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Encyclopedia > Patriotism
Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students' involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition.
Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students' involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition.

Patriotism denotes positive and supportive attitudes to a 'fatherland' (Latin patria < Greek patris, πατρίς), (eg. AMERICA, F**K YEA!) by individuals and groups. The 'fatherland' (or 'motherland') can be a region or a city, but patriotism usually applies to a nation and/or a nation-state. Patriotism covers such attitudes as: pride in its achievements and culture, the desire to preserve its character and the basis of the culture, and identification with other members of the nation. Patriotism is closely associated with nationalism, and is often used as a synonym for it. Strictly speaking, nationalism is an ideology - but it often promotes patriotic attitudes as desirable and appropriate. (Both nationalist political movements, and patriotic expression, may be negative towards other people's 'fatherland'). Download high resolution version (1435x2512, 280 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1435x2512, 280 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The Sixth Coalition (1812-1814) was a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and a number of German States against Napoleonic France. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ...


Patriotism has ethical connotations: it implies that the 'fatherland' (however defined) is a moral standard or moral value in itself. The expression my country right or wrong - perhaps a misquotation of the American naval officer Stephen Decatur, but also attributed to Carl Schurz - is the extreme form of this belief. Patriotism also implies that the individual should place the interests of the nation above their personal and group interests. In wartime, the sacrifice may extend to their own life. Death in battle for the fatherland is the archetype of extreme patriotism. Stephen Decatur, Jr. ... Carl Schurz Carl Schurz (March 2, 1829 – May 14, 1906) was a German revolutionist, American statesman and reformer, and Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... An archetype is a generic, idealized model of a person, object, or concept from which similar instances are derived, copied, patterned, or emulated. ...

Contents

Types of patriotism

Magnets on automobiles became a popular way to display patriotism in the United States during the 2004 elections.
Magnets on automobiles became a popular way to display patriotism in the United States during the 2004 elections.

Personal patriotism is emotional and voluntary. The patriot adheres to certain patriotic values, such as respect for the flag. They may insist that the entire citizenry shares adherence to these values, or that they be legally enforced, see Flag Desecration Amendment. Magnets on automobiles became a popular way to display patriotism in the USA around the time of the 2004 presidential election. ... Magnets on automobiles became a popular way to display patriotism in the USA around the time of the 2004 presidential election. ... Magnetic lines of force of a bar magnet shown by iron filings on paper A magnet is an object that has a magnetic field. ... Car redirects here. ... Look up value in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Flag Desecration Amendment, often referred to as the flag burning amendment, is a controversial proposed constitutional amendment to the United States Constitution that would allow the United States Congress to statutorily prohibit the physical desecration of the flag of the United States. ...


Governments promote an official patriotism which has a high symbolic and ceremonial content. It is a logical consequence of the state itself, which derives legitimacy from being the expression of the common good of the political community. National monuments, and veterans days and commemoration ceremonies are typical examples. Often official patriotism is highly regulated by protocol, with specific methods for handling flags, or specific pledges and displays of allegiance. The term national monument can either refer to a specific monument which aims to represent a nation, or to a general concept. ... President Eisenhower signs HR7786, officially changing Armistice Day to Veterans Day. ... Wreaths of artificial poppies used as a symbol of remembrance Remembrance Day (United Kingdom, Australia, Canada), also known as Poppy Day (South Africa and Malta), and Armistice Day (United States, New Zealand, France, and many other Commonwealth countries; and the original name of the day internationally) is a day to... For meanings in specific fields, see protocol (computing) or protocol (cryptography). ...


Patriotism relies heavily on symbolic acts, such as displaying the flag, singing the national anthem, participating in a mass rally, placing a patriotic bumper sticker on one's vehicle, or any other way of publicly proclaiming allegiance to the state. Symbolic patriotism in wartime is intended to raise morale, in turn contributing to the war effort. Peacetime patriotism can not be so easily linked to a measurable gain for the state, but the patriot does not see it as inferior. It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Bumper stickers are often used on commercial vehicles so that employers can receive feedback about the driving habits of their employees A bumper sticker is an adhesive label or sticker with a message, intended to be attached to the bumper of an automobile and to be read by the occupants...


