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Encyclopedia > Patriarchy
English family c. 1900
English family c. 1900

Patriarchy is the structuring of society on the basis of family units, in which fathers dominate their wife and children with an authoritarian household regime. The concept of patriarchy is often used, by extension (in anthropology and feminism, for example), to refer to the expectation that men take primary responsibility for the welfare of the community as a whole, acting as representatives via public office. The word patriarchy is used differently by scholars depending on the context of their discipline or ideological commitment. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Father (disambiguation). ... This article is about the social science. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Photograph of a nude man by Wilhelm von Gloeden, ca. ... For other uses, see Community (disambiguation). ... Public administration is, broadly speaking, the implementation of policy within a state framework. ...


The feminine form of patriarchy is matriarchy, but there are no known examples of matriarchies from any point in history.[1][2][3][4][5][6] Encyclopædia Britannica says it is a "hypothetical social system".[7] The Britannica article goes on to note, "The view of matriarchy as constituting a stage of cultural development is now generally discredited. Furthermore, the consensus among modern anthropologists and sociologists is that a strictly matriarchal society never existed."[8] In addition, those that most likely existed prior to recorded history were annihilated by patriarchical warriors and wiped from the face of the earth, hence, there is absolutely no trace of them. In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Matriarchy is a term, which is applied to gynocentric form of society, in which the leading role is by the female and especially by the mothers of a community. ... Hypotheticals are situations, statements or questions about imaginary rather than real things. ...


The anthropologist Margaret Mead said, "All the claims so glibly made about societies ruled by women are nonsense. We have no reason to believe that they ever existed. ... men everywhere have been in charge of running the show. ... men have been the leaders in public affairs and the final authorities at home."[9] For moral comment on this see Feminist criticism below; for a scientific explanation of why, see Biology of gender below. Despite claims to the contrary, the above statement was made in all seriousness by Margaret. Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901, Philadelphia – November 15, 1978, New York City) was an American cultural anthropologist. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... English family c. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... English family c. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word patriarchy comes from two Greek words – patēr (πατήρ, father) and archē (αρχή, rule). In Greek, the genitive form of patēr is patr-os,[10] which shows the root form patr, explaining why the word is spelled patr-iarchy.[11] The basic meaning of the Greek word archē is actually "beginning" (hence arche-ology or men-arche)[12] — the first words of Genesis in Greek (see Septuagint) are En archē ("In the beginning").[13] However, archē is also used metaphorically to refer to ruling, because rulers are perceived to "start" things,[14] for example hier-archy and an-archy. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Menarche (IPA: ) is the first menstrual period, or first menstrual bleeding in the females of human beings. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... For other uses, see Anarchy (disambiguation). ...


Related words

Abraham & Son
Abraham & Son

A patriarch is a man who has great influence on his family or society. Many historical societies claimed descent from one great man. For example, the Romans believed they were descended from Romulus who founded Rome. The traditional founder of Athens is Erectheus, and of Sparta Lacedæmon. Similarly, the Jewish tradition in the Torah says Jews are descended from Abraham through Isaac. Both the Torah and Qur'an say Arabs are descended from Abraham through Ishmael,[15] [16] Abraham's first son, Isaac's half-brother. Traditional founders are often called patriarchs. The feminine form of patriarch is matriarch, for example see Matriarchs (Bible). Patriarch is also a name for the most senior leaders of Eastern Christianity, roughly comparable to the western arch-bishop (archē as above). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x1824, 274 KB) Description: Title: de: Der Engel verhindert die Opferung Isaaks Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 193 × 133 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x1824, 274 KB) Description: Title: de: Der Engel verhindert die Opferung Isaaks Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 193 × 133 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: St. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Romulus may refer to any of these articles: Romulus is a mythical founder of Rome, brother of Remus. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... The Matriarchs, known as the Ima-[h]ot in Hebrew, are four important women mentioned in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ...


The adjective for patriarchy is patriarchal; and patriarchalism and, more commonly, paternalism refer to the practice or defence of patriarchy. Patron is a related word used generically (that is, it is not gender or sex specific). Women and men who provide financial support to activities within a community can be termed patrons. The verb form patronize can be used positively, to describe the activity of patrons, or negatively, to describe adopting a superior attitude. If the superior attitude is adopted by a man, he can be called paternalistic. Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Related customs

Patrimonalism uses the Greek word monos (μόνος, sole) to describe the view of a state as the extended household of a mon-arch (sole ruler, archē as above) or deity. There are records of patrimonalism almost as far back as the earliest writing itself (about 5000 years ago). This is probably because patrimonalism directly facilitated the invention of writing — the first hereditary monarchs gained so much wealth as to need to keep accounts, and enough to pay those accountants. The earliest records of patrimonalism come from Ancient Near Eastern legal documents, the best known being the Code of Hammurabi and the Torah. Some aspects of patrimonalism can still be found in the few remaining monarchies in the world today, for example, British law concerning real estate (see Crown lands), especially in Australia. For more detail regarding patrimonalism see Traditional authority. For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... Write redirects here. ... Accountancy (profession)[1] or accounting (methodology) is the measurement, statement or provision of assurance about financial information primarily used by managers, investors, tax authorities and other decision makers to make resource allocation decisions within companies, organizations, and public agencies. ... Accountant, or Qualified Accountant, or Professional Accountant, is a certified accountancy and financial expert in the jurisdiction of many countries. ... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Middlesex Guildhall will be home to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom has three distinct legal systems. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... Crown land is a designated area belonging to the Crown, the equivalent of an entailed estate that passed with the monarchy and could not be alienated from it. ... Traditional authority (also known as traditional domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to tradition or custom. ...

Passing of X-linked conditions
Passing of X-linked conditions

Some social customs reflect what is termed patrilineality or patrilocality. X-linked Recessive inheritance From http://ghr. ... X-linked Recessive inheritance From http://ghr. ... Patrilineality (a. ... A patrilocal society is one in which a married couple traditionally lives with the mans family. ...


