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Encyclopedia > Pattern
Look up pattern in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

A pattern, from the French patron, is a theme of reoccurring events or objects, sometimes referred to as elements of a set. These elements repeat in a predictable manner. It can be a template or model which can be used to generate things or parts of a thing, especially if the things that are created have enough in common for the underlying pattern to be inferred, in which case the things are said to exhibit the unique pattern. Pattern matching is the act of checking for the presence of the constituents of a pattern, whereas the detecting for underlying patterns is referred to as pattern recognition. The question of how a pattern emerges is accomplished through the work of the scientific field of pattern formation. Patterns are also related to repeated shapes or objects, sometimes referred to as elements of the series. Some patterns (for example, many visual patterns) may be directly observable, such as simple decorative patterns (stripes, zigzags, and polka-dots). Others can be more complicated, such as the regular tiling of a plane, echos, and balanced binary branching. Look up pattern in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... In computer science, pattern matching is the act of checking for the presence of the constituents of a given pattern. ... Pattern recognition is a field within the area of machine learning. ... The science of pattern formation deals with the visible, (statistically) orderly outcomes of self-organisation and the common principles behind similar patterns. ...


The most basic patterns are based on repetition and periodicity. A single template, or cell, is combined with duplicates without change or modification. For example, in aviation, a "holding pattern" is a flight path which can be repeated until the aircraft has been granted clearance for landing.


Pattern recognition is more complex when templates are used to generate variants. For example, in English, sentences often follow the "N-VP" (noun - verb phrase) pattern, but some knowledge of the English language is required to detect the pattern. Computer science, ethology, and psychology are fields which study patterns.


In addition to static patterns, Simple Harmonic Oscillators produce repeated patterns of movement.

Contents

Computer Science

Theory of Computation attempts to grasp the patterns that appear within the logic of computer science. Since efficiency is extremely important when executing a command, minimizing a pattern into its most basic form becomes evermore necessary.

In computer science, pattern matching is the act of checking for the presence of the constituents of a given pattern. ... In software engineering, a design pattern is a general reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software design. ... Architectural patterns are software patterns that offer well-established solutions to architectural problems in software engineering. ... In computing, a regular expression is a string that is used to describe or match a set of strings, according to certain syntax rules. ...

Golden Ratio

The irrational number (approximatey 1.618) is found frequently in nature. It is referred to as the golden ratio, and is defined by two numbers, that form a ratio such that (a+b)/a = a/b (a/b being the golden ratio). It has a direct relationship to the Fibonacci numbers. This pattern was exploited by Leonardo da Vinci in his art. The Fibonacci pattern has a closed-form expression. These patterns can be seen in nature, from the spirals of flowers to the symmetry of the human body (as expressed in Da Vinci's Vitruvian Man, one of the most referenced and reproduced works of art today. This is still used by many artists). “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man (1492). ...


Art

Mondrian, Op Art

Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Piet Mondrian, 1924 Pieter Cornelis (Piet) Mondriaan, after 1912 Mondrian, (pronounced: Dutch IPA: , later IPA: ), (March 7, 1872–February 1, 1944) was a Dutch painter. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ... This article is about the art movement. ... Detail from Seurats La Parade (1889), showing the contrasting dots of paint used in pointillism. ... This article is about the band, Crop Circles, for information about the controversial phenomenon, see crop circle. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ...

Science and mathematics

Fractals are mathematical patterns that are scale invariant. This means that the shape of the pattern does not depend on how closely you look at it. Self-similarity is found in fractals. Even though self-similarity in nature is only approximate and stochastic, integral measures describing fractal properties can also be applied to natural "fractals". Examples of such are coast lines and tree shapes, which repeat their shape reguardless of what magnification you view at. While the outer appearance of self-similar patterns can be quite complex, the rules needed to describe or produce their formation can be extremely simple (e.g. Lindenmayer systems for the description of tree shapes). The science of pattern formation deals with the visible, (statistically) orderly outcomes of self-organisation and the common principles behind similar patterns. ... An L-system or Lindenmayer system is a formal grammar (a set of rules and symbols) most famously used to model the growth processes of plant development, though able to model the morphology of a variety of organisms. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ...


