.S. January 3] 1891 – December 27, 1938) was a Jewish Russian poet and essayist, one of the foremost members of the Acmeist school of poets. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Henri Michaux (May 24, 1899 - October 18, 1984) was a highly individualistic Belgian poet, writer and painter who wrote in the French language. ... Marianne Moore photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1948 Marianne Moore (December 11, 1887 - February 5, 1972) was a Modernist American poet and writer. ... Gellu Naum (1915-2001) was a prominent Romanian Surrealist poet. ... Gérard de Nerval (May 22, 1808 – January 26, 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French poet, essayist and translator Gérard Labrunie, the most essentially Romantic among French poets. ... Benjamin Péret (1899-1959) was a French poet and Surrealist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pablo Ruiz Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Giuseppe Ungaretti. ... For other people of the same name, see Valery. ... Sergei Yesenin Sergei Aleksandrovich Yesenin, sometimes spelled Esenin (Russian: Серге́й Алекса́ндрович Есе́нин; October 3, 1895 [O.S. September 21] – December 28, 1925) was a famous Russian lyrical poet. ... Yevgeny Yevtushenko Yevtushenko represents Russias new generation on the cover of Time magazine, April 13, 1962 Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Yevtushenko (Russian: , Evgenij Aleksandrovič Evtušenko; born July 18, 1933) is a Russian poet. ...


In German

  • Der Sand aus den Urnen ("The Sand from the Urns", 1948)
  • Mohn und Gedächtnis ("Poppy and Remembrance", 1952)
  • Von Schwelle zu Schwelle ("From Threshold to Threshold", 1955)
  • Sprachgitter ("Speech-grille", 1959)
  • Die Niemandsrose ("The No-One's Rose", 1963)
  • Atemwende ("Breath-turn", 1967)
  • Fadensonnen ("Threadsuns", 1968)
  • Lichtzwang ("Light-Compulsion", 1970)
  • Schneepart ("Snow-part, posthumous", 1971)

In English

There has been a recent increase in translations of Celan's poetry into English. The most comprehensive collections are Michael Hamburger's, which has been revised by him over a period of more than two decades, John Felstiner's, and Pierre Joris'. Joris has also translated Celan into French. Many of the English editions are bilingual. Michael Hamburger OBE (born 22 March 1924) is a noted British translator, poet, and academic, known in particular for his translations of Friedrich Hölderlin, Paul Celan, Gottfried Benn and W. G. Sebald from German, and his work as a literary critic. ... Pierre Joris, born in Strasbourg, France in 1946, left Luxembourg at eighteen & has since lived in the US, Great Britain, North Africa & France. ...

(note: this list is chronological from year of publication, the most recent listed first)
  • Paul Celan: Selections, edited and with an introduction by Pierre Joris (2005)
  • Fathomsuns/Fadensonnen and Benighted/Eingedunkelt, translated by Ian Fairley (2001)
  • Poems of Paul Celan: A Bilingual German/English Edition, Revised Edition, translated by Michael Hamburger (2001)
  • Selected Poems and Prose of Paul Celan, translated by John Felstiner (2000)
  • Glottal Stop: 101 Poems, translated by Nikolai Popov, Heather McHugh (2000) (winner of the 2001 International Griffin Poetry Prize)
  • Paul Celan, Nelly Sachs: Correspondence, translated by Christopher Clark (1998)
  • Atemwende/Breathturn, translated by Pierre Joris (1995)
  • Collected Prose, edited by Rosmarie Waldrop (1986) ISBN 0-935296-92-1
  • "Last Poems", translated by Katharine Washburn and Margret Guillemin (1986)
  • Paul Celan, 65 Poems, translated by Brian Lynch and Peter Jankowsky (1985)
  • "Speech-Grille and Selected Poems", translated by Joachim Neugroschel (1971)

The Griffin Poetry Prize is Canadas youngest and most lucrative poetry award. ... Nelly Sachs, (10 December 1891, Berlin – 12 May 1970, Stockholm) was a German poet and dramatist who was transformed by the Nazi experience from a dilettante into a poignant spokesperson for the grief and yearnings of her fellow Jews. ... Rosmarie Waldrop (born 1935) is a poet, translator and publisher. ...