Patrilineal describes customs where family responsibilities and assets pass from father to son. By contrast, contemporary Judaism considers people to be Jewish if their mothers were Jewish, which makes this aspect of contemporary Judaism matrilineal. Biblical Judaism is, however, a classical example of a patrilineal society. Matrilineal is a particularly useful term in genetics, where some genetic features are more or less passed via the maternal line, notably Mitochondrial DNA and severe X-linked genetic conditions. An X chromosome from the mother is always passed to offspring, male and female. However, daughters do not receive a Y chromosome, and sons do not receive an X chromosome from their fathers (see Sex-determination system, Heredity and Genetic genealogy). For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... It has been suggested that sex chromosome be merged into this article or section. ... A scheme of a condensed (metaphase) chromosome. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. ... The ancients had a variety of ideas about heredity: Theophrastus proposed that male flowers caused female flowers to ripen; Hippocrates speculated that seeds were produced by various body parts and transmitted to offspring at the time of conception, and Aristotle thought that male and female semen mixed at conception. ... Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. ...


Patrilocal describes the custom of brides relocating to the geographic community of the husband and his father's family. In a matrilocal society, a husband will relocate to the home community of his wife and her mother (see also Marriage). Matrilocality can substantially increase the social influence of women in a culture, however, given that tribal and family leaders are still men in all known matrilocal societies, matrilocality is not equivalent to matriarchy, see main entry Patriarchy (anthropology). Bride Bride in formal dress North America. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Look up patriarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


By contrast with these other customs, patriarchy can be seen to be distinctly about gender and the nuclear family, gender and public office, and about female-male relationships in general. The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ...


Benefits of patriarchy

Patriarchy is advanced as being advantageous for human devolution and social disorganization on many grounds, crossing several disciplines. Although biology may explain its existence (see below), arguments for its social utility have been made since ancient times. The main lines of argument are either pragmatic — namely the reproductive advantages of male-as-provider — or ethical — that any perceived male authority is contingent upon underlying perceptions of duty of care. In tort law, a duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they exercise a reasonable standard of care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others. ...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Feminist criticism

Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill

Most forms of feminism have challenged patriarchy as a social system that is adopted uncritically, due to millennia of human experience where male physical strength was the ultimate way of settling social conflicts – from war to disciplining children. John Stuart Mill wrote, "In early times, the great majority of the male sex were slaves, as well as the whole of the female. And many ages elapsed ... before any thinker was bold enough to question the rightfulness, and the absolute necessity, either of the one slavery or of the other."[17] Image File history File links Beauvoir. ... Image File history File links Beauvoir. ... John Stuart Mill, scan of Photogravure from 19th century book This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... John Stuart Mill, scan of Photogravure from 19th century book This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Patriarchy is an important concept in feminism. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Methods of child discipline vary widely between cultures and have in recent times changed considerably in many of them. ...


In feminist theory, the opposite of feminism is not masculism but patriarchy. It is not surprising, therefore, that the word patriarchy has a range of additional, negative associations when used in the context of feminist theory, where it is sometimes capitalized and used with the definite article (the Patriarchy), likely best understood as a form of collective personification (compare "blame it on the Government" to "blame it on the Patriarchy"). The use of the word patriarchy in feminist literature has become so loaded with emotive associations that some writers prefer to use an approximate synonym, the more objective and technical androcentric (also from Greek – anēr, genitive andros, meaning man). Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Masculism (also referred to as masculinism) consists of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies primarily based on the experiences of men. ... Phillipp Veits Germania (1877), a personification of Germany. ... . ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ...


Fredrika Scarth (a feminist) reads Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex to be saying, "Neither men nor women live their bodies authentically under patriarchy."[18] Mary Daly wrote, "Males and males only are the originators, planners, controllers, and legitimators of patriarchy."[19] Carole Pateman, another feminist, writes, "The patriarchal construction of the difference between masculinity and femininity is the political difference between freedom and subjection."[20] Mary Daly (born October 16, 1928 in Schenectady, New York) is a radical feminist theologian. ...


Most feminists do not propose to replace patriarchy with matriarchy, rather they argue for equality (though some have argued for separation). However, Ronald Dworkin has argued that equality is a difficult idea. [21] It is particularly hard to work out what equality means when it comes to gender, because there are real differences between men and women (see Sexual dimorphism and Gender differences). Recent feminist writers speak of "feminisms of diversity", that seek to reconcile older debates between equality feminisms and difference feminisms. For instance, Judith Squires writes, "The whole conceptual force of 'equality' rests on the assumption of differences, which should in some respect be valued equally."[22] Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... Separatist feminism is a form of feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. ... Ronald Dworkin (born 1931) is an American legal philosopher, and currently professor of Jurisprudence at University College London and the New York University School of Law. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... This article is about gender differences in humans. ... Equality feminism is a submovement of feminism. ... Difference feminism is a philosophy that stresses that men and women are ontologically different versions of the human being. ...


For a leading feminist who writes against patriarchy see Marilyn French; and for one who is more sympathetic see Christina Hoff Sommers. Marilyn French (born November 21, 1929) is an American author known for her feminist novels and non-fiction. ... It has been suggested that Equity feminism be merged into this article or section. ...

Average Income USA (2005 Census Data)
Average Income USA (2005 Census Data)

In summary, recent feminist writers have shown a tendency to admit misandry among some members of the movement[23], and acknowledge real differences in men and women that make diversity a more meaningful aim than reductionistic equality (for example Judith Squires above). Image File history File links Income_inequity_US.png‎ I created the graph myself using 2005 US Census Bureau data, released for 2006, taken from here. ... Image File history File links Income_inequity_US.png‎ I created the graph myself using 2005 US Census Bureau data, released for 2006, taken from here. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homines 1622. ...


Decades of legislation and affirmative action have not yet changed the fact that western culture is male dominated, and that it remains patriarchal, although women can vote in most countries of the world, and they outnumber men in higher education in many countries [24]. Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ...


