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Encyclopedia > Patsy Mink
Patsy T. Mink was the first non-white woman to serve in Congress. She is celebrated as one of the most important civil rights leaders, especially for writing the Title IX Amendment which today preserves the rights of all genders in education.
Patsy T. Mink was the first non-white woman to serve in Congress. She is celebrated as one of the most important civil rights leaders, especially for writing the Title IX Amendment which today preserves the rights of all genders in education.

Patsy Matsu Takemoto Mink (Japanese: パッツィー・T・ミンク; December 6, 1927September 28, 2002) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi. Mink was a Japanese American and member of the Democratic Party; she also was the Assistant United States Secretary of State. Mink served in the U.S. House of Representatives for a total of 12 terms, representing Hawaiʻi's second congressional district. While in Congress she was noted for authoring the Title IX Amendment of the Higher Education Act. Mink won her last election after her death in 2002. Congressional photograph of late Congresswoman Patsy Takemoto Mink File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Congressional photograph of late Congresswoman Patsy Takemoto Mink File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Politics of the United States of America takes place in a framework of a presidential republic... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities referred to... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is the lower of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... The Second Congressional District of Hawaii is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Hawaii, officially established in 1971, defined as a result of a United States Census Bureau report of the previous year indicating an increase in the population of the state of Hawaii. ... Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (United States), commonly known as Title IX, is a 37-word law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


For her significant contributions towards equal rights in the country, Congress commissioned a likeness of her image to forever look down upon those who tread through the halls of the United States Capitol. They also renamed the Title IX Amendment of the Higher Education Act to become the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act. The United States Capitol The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ...

Contents

Early years

Mink was born on the island of Maui. There she was raised by her parents, second generation Japanese Americans or Nisei. It was in her junior year of high school on Maui that Mink won her first election, becoming student body president. Her election to the position came with great challenges that would influence the means by which she would later govern in the territorial legislature and in Congress. In order to get elected, Mink had to overcome a great deal of anger from most of the student body which hated anything Japanese-oriented. Just months before, Honolulu had been attacked by the Japanese. Mink also had to overcome the fact that she was the only female who had ever showed ambition for student office in the school's history. It was unheard of during the time. Mink orchestrated a strategy of impressing the various cliques on campus including the popular football team. Her coalition building strategy worked and she was swept into office by a close margin. Her ability to build effective coalitions would later become her trademark accomplishment on the floor of the United States House of Representatives. In 1944, Mink graduated from high school as class valedictorian. The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727 square miles (1883 km²). Maui is part of the State of Hawaiʻi and is the largest island in Maui County; the other islands comprising the county being Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, and Molokaʻi. ... Nisei (二世 lit. ... High school is a name used in some parts of the world, and particularly in North America, to describe the last segment of compulsory secondary education. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is the lower of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... In the United States and Canada, the title of valedictorian (an anglicized derivation from the Latin vale dicere, to say farewell) is given to the top graduate of the graduating class (compare dux) of an educational institution. ...


Educational adversity

Mink moved to Honolulu where she attended the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. She then transferred to the University of Nebraska where she once again faced discrimination. The university had a long standing racial segregation policy whereby students of color were forced to live in the same dormitories apart from the whites. An angered Mink organized and created a coalition of students, parents, administrators, employees, alumni, sponsoring businesses and corporations and ended the university's segregation policies. Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... The University of HawaiÊ»i at Mānoa is a public, co-educational university and is the main campus of the greater University of HawaiÊ»i system. ... Seal of the University of Nebraska The University of Nebraska is one of two public university systems in the state of Nebraska, USA. The system has four universities and a technical college: University of Nebraska-Lincoln University of Nebraska at Omaha University of Nebraska at Kearney University of Nebraska Medical... The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 Racial segregation is creamy jizz of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


After her successful war against segregation at the University of Nebraska, Mink moved back to Honolulu to prepare for medical school. She received from the University of Hawaiʻi dual bachelor's degrees in zoology and chemistry. However in 1948, none of the twenty medical schools to which she applied would accept women. A disappointed Mink decided the best way to force medical schools to accept women would be through the judicial process. Mink decided to go to law school. Faculty of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas, in Campinas, Brazil A medical school, or faculty of medicine, is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ... Zoology is the biological discipline which involves the study of non-human animals. ... Chemistry (from Greek χημεία khemeia[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules, crystals, and metals. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ...


Mink applied to the University of Chicago Law School. It, too, had a policy against accepting women but the admissions committee had thought Patsy was a proper man's name. They only found out she was a woman when she arrived in Chicago. Mink obtained her doctorate of jurisprudence in 1951. The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... J.D. redirects here; for alternate uses, see J.D. (disambiguation) J.D. is an abbreviation for the Latin Juris Doctor, also called a Doctor of Law or Doctorate of Jurisprudence, and is the law degree typically awarded by an accredited U.S. law school after successfully completing three years... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ...


Hawaiʻi politics

Honor guards carried a lei draped portrait of Mink through the Capitol Rotunda during her state funeral.
Honor guards carried a lei draped portrait of Mink through the Capitol Rotunda during her state funeral.

Newly married, Mink settled in Honolulu where she began practicing law. She became the first woman in Hawaiʻi to do so. In 1956 as the Territory of Hawaiʻi debated statehood, Mink was elected to the territorial legislature representing her district in the House of Representatives. In 1959, Hawaiʻi became the 50th state of the Union. In 1965, Mink became the first female minority to join the ranks of Congress. She served six consecutive terms. During the 1972 Presidential race, Mink ran in the Oregon primary as an anti-war candidate. Honolulu Advertiser, Cory Lum photo of Patsy Mink funeral, granted to the Hawaii State Archives for public This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Honolulu Advertiser, Cory Lum photo of Patsy Mink funeral, granted to the Hawaii State Archives for public This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...