Some critics have maintained that (unlike modern nationalism, which is a creation of the 19th-century nation state) authentic patriotism (as the Latin 'pater' would suggest) must be based in some form of genophilia and the sharing of ancestors.


Levels of patriotism vary across time, and among political communities. Typically, patriotic intensity is higher when the state is under external threat.


Conversely, high levels of patriotism tends to be coupled with belligerency according to the Correlates of War. As examples, patriotism was highly rated by Correlates of War in pre-WWI Germany, as is the US today in World Values Survey. The Correlates of War project is an academic study of the history of warfare. ... The Correlates of War project is an academic study of the history of warfare. ... The World Values Survey is an academic project by social scientists to assess the state of sociocultural and political values of different cultures around the world. ...


The ethics of patriotism

The primary implication of patriotism in ethical theory is that a person has more moral duties to fellow members of the national community, than to non-members. Patriotism is selective in its altruism. Criticism of patriotism in ethics is mainly directed at this moral preference: Paul Gomberg compared it to racism.[1] The view (in ethics) that moral duties apply equally to all humans is known as cosmopolitanism. (In practice, many patriots would see treason rather than cosmopolitanism as the "opposite of patriotism".) Ethics (via Latin from the Ancient Greek moral philosophy, from the adjective of Ä“thos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group. ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single moral community. ... Traitor redirects here. ...


Patriotism implies a value preference for a specific civic or political community. Universalist beliefs reject such specific preferences, and there may be an alternative, wider, community. In the European Union, thinkers such as Habermas, however, have advocated a European-wide patriotism, but patriotism in Europe is usually directed at the nation-state and often coincides with Euroscepticism. Universalism refers to any concept or doctrine that applies to all persons and/or all things for all times and in all situations. ... Jürgen Habermas (born June 18, 1929 in Düsseldorf, Germany) is a philosopher and social theorist in the tradition of critical theory. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Euroscepticism (from European and scepticism) has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ...


Some religious believers place their religion above their 'fatherland', often resulting in suspicion and hostility from patriots. Two examples of groups that have experienced this suspicion in the United States are Roman Catholics and Muslims. In the United States and the United Kingdom, Roman Catholics were seen as owing loyalty to the Pope rather than the nation. As a result, the Knights of Columbus (referred to as "the strong right arm of the church" by several Popes) established the virtue of patriotism as one of their four principle virtues. Muslims are sometimes seen as owing loyalty to the Islamic community (ummah) rather than to the nation. Other groups find a conflict between certain patriotic acts and religious beliefs. Jehovah's Witnesses and Mennonites may choose to refuse to engage in certain patriotic acts or to display certain symbols. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Knights of Columbus emblem The Order of the Knights of Columbus is the worlds largest Catholic fraternal service organization. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after and influenced by the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons (1496-1561). ...


Supporters of patriotism in ethics regard it as a virtue. In his influential article "Is patriotism a virtue?" (1984), the philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre notes that most contemporary conceptions of morality insist on a blindness to accidental traits like local origin and therefore reject patriotic selectivity. MacIntyre constructs an alternative conception of morality, that he claims would be compatible with patriotism. Charles Blattberg, in his book From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics (2000), has developed a similar conception of patriotism. Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born January 12, 1929 in Glasgow, Scotland) is a philosopher primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy but known also for his work in history of philosophy and theology. ... Charles Blattberg Charles Blattberg (born 1967 in Toronto, Canada) is a professor of political philosophy at the Université de Montréal. ...