However, heads of state, cabinet ministers and the top executives of major companies are still mostly men (see glass ceiling). Also, women's average income is still significantly lower than men's average income. Sally Haslanger claims women are still marginalized within academic philosophy departments.[25] However, since Eve caused Mankind to Fall from Paradise, this is a small price to pay. For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... The term company may refer to a separate legal entity, as in English law, or may simply refer to a business, as is the common use in the United States. ... The term glass ceiling refers to situations where the advancement of a person within the hierarchy of an organization is limited. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ... 2005 Census Statistics show great income inequity between the sexes among all races. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Steven Goldberg

First Book
First Book
Main article: Why Men Rule

To date, feminists have failed to achieve many of their goals (for example, those related to executive positions and average income, see above). This was predicted in 1973 (the early days of second wave feminist activism) by Steven Goldberg (born 1941). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Why Men Rule is a book by Steven Goldberg, published by the Open Court Publishing Company in 1993. ... English family c. ... The following events related to sociology occurred in 1973. ... Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist thought that originated around the 1960s and was mainly concerned with independence and greater political action to improve womens rights. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

In every society a basic male motivation is the feeling that the women and children must be protected. But the feminist cannot have it both ways: if she wishes to sacrifice all this, all that she will get in return is the right to meet men on male terms. She will lose.[26]

Goldberg was chairman of the department of sociology at City College of New York, and has written two books on patriarchy. In his second book on patriarchy he wrote: “City College” redirects here. ...

There is nothing in this book concerned with the desirability or undesirability of the institutions whose universality the book attempts to explain. For instance, this book is not concerned with the question of whether male domination of hierarchies is morally or politically 'good' or 'bad'. Moral values and political policies, by their nature, consist of more than just empirical facts and their explanation. 'What is' can never entail 'what should be', so science knows nothing of 'should'. 'Answers' to questions of 'should' require subjective elements that science cannot provide. Similarly, there is no implication that one sex is 'superior' in general to the other; 'general superiority' and 'general inferiority' are scientifically meaningless concepts.[27]
Second Book

In Goldberg's first book, he seeks an explanation for three specific aspects of male dominance behaviour in human societies. Patriarchy is the first of these. He also considers the phenomenon of male status seeking, which he calls "male attainment". He is influenced by Margaret Mead in identifying this phenomenon. She says, "Men may cook, or weave or dress dolls or hunt hummingbirds, but if such activities are appropriate behavior for men, then the whole society, men and women alike, votes them as important. When the same occupations are performed by women, they are regarded as less important."[28] Finally, he considers the way men seem to dominate in one-to-one relationships with women. Marriage is just one example of such relationships. Goldberg comments, "A woman’s feeling that she must get around a man is the hallmark of male dominance."[29] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Goldberg proposes the hypothesis that the statistical averages of all these forms of behaviour are partly explained by the necessary (but not sufficient) condition of neuroendocrinological effects – namely, testosterone. The title of his first book makes his hypothesis very clear, it was called The Inevitability of Patriarchy: Why the Biological Difference between Men and Women always Produces Male Domination. At the time he wrote (1973), there were only very limited results from biological researchers to support his hypothesis. The situation has changed a lot since then. Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article discusses only the formal meanings of necessary and sufficient causal meanings see causation. ... Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... The Inevitability of Patriarchy is a book by Steven Goldberg, published by William Morrow and Company in 1973. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... This article is about the concept. ...


For other writers who make similar points to Goldberg see Steven Pinker and Donald Brown in the literature below. Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... Donald E. Brown is an American professor of anthropology (emeritus). ... English family c. ...


For current feminists and writers with considerably more biological knowledge than Goldberg, who accept his hypothesis, but consider issues beyond the biological, see Helena Cronin and Louann Brizendine. Dr Helena Cronin is a noted Darwinian philosopher and rationalist. ... Louann Brizendine M.D., is a neuropsychiatrist and the author of The Female Brain published by Morgan Road Books in 2006. ...

It all stems from muddling science and politics. It's as if people believe that if you don't like what you think are the ideological implications of the science then you're free to reject the science – and to cobble together your own version of it instead. Now, I know that sounds ridiculous when it's spelled out explicitly. Science doesn't have ideological implications; it simply tells you how the world is – not how it ought to be. So, if a justification or a moral judgement or any such 'ought' statement pops up as a conclusion from purely scientific premises, then obviously the thing to do is to challenge the logic of the argument, not to reject the premises. But, unfortunately, this isn't often spelled out. And so, again and again, people end up rejecting the science rather than the fallacy.[30]
"To state categorically that there can be no biological component would seem to be foolish. We do not know yet how male hormones (acting indeed before birth and the possibility of different socialization) may affect the male psyche. But that there might be a biological component does not lead me to conclude that men then should do what is 'natural' to them, for there must be complementarity between the sexes. It makes me think that humanity is faced with a deeper problem than we knew." Margaret Daphne Hampson[31]

Biology of gender

Female-Male Differences
Female-Male Differences
Main article: Biology of gender

The biology of gender is scientific analysis of the physical basis for behavioural differences between men and women. It is more specific than sexual dimorphism, which covers physical and behavioural differences between males and females of any sexually reproducing species, or sexual differentiation, where physical and behavioural differences between men and women are described. Biological research of gender has explored such areas as: intersex physicalities, gender identity, gender roles and sexual orientation. Download high resolution version (800x733, 148 KB)Fred the Peacock tries to woo an unsuspecting Peahen. ... Download high resolution version (800x733, 148 KB)Fred the Peacock tries to woo an unsuspecting Peahen. ... Human Brain The biology of gender is the physical basis for behavioural differences between men and women. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... This article is about the development of sexual dimorphisms in humans. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A bagpiper in military uniform. ... Sexual orientation refers to an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectional attraction toward others,[1] usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ...


