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Encyclopedia > Patrol bomber

A patrol bomber, or patrol aircraft, is an airplane designed to operate for long times over water in an anti-shipping or anti-submarine role. Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... Shipping is the transport of cargo between seaports by ships, typically large steel vessels powered by diesel engines or steam turbine plants. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ...


Many of the original patrol aircraft were converted from long-range bombers or airliners, with notable conversions being Germany's Focke-Wulf Condor and the widespread use of B-24 Liberators during World War II to patrol the areas between Iceland and Greenland and attack German submarines. Purpose-built aircraft were also used, including England's Shorts Sunderland and the American-made PBY Catalina. A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft (an aeroplane/airplane) initially designed for the transport of paying passengers, and usually operated by an airline company (which owns or leases the aircraft). ... The Focke-Wulf Fw 200 was a four engine airliner. ... Royal Canadian Air Force B-24 Liberator The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was produced in greater numbers than any other American combat aircraft, and was used by most of the Allied air forces in World War II. Designed as a heavy bomber, it served with distinction not only in that... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: Immense human sacrifice, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons - the atom bomb being the ultimate. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... The Sunderland, S.25, was a flying boat patrol bomber, developed for the Royal Air Force by Short Brothers, based on their successful S.23 Empire flying boats, the flagship of Imperial Airways. ... The PBY Catalina (aka PBY Canso) was the definitive air-sea rescue aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s. ...


After the war the patrol role was generally taken over by conversions of civilian airliners that had range and performance better than most WWII bombers. The latest jet-powered bombers of the 1950s did not have the endurance needed for long, over-water cruising, and more importantly did not have the low loitering speed necessary for anti-submarine operations. The main threat to the United States throughout the 1960s and into the 1980s were Soviet submarines, which were found primarily with the use of sonobuoys, and then attacked with homing torpedoes. // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the height of the baby-boom from returning... The 1960s, or The Sixties, in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 60s and 70s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: (СССР)   listen?; tr. ... A sonobuoy is a buoy with a sonar attached to it. ... A modern torpedo, historically called a self propelled torpedo, is a self-propelled guided projectile that (after being launched above or below the water surface) operates underwater and is designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ...


Today the threat of a large scale submarine attack is remote, and many forces are downsizing their patrol aircraft fleets. Those still in service are used primarily for counter-smuggling and Exclusive Economic Zone enforcement duties. In international maritime law, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone extending from a states coast over which the state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ...


Sensors

Maritime patrol aircraft are typically fitted with a wide range of sensors:

  • Radar to detect surface shipping movements;
  • Magnetic Anomaly Detector (MAD) to detect submarine movements. The MAD is typically mounted on an extension from the tail of the aircraft in order to minimize the aircraft's magnetic field interference towards the MAD;
  • Sonobuoy dropped from the aircraft onto the sea to detect submarine movements, then transmit the data back to the aircraft;
  • ELINT sensors to monitor civilian and military telecommunications;
  • Infrared camera, as well as old-fashioned search light, are also useful in monitoring shipping movements.

A maritime patrol aircraft typically carries a dozen or so crew members, including relief flight crews, in order to effectively operate all the equipments for up to 12 hours at a time. This long range radar antenna (approximately 40m (130ft) in diameter) rotates on a track to observe activities near the horizon. ... A magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) is a piece of equipment that is used to detect minute variations in the Earths magnetic field. ... A sonobuoy is a buoy with a sonar attached to it. ... ELINT stands for ELectronic INTelligence, and refers to intelligence-gathering by use of electronic sensors. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... The Leigh Light (abbreviated L/L in documents) was a British World War II era anti submarine device used in the Second Battle of the Atlantic. ...


Examples of Patrol Bombers

The Lockheed P-2 Neptune (until 1963 the P2V Neptune) was a naval patrol bomber and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft for the United States Navy between 1947 and 1978, replacing the PV-1 Ventura and PV-2 Harpoon and being replaced in turn with the P-3 Orion. ... P-3 Orion The Lockheed P-3 Orion is a patrol aircraft of the United States military used primarily for anti-submarine warfare. ... The Bristol Type 175 Britannia was a medium/long-range airliner built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company in 1952 to fly a number of air routes across the British Empire. ... The Sunderland, S.25, was a flying boat patrol bomber, developed for the Royal Air Force by Short Brothers, based on their successful S.23 Empire flying boats, the flagship of Imperial Airways. ... The Avro Shackleton was a military aircraft. ... The BAE Systems (formerly Hawker-Siddeley) Nimrod maritime patrol aircraft is derived from the De Havilland Comet, the worlds first jet airliner. ... The Breguet Atlantic (Breguet 1150 Atlantique) is a Long-distance Reconnaissance airplane, primarily designed for use over open Sea. ... The Focke-Wulf Fw 200 was a four engine airliner. ... The Kawanishi H8K (二式大型飛行艇, Type 2 Large Flying Boat. ... Tupolev Tu-95 Bear The Tupolev Tu-95 (NATO reporting name Bear) is the most successful Tupolev strategic bomber and missile carrier from the times of the Soviet Union. ... The Beriev Be-12 Чайка (Chaika - Seagull NATO reporting name Mail) was Soviet a twin-turboprop-powered amphibious development of the Be-6 flying boat with primary roles of anti-submarine and maritime patrol aircraft. ...

 
 

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