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Encyclopedia > Pattern 1853 Enfield
Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifled Musket

Snider-Enfield rifle, converted from 1853 Enfield Rifled Musket but otherwise very similar
Type Rifled Musket
Place of origin United Kingdom
Service history
In service 1853-1867
Used by Great Britain & Colonies, USA, CSA
Wars Indian Mutiny, New Zealand Land Wars, American Civil War
Production history
Designer RSAF Enfield
Designed 1853
Produced 1853-1867
Number built approx 1,500,000
Variants Carbine
Specifications
Weight 9 lb 5 oz, unloaded
Length 53in

Calibre .577 Ball
Action Percussion
Rate of fire 3 rounds/minute
Muzzle velocity 875 ft/s
Effective range 300 yd
Maximum range 1000 yd
Feed system Muzzle-loading
Sights adjustable ramp rear sights, Fixed-post front sights

The Enfield 1853 Rifled Musket (also known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield, P53 Enfield, and Enfield Rifled Musket) was a .577 calibre muzzle-loading rifled musket, used by the British Empire from 1853 to 1867, after which many Enfield 1853 Rifled Muskets were converted to (and replaced in service by) the cartridge-loaded Snider-Enfield rifle. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (922x204, 21 KB) Summary MY OWN PHOTO Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Rifling of a Canon de 75 modèle 1897 A 35 caliber Remington, with a microgrove rifled barrel with a right hand twist. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a British perspective. ... A room at the Auckland War Memorial Museum commemorates those who died, both European and Māori, in the New Zealand Wars. ... This article is becoming very long. ... A UK government-owned rifle factory, which was to be later known as the Royal Small Arms Factory (RSAF), Enfield which has produced British military rifles and muskets since 1804. ... The word calibre (British English) or caliber (American English) designates the interior diameter of a tube or the exterior diameter of a wire or rod. ... In firearms terminology, an action is the system of operation that the firearm employs to seal the breech (in a breech-loading firearm), and to load consecutive rounds. ... Rate of fire is the speed at which a specific firearm or artillery piece can ]] per minute (RPM or round/min), or rounds per second Note that heat and ammunition concerns mean that most automatic weapons are unlikely ever to sustain their cyclic rate of fire for a full minute... A guns muzzle velocity is the speed at which the projectile leaves the muzzle of the gun. ... Rifling of a Canon de 75 modèle 1897 A 35 caliber Remington, with a microgrove rifled barrel with a right hand twist. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... SNIDER-ENFIELD BREECH LOADING RIFLE. The British . ...

Contents

History & Development

The Enfield 1853 Rifled Musket was a further development of the muzzle-loading rifle from the Baker Rifle used during the Napoleonic Wars, and the first British military longarm to use a Percussion cap as an ignition device. The term “Rifled Musket” meant that the rifle was the same length as the musket it replaced, as a long rifle was thought necessary so that the muzzles of the second rank of soldiers would project beyond the faces of the men in front, ensuring that the weapon would be sufficiently long enough for a bayonet fight, should such an eventuality arise. The Baker rifle was the rifle used by the Rifle regiments of the British Army during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl... The percussion cap or primer was the crucial invention that enabled firearms to fire in any weather. ...


The 39" barrel had three grooves, with a 1:78 rifling twist, and was fastened to the stock with three metal bands, so that the rifle was often called a "three band" model.


The rifle's cartridges contained sixty eight grains of black powder, and the ball was typically a 530-grain Prichett or a Burton-Minié, which would be driven out at about 850-900 feet per second. 1855 minie ball design from Harpers Ferry, West Virginia The Minié ball (or minie ball) is a type of muzzle-loading rifle ordnance named after its main co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié. It came to prominence in the Crimean War and American Civil War. ...


The Enfield’s adjustable ladder rear sight had steps for 100 (the default or “battle sight” range), 200, 300, and 400 yards. For distances beyond that an adjustable flip-up blade sight was graduated (depending on the model and date of manufacture) from 900 to 1250 yards. With practice a good marksman could hit a man-sized target at about half that distance.


The 1857 Indian Mutiny

An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule, which include a number of muskets.
An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule, which include a number of muskets.