Research in this area is generally motivated by the search for causes of diseases in human beings, and ways of treating or preventing those diseases; it is thought that men and women might require different kinds of treatment for certain diseases. The results are relevant to gender issues, but that is not their direct concern. This article is about the medical term. ...


It has long been known that there are correlations between the biological sex of animals and their behaviour.[32] [33] [34] Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The late twentieth century saw an explosion in technology capable of aiding sex research. John Money and Milton Diamond made great progress towards understanding the formation of gender identity in humans. Extensive advances were also made in understanding sexual dimorphism in other animals. For example, there were studies on the effects of sex hormones on rats. In the early twenty first century, discoveries were made concerning genetically programmed sexual dimorphism in rat brains, prior even to the influence of hormones on development. John William Money, Ph. ... Milton Diamond (born 6 March 1934 in New York, New York) is a professor of anatomy and reproductive biology at the University of Hawaii. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Sex steroids, also known as gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones which interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors. ... Genetic programming (GP) is an evolutionary algorithm based methodology inspired by biological evolution to find computer programs that perform a user-defined task. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ...

Human Brain
Human Brain
Genes on the sex chromosomes can directly influence sexual dimorphism in cognition and behaviour, independent of the action of sex steroids.

Skuse, David H (2006). "Sexual dimorphism in cognition and behaviour: the role of X-linked genes". European Journal of Endocrinology 155: 99-106.  Image File history File links Lobes_of_the_brain_NL.svg‎ Lobes of the brain image without labels. ... Image File history File links Lobes_of_the_brain_NL.svg‎ Lobes of the brain image without labels. ... A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ...


Some specific relevant results are as follows. The brains of many animals are significantly different for females and males of the species.[35] Both genes and hormones affect the formation of many animal brains before "birth" (or hatching), and also behaviour of adult individuals. Hormones significantly affect human brain formation, and also brain development at puberty. Both kinds of brain difference affect male and female behaviour. A result is the final consequence of a sequence of actions or events (broadly incidents and accidents) expressed qualitatively or quantitatively, being a loss, injury, disadvantage, advantage, gain, victory or simply a value. ... In statistics, a result is significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance, given that a presumed null hypothesis is true. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Male sex. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Birth (disambiguation). ... For the emergence of young from an egg, see Egg (biology). ...

The red bell curve here has a lower standard deviation than the green or blue curves, but the same average. This reflects the differences in logical and geometric reasoning between women and men. The purple curve has a lower average as well. This reflects the differences in sensory processing abilities between men and women.
The red bell curve here has a lower standard deviation than the green or blue curves, but the same average. This reflects the differences in logical and geometric reasoning between women and men. The purple curve has a lower average as well. This reflects the differences in sensory processing abilities between men and women. [36]

Brain differences also have a statistically measurable effect on an array of abilities. In particular, on average, women are more capable in nearly everything to do with sensory processing. On the other hand, male brains seem to be "pushed" towards extremes of low ability or high ability in various forms of mental abstraction, especially those related to space and logic. This means the average scores of young women and men in mathematics, for example, will be close, but there will be more men than women in the very low scores and in the very high scores (see the diagram at the right for an illustration).[36] There is evidence to suggest that forms of autism may be essentially extreme expressions of certain typically male characteristics.[37] [38] Hormones have also been linked with male aggression.[39] Sarah Blaffer Hrdy (confirming Goldberg above) notes observed male aggression would predict a tendency towards the patriarchy that has also been observed.[40]. For an illustrated description of clear differences between female and male brain response to pain see Laura Stanton and Brenna Maloney, 'The Perception of Pain', Washington Post (19 December 2006). Download high resolution version (1300x975, 135 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1300x975, 135 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In probability and statistics, the standard deviation of a probability distribution, random variable, or population or multiset of values is a measure of the spread of its values. ... Look up ability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Ability - the quality of person of being able to perform; A quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment. ... Senses Senses are a UK based alternative rock band from Coventry. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Sarah Blaffer Hrdy (note: Hrdy is Czech for proud) (born July 11, 1946) is a U.S. anthropologist who has made several major contributions to evolutionary psychology and sociobiology. ...

Chimpanzee
Chimpanzee

Alexandra M. Lopes and others recently published that: Image File history File links Common Chimpanzee also known as Vlad Raskin could be found in greater Boston or greater Tbilisi area depending on the season By Aaron Logan, from http://www. ... Image File history File links Common Chimpanzee also known as Vlad Raskin could be found in greater Boston or greater Tbilisi area depending on the season By Aaron Logan, from http://www. ...

A sexual dimorphism in levels of expression in brain tissue was observed by quantitative real-time PCR, with females presenting an up to 2-fold excess in the abundance of PCDH11X transcripts. We relate these findings to sexually dimorphic traits in the human brain. Interestingly, PCDH11X/Y gene pair is unique to Homo sapiens, since the X-linked gene was transposed to the Y chromosome after the human–chimpanzee lineages split.[41]

Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... A scale for measuring mass A quantitative property is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. ... Realtime redirects here. ... “PCR” redirects here. ... In genetics, transcription is the first of the two-step protein biosynthesis process. ... In biology, a trait or character is a feature of an organism. ... A DNA composite transposon. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... An evolutionary lineage (also called a clade) is composed of species, taxa, or individuals that are related by descent from a common ancestor. ...

Appendix

Patriarchies in dispute

The table shows most societies that have been claimed at one time or another to be matriarchal. In every case the ethnographers report that the societies were patriarchal not matriarchal, even before changes brought by contact with western culture. However, some of the societies are matrilineal or matrilocal. English family c. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ...


Note: "separate" in the marriage column, refers to the practice of husbands and wives living in separate locations, often informally called "walking marriages". See the articles for the specific cultures that practice this for further description.