Patterns are common in many areas of mathematics. Recurring decimals are one example. These are repeating sequences of digits which repeat infinitely. For example, 1 divided by 81 will result in the answer 0.012345679... the numbers 0-9 (except 8) will repeat forever — 1/81 is a recurring decimal. A recurring or repeating decimal is a number which when expressed as a decimal has a set of final digits which repeat an infinite number of times. ...


In geology, a mineral's crystal structure is composed of a recurring pattern. In fact, this is one of the 5 requirements of a mineral. Minerals must have a fixed chemical coposition in a repeating arrangement, such as a crystal matrix. For a 2-dimensional crystal structure, there are 10 different planar lattices possible. Moving up to 3 dimensions, 32 patterns are possible. These are called bravais lattices.

Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... A tessellated plane seen in street pavement. ... A Penrose tiling A Penrose tiling is an aperiodic tiling of the plane discovered by Roger Penrose in 1973. ... A cellular automaton (plural: cellular automata) is a discrete model studied in computability theory and mathematics. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...

Geometry

The recurring pattern of regular polygons is called a tessellation. Out of all posible combinations, there are only three posible regular polygons that can complete a repeating pattern. These polygons are squares, triangles, and hexagons. The hexagon is the most stable version for engineering purposes. Any shear stress upon segments of the hexagon series is distibuted over the six points. A polygon (from the Greek poly, for many, and gonos, for angle) is a closed planar path composed of a finite number of sequential straight line segments. ... A tessellated plane seen in street pavement. ...


Patterns in Pedagogics

In the last years the scope of pattern languages has expanded to include domains as diverse as group work, software design, human computer interaction, education, etc. ...

Quotation

"A pattern has an integrity independent of the medium by virtue of which you have received the information that it exists. Each of the chemical elements is a pattern integrity. Each individual is a pattern integrity. The pattern integrity of the human individual is evolutionary and not static."
R. Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983), U.S.American philosopher and inventor, in Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking (1975), Pattern Integrity 505.201
"Art is the imposing of a pattern on experience, and our aesthetic enjoyment is recognition of the pattern."
Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947), English philosopher and mathematician. Dialogues, June 10, 1943.

Mathematics is commonly described as the "Science of Pattern." Richard Buckminster Bucky Fuller (July 12, 1895 - July 1, 1983) was an American visionary, designer, architect, inventor, and writer. ... Alfred North Whitehead, OM (February 15, 1861, Ramsgate, Kent, England – December 30, 1947, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.) was an English-born mathematician who became a philosopher. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ...


See also

Pattern recognition is a field within the area of machine learning. ... A sequence motif is a nucleotide or amino-acid sequence pattern that is widespread and has, or is conjectured to have, a biological significance. ... In sewing and fashion design, a pattern is an original garment from which other garments of a similar style are copied, or the paper or cardboard templates from which the parts of a garment are traced onto fabric before cutting out and assembling (sometimes called paper patterns). ... A representation of a form constant. ... A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction is a 1977 book on architecture. ... A tiling with squares whose sides are successive Fibonacci numbers in length In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are a sequence of numbers named after Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pattern (Java 2 Platform SE 5.0) (2112 words)
When this flag is specified then the input string that specifies the pattern is treated as a sequence of literal characters.
This is the regular expression from which this pattern was compiled.
If a pattern is to be used multiple times, compiling it once and reusing it will be more efficient than invoking this method each time.
Pattern - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (468 words)
Pattern matching is the act of checking for the presence of the constituents of a pattern.
The simplest patterns are based on repetition/periodicity: several copies of a single template are combined without modification.
Pattern recognition is studied in many fields, including psychology, ethology, and computer science.
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