The Enfield Rifled Musket was a major contributing cause to the Indian rebellion of 1857- Sepoys in the British East India Company's armies in India were issued with the new rifle in 1856, and rumours began to spread that the cartridges (referring here to cardboard wrapped powder and shot, not metallic cartridges) were greased with either pig fat or beef tallow- an abhorrent concept to Muslim and Hindu soldiers, respectively, for religious reasons. British military drills of the time required soldiers to bite open the cartridge, pour the gunpowder contained within down the barrel, then ram the cartridge paper down the barrel to act as a wad, before finally ramming a musketball down the barrel, removing the ram-rod, shouldering the rifle, adding a percussion cap, and firing. The idea of having anything which might be tainted with pig or beef fat in their mouths was totally unacceptable to the sepoys, and when they objected it was suggested that they were more than welcome to make up their own batches of cartridges, using a religiously acceptable greasing agent such as beeswax or vegetable oil. This, of course, served only as "proof" that the issued cartridges were, in fact, greased with pig and/or beef fat, and a further suggestion that the sepoys tear the cartridges open with their hands (instead of biting them open) was also rejected as being impractical- many of the sepoys had been undertaking musket drill daily for years, and the practice of biting the cartridge open was second nature to them. The indifference of many British Commanding Officers to these concerns only added more fuel to the already volatile situation in India, and helped spark the eventual Mutiny in 1857. The Sepoy Mutany of 1857 Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Sepoy Mutany of 1857 Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a British perspective. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sepâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was one of the first joint-stock companies. ...


New Zealand Land Wars

The Enfield 1853 Rifled Musket was issued to the Royal New Zealand Armed Constabulary, and saw extensive use in the mid and latter stages of the New Zealand Land Wars between 1845 and 1872. Numbers of Enfield muskets were also acquired by the Maori later on in the proceedings, either from the British themselves (who traded them to friendly tribes) or from European traders who were less discriminating about who they supplied firearms, powder, and shot to. After the introduction of the Snider-Enfield, many of the Enfield Muskets in the Armed Constabulary's armouries were sold off to members of the public, and they remained a popular sporting and hunting arm in New Zealand well into the late 19th century, long after the introduction of metallic cartridge-loading firearms. A room at the Auckland War Memorial Museum commemorates those who died, both European and Māori, in the New Zealand Wars. ...


Civil War use

Confederate dead after the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 3, 1863. A number of Enfield 1853 Rifled Muskets can be seen where they have been dropped or fallen.
Confederate dead after the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 3, 1863. A number of Enfield 1853 Rifled Muskets can be seen where they have been dropped or fallen.

The Enfield 1853 Rifled Musket was also used by both the North and the South in the American Civil War, and was the second most widely used infantry weapon in the war, surpassed only by the Springfield Musket. The Confederates imported more Enfields during the course of the war than any other small arm, buying from private contractors and gun runners when the British government refused to sell them arms after it became obvious that the Confederacy could not win the war. It has been estimated that over 900,000 P53 Enfields were imported to America and saw service in every major battle from Shiloh (April, 1862) and Vicksburg (May 1863), to the final battles of 1865. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1323x974, 362 KB)Original Image: Image:Conf_dead_chancellorsville. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1323x974, 362 KB)Original Image: Image:Conf_dead_chancellorsville. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[1] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[1] The Battle of... This article is becoming very long. ... Modern reproduction of the Springfield Model 1861 The Springfield Model 1861 was a rifled musket shoulder arm used by the United States Army and Marines during the American Civil War. ...


Reproductions

The Enfield 1853 Rifled Musket is highly sought after by Black Powder shooters and hunters, American Civil War Re-enactors, and British Military firearms enthusiasts for its quality, accuracy, and reliability. Original Enfield Muskets are obtainable but rather pricey, however the Italian firms of Euroarms and Armi Chiappa (Armi Sport) manufacture a modern reproduction of the Enfield 1853 Rifled Musket, which is readily available on the civilian market. Union reenactors recreate the Battle of Saltville in Saltville, Virginia on Aug. ...


See also

SNIDER-ENFIELD BREECH LOADING RIFLE. The British . ... The Pattern 1861 Enfield Musketoon was an alteration to the Pattern 1853 Enfield Musketoon. ...

External links

Weapons of the British Empire 1722-1965

  Results from FactBites:
 
British Empire (7826 words)
One of the major factors was the Company's introduction of the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle.
The paper cartridges containing the gunpowder were lubricated with animal fat, and had to be bitten open before the powder was poured into the muzzle.
Another factor was the execution of the Indian sepoy Mangal Pandey who was hanged for attacking and injuring his British superiors, possibly out of insult for the introduction of the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle or a number of other reasons.
Gambia encyclopedia : Cultural Information , Maps, Gambia politics and officials, Gambian History. Travel to Gambia (7932 words)
One such event that surely seemed trivial to the Company at the time, but that turned out to have dire consequences, was the Company\'s introduction of the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle.
Although Company and Enfield representatives insisted that neither cow nor pig fat were being used, the rumour persisted and many sepoys refused to follow orders involving the use of the weapons using those particular cartridges.
Indian sepoy Mangal Pandey was hanged as a punishment for having attacked and injured British superiors at the introduction of the rifle increasing tension at a time when Indians had become to resent decades of British rule under which they felt like second class citizens; exploited and seen as incapable of Home Rule.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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