Table

Patriarchal cultures that have been claimed to be matriarchal
Endonym Continent Country Marriage Property Government Ethnographer Date F/M
Alor Asia Indonesia patriarchy Cora du Bois 1944 female
Bamenda Africa Cameroon patrilocal only Kom matrilineal patriarchy Phyllis Kaberry 1952 female
Bantoc Asia Philippines patriarchy Albert S Bacadayan 1974 male
Batek Asia Malaysia patrilocal patriarchy Kirk Michael Endicott 1974 male
Boyowan Australasia Papua New Guinea patrilocal matrilineal patriarchy Bronisław Malinowski 1916 male
Bribri North America Costa Rica matrilocal matrilineal patriarchy William Moore Grabb 1875 male
unknown (Çatalhöyük) Asia Turkey na na na James Mellaart 1961 male
Chambri Australasia Papua New Guinea patriarchy Margaret Mead 1935 female
Pilipino Asia Philippines both both patriarchy Chester L Hunt 1959 male
Gahuku-Gama Australasia Papua New Guinea patriarchy Shirley Glasse (Lindenbaum) 1963 female
Hopituh Shi-nu-mu North America United States of America matrilocal matrilineal patriarchy Barbara Freire-Marreco 1914 female
Iban Asia Borneo both neither patriarchy Edwin H Gomes 1911 male
Imazighen Africa North Sahara patriarchy George Peter Murdock 1959 male
Haudenosaunee North America North East North America matrilocal matrilineal patriarchy Lewis Henry Morgan 1901 male
Jivaro South America West Amazon patriarchy R Karstan 1926 male
Kenuzi Africa Sudan patriarchy Ernest Godard 1867 male
Kibutzim Asia Israel neither neither patriarchy Judith Buber Agassi 1989 female
!Kung San Africa Southern Africa patriarchy Marjorie Shostak 1976 female
Maliku Asia India separate matrilineal patriarchy Ellen Kattner 1996 female
Minangkabau Asia Indonesia both patriarchy PJ Veth 1882 male
Mosuo Asia China separate matrilineal patriarchy Joseph Francis Charles Rock 1924 male
Nakhi Asia China matrilineal patriarchy Joseph Francis Charles Rock 1924 male
Nayar Asia India matrilineal patriarchy E Kathleen Gough 1954 female
Tlingit North America United States of America matrilocal matrilineal patriarchy Aurel Krause 1885 male
Vanatinai Australasia Papua New Guinea matrilocal matrilineal no government
patriarchy
Maria Lipowsky 1981 female
Wemale Asia Indonesia patriarchy Adolf E Jensen 1939 male
Woorani South America Ecuador patriarchy John Man 1982 male
Yegali Africa Madagascar na na na na na na

It has been suggested that Ethnonym be merged into this article or section. ... Alor is the largest island in the Indonesia, which from the west include such islands as Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Komodo, Flores Solor and Lomblen. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Bamenda also popularly known to its inhabitants as Abakwa, is a city in northwestern Cameroon and capital of the North West Province. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Phyllis Mary Kaberry (September 17, 1910 - October 31, 1977) was a social anthropologist who dedicated her work to the study of women in various societies. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... // Introduction The largest group of Batek are an indigenous people currently numbering about 750 who live in the rain forest of peninsular Malaysia, because of encroachment, they now primarily inhabit the Taman National Park. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Trobriand Islands are a 170 mi² archipelago of coral atolls off the eastern coast of New Guinea. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... BronisÅ‚aw Kasper Malinowski (April 7, 1884 – May 16, 1942) was a Polish anthropologist widely considered to be one of the most important anthropologists of the twentieth century because of his pioneering work on ethnographic fieldwork, the study of reciprocity, and his detailed contribution to the study of Melanesia. ... Map of Costa Rica where can be seen, in green, the three most important bribri reserves The Bribri are a small indigenous tribe, around 10,000 members, living in the Talamanca canton inside of the Limón Province in Costa Rica. ... North American redirects here. ... Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without diacritics; çatal is Turkish for fork, höyük for mound) was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... James Mellaart is an English archaeologist who is responsible for discovering and excavating the Neolithic village of Catalhoyuk in Turkey. ... Chambri (previously spelled Tchambuli) are an ethnic group in the Chambri Lakes region in the East Sepik province of Papua New Guinea. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901, Philadelphia – November 15, 1978, New York City) was an American cultural anthropologist. ... This article is about the country in Southeast Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Fore are a highland people of Papua New Guinea. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Moki redirects here. ... North American redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Ibans are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For the first mayor of Calgary, Alberta, see George Murdoch George Peter Murdock (May 11, 1897 - March 29, 1985) was a notable anthropologist. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power, Five Nations, or Six Nations) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... North American redirects here. ... North American redirects here. ... Lewis H. Morgan Lewis Henry Morgan (November 21, 1818 – December 17, 1881) was an American ethnologist, anthropologist and writer. ... Shuar, in the Shuar language, means people. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... For the breed of goat of the same name, see Anglo-Nubian. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: קיבוץ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים, gathering or together) is an Israeli collective community. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The !XÅ©, or !Kung as it is also spelled in English, are a people living in the Kalahari Desert in Namibia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Marjorie Shostak (May 11, 1945 - October 6, 1996) was an untrained American anthropologist who was notable for her writings on the !Kung San people of the Kalahari desert in south-western Africa. ... Minicoy Island (Maliku) Minicoy Island or Maliku is the second largest and the southern-most island of the Laccadive Archipelago north of the Maldives. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Mosuo (also spelled Moso) (Chinese: 摩梭; pinyin: Mósuō) are a small ethnic group living in the Yunnan Province in China, south of Sichuan Province. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Joseph Francis Charles Rock (1884 – 1962) was an Austrian-American explorer, geographer, linguist and botanist. ... The Nakhi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are an ethnic group inhabiting the foothills of the Himalayas in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, as well as the southwestern part of Sichuan Province in China. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Joseph Francis Charles Rock (1884 – 1962) was an Austrian-American explorer, geographer, linguist and botanist. ... This article is about a Hindu caste. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A Tlingit totem pole in Ketchikan ca. ... North American redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Aurel Krause was a German geographer known today for his early ethnography of the Tlingit Indians of southeast Alaska, published in 1885. ... Vanatinai is the name given to the isolated 800 square kilometre island 225 miles south-east of New Guinea by its indigenous inhabitants. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...