Title IX Amendment

Mink took what she learned in high school and built some of the most influential coalitions in Congress. Her most important coalition was one to support the Title IX Amendment of the Higher Education Act, which she wrote, prohibiting gender discrimination by federally funded institutions, an outgrowth of the adversities Mink faced through college.


Mink also introduced the first comprehensive Early Childhood Education Act and authored the Women's Educational Equity Act. All of these laws written by Mink were declared landmark laws by Congress as they advanced equal rights in America beyond what could be imagined during the time. Title IX Amendment of the Higher Education Act was renamed by President George W. Bush on 29 October 2002 to become the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act. The Early Childhood Education Act is the name of various landmark laws passed by the United States Congress outlining federal programs and funding for childhood education from pre-school through kindergarten. ... The Womens Educational Equity Act is the name of various landmark laws passed by the United States Congress outlining federal protections against the gender discrimination of women in all phases of education in the nation. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


Assistant Secretary of State

Governor Benjamin Cayetano addressed mourners as a Congressional delegation led by Dick Gephardt and Nancy Pelosi, as well as a White House delegation led by Secretary Norman Mineta looked on.
Governor Benjamin Cayetano addressed mourners as a Congressional delegation led by Dick Gephardt and Nancy Pelosi, as well as a White House delegation led by Secretary Norman Mineta looked on.

In 1977, Mink gave up her seat in Congress to run for a vacancy in the United States Senate. After she lost the race, President of the United States Jimmy Carter appointed Mink to his cabinet as Assistant Secretary of State. She served alongside Cyrus Vance, Edmund Muskie, and National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski. Honolulu Advertiser, Bruce Asato photo of Patsy Mink funeral, granted to the Hawaii State Archives for public This work is copyrighted. ... Honolulu Advertiser, Bruce Asato photo of Patsy Mink funeral, granted to the Hawaii State Archives for public This work is copyrighted. ... Benjamin Jerome Cayetano, popularly known as Ben Cayetano, (born November 14, 1939) served as the fifth Governor of the State of Hawaii from 1994 to 2002. ... Richard Andrew Dick Gephardt (born January 31, 1941) is senior counsel at the global law firm DLA Piper and a former prominent American politician of the Democratic Party. ... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is the 60th and current Speaker of the House of Representatives, following the 2006 Congressional elections, and is the first woman in U.S. history to hold that office. ... Norman Yoshio Mineta (born November 12, 1931) is an American politician and member of the Democratic party. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... Cyrus Vance Cyrus Roberts Vance (March 27, 1917 – January 12, 2002) was the United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1980. ... Edmund Muskie (March 28, 1914 – March 26, 1996) was an American Democratic politician from Maine. ... Zbigniew Brzezinski Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman. ...


Later years

After her service in the Carter Administration, Mink settled in Honolulu where she was elected to the Honolulu City Council. Her peers on the council eventually elected her Chairwoman, and she often butted heads with the controversial Mayor of Honolulu Frank Fasi. Frank Fasi was the longest serving Mayor of Honolulu. ...


In 1990, Mink was swept back into Congress, serving alongside Neil Abercrombie who represented the First Congressional District of Hawaiʻi. Neil A. Abercrombie (born June 26, 1938) is an American politician and elder statesman of the Democratic Party of Hawaii. ...


On August 30, 2002, Mink was hospitalized in Honolulu's Straub Clinic and Hospital with complications from chickenpox. Her condition steadily worsened, and on September 28, 2002, Mink died in Honolulu of viral pneumonia, at age 74. Hawaiʻi and the nation mourned as President George W. Bush ordered all flags to be lowered to half mast in honor of her contributions towards the equal rights of Americans. Mink received a national memorial and was honored with a state funeral in the Hawaiʻi State Capitol Rotunda attended by leaders and members of Congress. She is buried at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific. Chickenpox, also spelled chicken pox, is the common name for Varicella simplex, classically one of the childhood infectious diseases caught and survived by most children. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Hawai‘i State Capitol is the official statehouse or capitol building of Hawai‘i. ... Like Arlington, the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific is one of the most prominent of the many national cemeteries in the United States. ...


Mink's death occurred one week after the 2002 primary election, too late for her name to be removed from the general election ballot. On November 5, 2002, Mink was posthumously re-elected to Congress. Her vacant seat was filled by Ed Case after a special election on January 4, 2003. Ed Case Edward Espenett Ed Case (born September 27, 1952) is a politician from Hawaii in the United States. ...


Resources

External links

Preceded by
Thomas Gill
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Hawaii's 1st congressional district

1965 – 1977
Succeeded by
Cecil Heftel
Preceded by
Daniel K. Akaka
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Hawaii's 2nd congressional district

1991 – 2002
Succeeded by
Ed Case

  Results from FactBites:
 
Patsy Mink - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1162 words)
Mink was born on the island of Maui.
In 1956 as the Territory of Hawaii debated statehood, Mink was elected to the territorial legislature representing her district in the House of Representatives.
Mink's death occurred one week after the 2002 primary election, too late for her name to be removed from the general election ballot.
Division for Public Education: National Asian Pacific American Heritage Month: Patsy Mink (834 words)
Mink was one of the earliest and loudest opponents of the Vietnam war, during which time she was branded as "a friend of Hanoi" and "Patsy Pink." Despite heavy criticism, she didn't back down.
Mink was at the very center of an early test case of the legislation when, in 1971, she filed suit with 32 other members of Congress to compel disclosure of reports in connection with planned underground nuclear tests at Amchitka Island in Alaska.
There are dozens of tributes to Patsy Mink's life and work from her colleagues and from ordinary people whose lives she touched at the website of the National Organization for Women.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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