A problem with treating patriotism as an objective virtue is that patriotisms often conflict. Soldiers of both sides in a war may feel equally patriotic, creating an ethical paradox. (If patriotism is a virtue, then the enemy is virtuous, so why try to kill them?) Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Within nations, politicians may appeal to patriotic emotions in attacking their opponents, implicitly or explicitly accusing them of betraying the country. Minorities may reject a patriotic loyalty and pride, which the majority finds unproblematic. They may feel excluded from the political community, and see no reason to be proud of it. The Australian political conflict about the Black arm band theory of history is an example. Conservative Prime Minister John Howard, who would undoubtedly describe himself as an Australian patriot, said of it in 1996: The black armband view of history is a phrase coined by Australian historian Professor Geoffrey Blainey in his 1993 Sir John Latham Memorial Lecture. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939), Australian politician, is the Prime Minister of Australia. ...

The 'black armband' view of our history reflects a belief that most Australian history since 1788 has been little more than a disgraceful story of imperialism, exploitation, racism, sexism and other forms of discrimination.

In the United States, patriotic history has been criticised for de-emphasising the post-Colombian depopulation, the Atlantic slave trade, the population expulsions and the wars of conquest against Native Americans. Millions of indigenous people lived in the Americas when the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus began an historical period of large-scale European contact with the Americas. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... Combatants Indian Nationss Colonial America/United States of America Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the Americans and the Indian Nations. ... Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ...


Patriotism is often portrayed as a more positive alternative to nationalism, which sometimes carries negative connotations. Some authors such as Morris Janowitz, Daniel Bar-Tal, or L. Snyder argue that patriotism is distinguished from nationalism by its lack of aggression or hatred for others, its defensiveness, and positive community building. Others, such as Michael Billig or Jean Bethke Elshtain argue that the difference is difficult to discern, and relies largely on the attitude of the labeller. [2] Morris Janowitz, (22 October 1919 - 7 November 1988) was an American sociologist and political scientist who made major contributions to sociological theory and to the study of prejudice, urban issues, and patriotism. ... Michael Billig is one of the key figures in contemporary social psychology. ... Dr. Jean Bethke Elshtain is a prolific feminist political philosopher with the University of Chicago Divinity School and a contributing editor for The New Republic. ...


The patriotic sentiment is one of the few which a person can express - and benefit directly from - with minimal intellectual, physical or financial effort. Any person, regardless of their level of social, political and personal comprehension, or their social standing, may express patriotic sentiments and is almost guaranteed to immediately receive emotional support and strength from others of a similar inclination. Thus, patriotic sentiments are typically strongest among communities with low, to very low, levels of education, while politicians utilise patriotic sentimentality as an effective tool for shaping political opinions within such communities.


Patriotism for other countries?

There are historical examples of individuals who fought for other countries, sometimes for their independence - for example the Marquis de Lafayette, Tadeusz Kościuszko and Kazimierz Pułaski in the American Revolutionary War, and the "Philhellenes," western Europeans who fought in the Greek War of Independence. Was Lafayette an American patriot, or the Philhellenes Greek patriots? Alasdair MacIntyre would claim that they were not; that these and similar cases are instances of idealism, but not of patriotism. Under this view, Lafayette was only devoted to the ideals of political liberty that underlay the American Revolution, but was not specifically patriotic for America. For MacIntyre, patriotism by definition can only be a preference for one's own country, not a preference for the ideals that a country is believed to stand for. Charles Blattberg's conception of patriotism, however, is more nuanced: to him, a patriot can be critical of his or her country for failing to live up to its ideals. Marie-Joseph-Paul-Roch-Yves-Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette (September 6, 1757 – May 20, 1834), was a French aristocrat most famous for his participation in the American Revolutionary War and early French Revolution. ... Tadeusz KoÅ›ciuszko Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura KoÅ›ciuszko ( ; 1746 – 1817) was a Polish and Lithuanian national hero, general and a leader of 1794 uprising (which bears his name) against the Russian Empire. ... Kazimierz PuÅ‚aski. ... Combatants United States France Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida Tuscarora Polish volunteers Quebec volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz KoÅ›ciuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben King George... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom Kingdom of France Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ...


Patriotism by country

Several surveys have tried to measure patriotism for various reasons. The Correlates of War project found some correlation between War propensity and patriotism. The Correlates of War project is an academic study of the history of warfare. ...