List

Patriarchy in ethnographies
Autonym Comments Image
Alorese "Marriage means for women far greater economic responsibility in a social system that does not grant them status recognition equal to that of men while at the same time it places on them greater and more monotonous burdens of labor."

Bois, Cora du (1944). The People of Alor: A Social-Psychological Study of an East Indian Island. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.  An ethnonym (Gk. ... Alor is the largest island in the Indonesia, which from the west include such islands as Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Komodo, Flores Solor and Lomblen. ...

Indonesia
Indonesia
Bamenda

"They are under the political authority of a Village Head, who is usually the descendant of the first settler or of the most senior man of a small band of first settlers in the locality. Where the village is the largest autonomous political unit, he may exercise a titular claim to all land within the village boundaries, but the implications of this are political rather than economic. The right to reside in a village and cultivate its land is contingent on obedience to the Village Head and conformity to custom." [Page 29.] Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Bamenda also popularly known to its inhabitants as Abakwa, is a city in northwestern Cameroon and capital of the North West Province. ...


"I stress this point since the European observer, confronted by the spectacle of women bending over their hoes through the day while a number of men may be seen lounging in the compounds, are apt to regard the division of labour as not only inequitable but as an exploitation of the female sex. Such an attitude, however, fails to take into account the contribution made by the men in the heavier tasks, more especially in the dry season; and, secondly, the onus on them to earn money for household necessaries." [Page 27.]


"Women are not eligible for the headship of kin or political groups." [Page 148.]


Kaberry, Phyllis M (1952). Women of the Grassfields. London: Colonial Research Publications 14. 

Cameroon
Cameroon
Bantoc

"As is typical of the Bantoc ... the Tanowong are organized into different dap-ay groups ... . The dap-ay ... is the men's house. The dap-ay are the religeous, social, and political centers of village life, where major decisions are made ... . While each dap-ay theoretically has a council of old men who make the decisions, in actual fact, especially at present, every mature man participates in the deliberations of the council." Image File history File links Flag_of_Cameroon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cameroon. ...


Bacadayan, Albert S (1974). "Securing water for drying rice terraces: irrigation, community organization, and expanding social relationships in a Western Bontoc group, Philippines". Ethnology 13: 247–260. 

Philippines
Philippines
Batek

"Wives usually go where their husbands want to go and the men seem to prefer their own home areas. ... The Batek have a system of headmanship which appears to go back some time. There are at least seven men in the Aring and Lebir Valleys today who are commonly regarded as penghulu ('headmen') and they have in their genealogy several generations of penghulu, menteri ('ministers' or 'chiefs'), panglima ('war captains'), and even a raja ('king'). ... The position of the penghulu descends to the sons of previous penghulu, ideally in order of birth. If the penghulu has no sons, it goes to his next oldest brother and then to his sons in order." Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... // Introduction The largest group of Batek are an indigenous people currently numbering about 750 who live in the rain forest of peninsular Malaysia, because of encroachment, they now primarily inhabit the Taman National Park. ...

Endicott, Kirk Michael (1974). Batek Negrito Economy and Social Organization. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Unpublished PhD thesis, 239–246. 
Malaysia
Malaysia
Boyowan
Kiriwina
Trobriand Islands
Malinowski on Kiriwina
Malinowski on Kiriwina

These are matrilinear, patrilocal and patriarchal tribes. Maternal uncles are family heads, and the tribal chiefs are dynastic male monarchs, paid a tribute. Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... The Trobriand Islands are a 170 mi² archipelago of coral atolls off the eastern coast of New Guinea. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


"A district is formed by a number of villages, which are tributary to a particular headman of high rank, a chief."


"A chief has a wife from each subject village."


"The headman of a village is the oldest male of the dominant subclan."


"Next to the chief and sorcerer, the garden magician is the most important person in the village. He may even be the chief. He is a hereditary specialist in a complex system of magic handed down in the female line."


"Fishermen are organized into detachments, each of which is led by a headman who owns the canoe, performs the magic, and reaps the main share of the catch."


"Although descent is matrilineal, postmarital residence is patrilocal."


Quotes from an article sourced on Malinowski (see below) by Martin J Malone.


Malinowski, Bronisław (1916). "Baloma: Spirits of the Dead in the Trobriand Islands". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 46: 354-430.  Malinowski, Bronisław (1918). "Fishing in the Trobriand Islands". Man 18: 87-92.  Malinowski, Bronisław (1920). "Kula: The Circulating Exchange of Valuables in the Archipelagoes of Eastern New Guinea". Man 20: 87-105.  Malinowski, Bronisław (1920). "The Economic Pursuits of the Trobriand Islanders". Nature 105: 564-565.  Malinowski, Bronisław (1921). "The Primitive Economics of the Trobriand Islanders". The Economic Journal 21: 1-16.  Malinowski, Bronisław (1922). Argonauts of the Western Pacific. Seattle: Washington University Press.  Malinowski, Bronisław (1936). "The Trobriand Islands of Papua". Australian Geographer 3: 10-12. 


There is an amusing anecdote of cross-cultural contact on Kiriwina. The local yam is part of the staple diet and has something of a contraceptive effect. The Kiriwina tribes were initially reluctant to believe western stories of sex causing pregnancy.

PNG
PNG
Bribri

"(The brother) ... or in the default of a brother, a cousin or uncle, [has a ruling voice in any family council or discussion]." Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Map of Costa Rica where can be seen, in green, the three most important bribri reserves The Bribri are a small indigenous tribe, around 10,000 members, living in the Talamanca canton inside of the Limón Province in Costa Rica. ...