In Romanian

  • Paul Celan şi "meridianul" său. Repere vechi şi noi pe un atlas central-european, Andrei Corbea Hoisie


  • Paul Celan. Biographie et interpretation/Biographie und Interpretation, editor Andrei Corbea Hoisie


  • Paul Celan: A Biography of His Youth Israel Chalfen, trans. Maximilian Bleyleben (New York: Persea Books, 1991)
  • Paul Celan: Poet, Survivor, Jew John Felstiner (1995)

Selected criticism

  • Celan Studies Peter Szondi, translated by Susan Bernofsky and Harvey Mendelsohn (2003)
  • Word Traces Aris Fioretes (ed.), includes contributions by Jacques Derrida, Werner Hamacher, and Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe (1994)
  • Poetry as Experience Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, translated by Andrea Tarnowski (1999)
  • Gadamer on Celan: ‘Who Am I and Who Are You?’ and Other Essays, Hans-Georg Gadamer, trans. and ed. by Richard Heinemann and Bruce Krajewski (1997)
  • Sovereignties in Question: the Poetics of Paul Celan Jacques Derrida, trans. and ed. by Thomas Dutoit, Outi Pasanen, a collection of mostly late works, including "Rams," which is also a memorial essay on Gadamer and his "Who Am I and Who Are You?", and a new translation of Schibboleth (2005)
  • Paul Celan and Martin Heidegger: An Unresolved Conversation, 1951-1970 James K. Lyon (2006, forthcoming)
  • Paul Celan et Martin Heidegger: le sens d'un dialogue Hadrien France-Lenord (2004)
  • Words from Abroad: Trauma and Displacement in Postwar German Jewish Writers, Katja Garloff (2005)

Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Werner Hamacher (b. ... Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe (born 1940) is a contemporary French philosopher, literary critic, and translator. ... Hans-Georg Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher best known for his 1960 magnum opus, Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode). ...



  • Ich hörte sagen, readings of his original compositions
  • Gedichte, readings of his translations of Osip Mandelstam and Sergei Yesenin
  • Six Celan Songs, texts of his poems "Chanson einer Dame im Schatten", "Es war Ehrde in ihnen", "Psalm", "Corona", "Nächtlich geschürzt", "Blume", sung by Ute Lemper, set to music by Michael Nyman

Osip Mandelstam Osip Emilyevich Mandelstam (also spelled Mandelshtam) (Russian: ) (January 15 [O.S. January 3] 1891 – December 27, 1938) was a Jewish Russian poet and essayist, one of the foremost members of the Acmeist school of poets. ... Sergei Yesenin Sergei Aleksandrovich Yesenin, sometimes spelled Esenin (Russian: Серге́й Алекса́ндрович Есе́нин; October 3, 1895 [O.S. September 21] – December 28, 1925) was a famous Russian lyrical poet. ... Ute Lemper (born July 4, 1963) is a German chanteuse and actress. ... Michael Nyman (born March 23, 1944) is a British minimalist composer, pianist, librettist and musicologist, perhaps best known for the many scores he wrote during his lengthy collaboration with the British filmmaker Peter Greenaway. ...

Notes and resources

  1. ^ Celan is an anagram of the Romanian spelling of his surname, Ancel.
  2. ^ from "Speech on the Occasion of Receiving the Literature Prize of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen", p.34, in Celan's Collected Prose, translated by Rosmarie Waldrop, Riverdale-on-Hudson, New York, The Sheep Meadow Press, 1986
  3. ^ Note: this version is included in Lightduress [Green Integer 113] (Kфbenhavn & Los Angeles: Green Integer Editions, 2005) and on Pierre Joris's blog, link here ~~> entry for Wednesday, November 29, 2006
  4. ^ for more information on the translation of this poem please see Joris' essay Translation at the Mountain of Death

An anagram (Greek ana- = back or again, and graphein = to write) is a type of word play, the result of rearranging the letters of a word or phrase to produce other words, using all the original letters exactly once; e. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

External links

NAME Celan, Paul
DATE OF BIRTH November 23, 1920
PLACE OF BIRTH Cernowitz, Romania
DATE OF DEATH April 1970
PLACE OF DEATH Paris, France

  Results from FactBites:
Paul Celan - definition of Paul Celan in Encyclopedia (1558 words)
Paul Celan was the most frequently used pseudonym of Paul Antschel (the pseudonymous adopts an anagram of his surname in Romanian, Ancel) (November 23, 1920 - approximately April 20, 1970), who is considered one of the few major poets of the post-World War II era.
Celan was born into a German-speaking Jewish family in Czernowitz, in the region of Bukovina, then part of Romania.
Accounts of his whereabouts on that night vary, but it is certain that Celan was not with his parents where they were taken from their home on June 27, 1942 and sent by truck and then train to an internment camp in Transnistria, where two-thirds of the deportees perished.
  More results at FactBites »



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