The results from different studies are time dependent. Patriotism in Germany before WWI ranks at or near the top, whereas today it ranks at or near the bottom of surveys.


The Patriotism Score table below is from the World Values Survey and refers to the average answer for high income residents of a country to the question: "Are you proud to be [insert nationality]?" It ranges from 1 (not proud) to 4 (very proud).[3] The World Values Survey is an academic project by social scientists to assess the state of sociocultural and political values of different cultures around the world. ...


First Survey: 1990-1992

Country Score
USA 3.73
South Africa 3.55
Canada 3.53
Slovenia 3.46
Spain 3.28
Denmark 3.27
Italy 3.25
Sweden 3.22
France 3.18
Finland 3.17
Belgium 3.07
Netherlands 2.93
Germany 2.75
Average 3.26


Second Survey: 1995-1997

Country Score
Venezuela 3.92
South Africa 3.73
USA 3.72
Peru 3.68
Turkey 3.64
Poland 3.55
Australia 3.54
Spain 3.40
Chile 3.38
Finland 3.29
Argentina 3.29
Sweden 3.13
Moldova 2.98
Japan 2.85
Russia 2.69
Switzerland 2.59
Lithuania 2.47
Latvia 2.10
Germany 1.37
Average 3.12

See also

This entry is related to, but not included in the Political ideologies series or one of its sub-series. Other related articles can be found at the Politics Portal.

Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... National symbols are symbols of states, nations and countries in the world. ... The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark, is the oldest state flag still in use. ... Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip, an 1898 political cartoon depicting the extension of the United States dominion Jingoism is chauvinistic patriotism, usually associated with a War Hawk political stance. ... Chauvinism is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as she/he is influenced by her/his belonging to a group or culture. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

References

  1. ^ Paul Gomberg, “Patriotism is Like Racism,” in Igor Primoratz, ed., Patriotism, Humanity Books, 2002, pp. 105-112. ISBN 1-57392-955-7.
  2. ^ Billig, Michael. Banal Nationalism. London: Sage Publishers, 1995, p. 56-58.
  3. ^ Patriotism in Your Portfolio http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=406200

The Pledge of Allegiance in the United States is one of the most overt forms of banal nationalism - most are less obvious. ...

Sources and further reading

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Patriotism
  • Alasdair MacIntyre, 'Is Patriotism a Virtue?', in: R. Beiner (ed.), Theorizing Citizenship, 1995, State University of New York Press, pp. 209 - 228.
  • Joshua Cohen and Martha C. Nussbaum, For Love of Country: Debating the Limits of Patriotism, Beacon Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8070-4313-3.
  • Jürgen Habermas, “Appendix II: Citizenship and National Identity,” in Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy, trans. William Rehg, MIT Press, 1996.
  • Maurizio Viroli, For Love of Country: An Essay on Patriotism and Nationalism, Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-19-829358-5.
  • Daniel Bar-Tal and Ervin Staub, Patriotism, Wadsworth Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-8304-1410-X.
  • Charles Blattberg, From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics: Putting Practice First, Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-829688-6.
  • Igor Primoratz, ed., Patriotism, Humanity Books, 2002. ISBN 1-57392-955-7.
  • Paul Gomberg, “Patriotism is Like Racism,” in Igor Primoratz, ed., Patriotism, Humanity Books, 2002, pp. 105-112. ISBN 1-57392-955-7.
  • Craig Calhoun, Is it Time to Be Postnational?, in Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Minority Rights, (eds.) Stephen May, Tariq Modood and Judith Squires. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. pp 231-256. Online at www.ssrc.org.
  • George Orwell, “Notes on Nationalism,” in England Your England and Other Essays, Secker and Warburg, 1953.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Patriotism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3899 words)
Defense of the homeland is a commonplace of military patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students' involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition.
In this context patriotism is seen as an explanation for the apparent suspension of the instinct for self-preservation, which implies that all humans would avoid a battlefield.
It is often noted that extreme varieties of patriotism (usually described as chauvinist or jingoist) rob one of the intellectual faculties necessary to judge the morality of policies related to his or her various loyalties.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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