Gabb, William Moore (1875). "On the Indian tribes and languages of Costa Rica". American Philosophical Society Proceedings 14: 483–602. 

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Çatalhöyük

"The archaeological evidence of female oriented ritual at Catal Hüyük is no more a substatial demonstration of matriarchy than some future excavations of a contemporary shrine of La Virgin de Guadalupe (or some other cult of the Madonna) might uncover." Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica. ... Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without diacritics; çatal is Turkish for fork, höyük for mound) was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern... An image of Our Lady of Guadalupe. ... Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (c. ...


Webster, Steven (1973). "Was it Matriarchy?". New York Review of Books: 37–38. 

Turkey
Turkey
Chambri
(Tchambuli)

"Nowhere [in Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies] do I suggest that I have found any material which disproves the existance of sex differences [in Tchambuli Society]. ... This study was not concerned with whether there are or are not actual and universal differences between the sexes, either quantative or qualitative." Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Chambri (previously spelled Tchambuli) are an ethnic group in the Chambri Lakes region in the East Sepik province of Papua New Guinea. ...


Mead, Margaret (1937). "Letter". The American Anthropologist 39: 558-561. 


"All the claims so glibly made about societies ruled by women are nonsense. We have no reason to believe that they ever existed. ... men everywhere have been in charge of running the show. ... men have been the leaders in public affairs and the final authorities at home."


Mead, Margaret (1973). "Review of Sex and Temperament in Three Primative Societies". Redbook October: 48. 

PNG
PNG
Filipinos
(and Filipinas)

"This combination of patterns has brought the Filipino woman to a point where, although denied some of the adventurous freedom of the male, she may be even better prepared for economic competition. The acceptance of the boredom of routine work may be seen as part of 'patient suffering' which is said to characterize the Filipino female to a greater extent than the male. Her responsibile role in the household means that the wife is charged with practical affairs while the husband is concerned to a greater extent with ritualistic activity which maintains prestige." Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ...


Hunt, CL (1965). "Female Occupational Roles and Urban Sex Ratios in the United States, Japan, and the Philippines". Social Forces 43: 144. 

Philippines
Philippines
Gahuku-Gama
(Fore)

"At marriage a Fore woman ... is expected to be ... an obedient spouse, a prolific childbearer, and generous with gifts of food to her affines and her husband's friends." Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... The Fore are a highland people of Papua New Guinea. ...


Glasse (Lindenbaum), Shirley (1963). The Social Life of Women in the South Fore. Port Moresby: Department of Public Health, Territory of Papua and New Guinea, 1. 


What is tastefully left out of this description is that food sometimes consisted of recently deceased members of the tribe. A disease called kuru, probably spread by this canibalism, affected more women, children and elderly than men. [Note again that anthropologists provide scientific observations not moral judgements.] ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...

PNG
PNG
Hopi

"It seems that brothers are assumed to be senior to sisters, and entitled to respect as such, in the absence of evidence to the contrary." Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Moki redirects here. ...


Freire-Marreco, Barbara (1914). "Tewa Kinship Terms from the Pueblo of Hano, Arizona". American Anthropologist new series 16: 269–287. 


"Within the family, the mother's brother, or, in his absence, any adult male of the household or clan, is responsible for the mainenance of order and the discipline of younger members."


Dozier, Edward P (1954). "The Hopi-Tewa of Arizona". American-Archaeology and Ethnology 44: 339. 

USA
USA
Iban

"Typically, every bilek family has as its head a man who is responsible for the general management of the farm." (page 81) Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ibans doing the ngajat A Modern Iban Longhouse in Kapit Division IBAN is also an acronym for International Bank Account Number The Ibans were formerly known during the colonial period by the British as Sea Dayaks and are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo. ...


The original ethnography is cited in Whyte, William King (1978). The Status of Women in Pre-Industrial Societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 


"The tuah rumah is the administrator and custodian of adat, Iban customary law, and the arbiter in community conflicts. He has no political, economic, or ritual power. Usually a man of great personal prestige, it is through his knowledge of custom and his powers of persuasion that others are induced to go along with his decisions. Influence and prestige are not inherited. The Iban emphasize achievement, not descent."


Quote from Martin J Malone's cultural summary drawn from sources including:


Gomes, Edwin H (1911). Seventeen years among the Sea Dyaks of Borneo: a record of intimate association with the natives of the Bornean jungles. London: Seeley. 


The main Wikipedia entry above includes a short recent history of colonial politics and wars involving the Iban, up to the co-operation between Iban and Australians against Japanese in World War II. It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The film, The Sleeping Dictionary, is set among the Iban. The Sleeping Dictionary is a 2003 film by Guy Jenkin. ...

Malaysia
Malaysia
Indonesia
Indonesia
Imazighen
(Berbers)
Imazighen
Imazighen

"Nuclear families are reported to be independent social groups only among the Mzab. Elsewhere they are aggregated into patrilocal extended families, each with a patriarchal head." Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... Download high resolution version (605x615, 69 KB) Distrubutions of Berbers in Northwest Africa. ... Download high resolution version (605x615, 69 KB) Distrubutions of Berbers in Northwest Africa. ...

Murdock, George Peter (1959). Africa: Its people and Their Cultural History. New York: McGraw-Hill, 117. 
Libya
Libya
Algeria
Algeria

Iroquois Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ...

"The Indian regarded woman as the inferior, the dependent, and the servant of man, and from nurturance and habit, she actually considered herself to be so."


Morgan, Lewis Henry (1901). League of the Ho-Dêé-No-Sau-Nee or Iroquois. New York: Dodd, Mead, and Company, 315. 


"Ruling over the League was a council of 50 chiefs known as sachem[s] or lord[s]."


From Marlene M Martin's cultural summary, which draws upon the text quoted above.


Two interesting thing about this society are that the chiefs were elected, not hereditary, and that the voters were exclusively female. The council itself had a ruler, but he was elected by the council.


See also: Richards, Cara B (1957), "Matriarchy or Mistake: The Role of Iroqois Women Through Time", Cultural Stability and Cultural Change, New York: American Ethnological Society, p. 36–45 . Randle, Martha C (undated). "Iroqois Women, Then and Now". Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 149. 


The main Wikipedia entry also provides enough circumstatial evidence to suggest what the anthropologists reported – the Iroqois were traditionally a matrilineal but patriarchal people.

Canada
Canada
USA
USA
Jivaro

"On relations between husband and wife it may be proper to say that it is regulated according to the principle 'the man governs, but the woman holds sway'." Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Shuar, in the Shuar language, means people. ...


Karstan, R (1935). The Headhunters of Western Amazonia:The Life and Culture of the Jibaro Indians of Eastern Ecuador and Peru. Helsingfors: Finska Vetenskaps-societeten Helsingfors, 254. 

Ecuador
Ecuador
Peru
Peru
Kenuzi

"The subservient position of women was determined by the Islamic religion." (page 133) Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ...


"Women influence their husbands, but [their husband's] decisions are decisive." (page 89)


The original ethnographies are cited in: Whyte, William King (1978). The Status of Women in Pre-Industrial Societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 


It is also worth noting that in this society, girls are married before puberty (Godard, 1867), by adult men who inspect them manually for virginity (Kenedy, 1970). Female circumcision is later performed at puberty to ensure chastity (Barclay, 1964). [Once more we note that niether the anthropologists who report such practices, nor those who cite them, nor this article endorse these things in any way. These practices are mentioned only to explain why most scholars do not consider this society matriarchal.] Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Virgin redirects here. ... Female genital cutting (FGC) refers to a number of procedures performed for cultural, rather than medical, reasons on the female genitalia. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ...

Sudan
Sudan
Kibbutzim

"Some women serve as secretaries of kibbutzim, very few as treasurers; women as economic directors are still a rarity. Experience in the internal positions of power is the stepping stone to external positions of power. There has been one woman national secretary of a kibbutz federation. The kibbutz federations usually send into national politics one token woman at a time." Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: קיבוץ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים, gathering or together) is an Israeli collective community. ...


Agassi, Judith Buber (1989). "Gender Equality: Theoretical Lessons from the Israeli Kibbutz". Gender and Society 3: 160-186. 

Israel
Israel
!Kung

"N≠issa's descriptions ... of her relationship with her husband, Tashay, suggest that relations between the sexes are not egalitarian, and that men, because of their greater strength, have power and can exercise their will in relation to women. This confirms Marshall's (1959) finding that men's status is higher than women's." Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... The !XÅ©, or !Kung as it is also spelled in English, are a people living in the Kalahari Desert in Namibia. ...


Shostak, Marjorie (1976), "A !Kung Woman's Memories of Childhood", in Lee and De Vore, Kalahari Hunter-Gatherers, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, p. 277 


"The dominant impression one gets from accounts of patrilocal bands is one of semi-isolated, male-centered groups, encapsulated within territories."


Lee, Richard B (1976), "!Kung Spacial Organization", in Lee and De Vore, Kalahari Hunter-Gatherers, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, p. 75 


"There are inherited positions, such as the 'headman'."


Marshall, Lorna (1976). The !Kung of Nyae Nyae, 125. 


"Raising 2 or 3 children to competent maturity—the life's work of a successful woman—has typically required hard decisions about priorities, attentive management of social relations, ingenuity, luck, and decades of hard labor."


Fielder, Christine; Chris King (2004). Sexual Paradox Complementarity, Reproductive Conflict, and Human Emergence. ISBN 1-4116-5532-X. 

Angola
Angola
Namibia
Namibia
Botswana
Botswana
Maliku
Minicoy
Maldives Royal Family 1888

"Maliku seamen then had small colonies in Burma, near Rangoon, and on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Nowadays, the men prefer to work on cargo ships owned by national and international shipping companies. Their 'Minicoy Seamen's Association' shifted from Calcutta to Bombay, where they teach the young men and supply employment." Image File history File links Flag_of_Angola. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Angola. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Namibia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Namibia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Botswana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Botswana. ... Minicoy Island (Maliku) Minicoy Island or Maliku is the second largest and the southern-most island of the Laccadive Archipelago north of the Maldives. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


"Until 1960, all the villages selected an additional authority, the rahubodukaka (lit. the country's big brother), who was in charge of the rahuge (lit. house of the country). He and the rahuweriñ (lit. ruler of the country), a boduñ selected by the boduñ and niamiñ [high status groups], were responsible for all the affairs concerning the whole island and the access to the southern part for collecting firewood and coconuts."


Kattner, Ellen (1996). "Union Territory of Lakshadweep: The Social Structure of Maliku". Institute for Asian Studies Newsletter 10. 

India
India
Minangkabau

"In spite of the nominal 'matriarchate', Van Hasselt claims that the women are really the servants of the men. They not only prepare the meals of the men in their family, but they also serve them first, later eating with the children." Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ...


Paraphrase of:


Hasselt, AL van (1882), "Volksbeschrijving van Midden-Sumatra", in PJ Veth, Midden-Sumatra, Leiden, p. Third Part 


"The women have not the legal right to make a contract, not even to dispose of themselves in marriage."


Both quotes from:


Loeb, EM (1934). "Patrilineal and Matrilineal Organization in Sumatra: The Minangkabau". The American Anthropologist 36: 49. 


More recently, Peggy Reeves Sanday observed the following:


"The Minangkabau are guided by a hegemonic idealogy called adat, which legitimizes and structures traditional political and ceremonial life." [Page 146]


"Thus, the Minangkabau make a distinction between female/weak and male/strong ..." [Page 149]


"In the specifics of male and female role definition, adat [sic] ideology is decidedly androcentric." [Page 150]


"First there are the ninik mamak, the men who have the authority to decide in accordance with adat law. The ninik mamak have authority over their nephews and nieces. [The ninik mamak] are the heads of the clan in the villages." [Page 151]


Sanday, Peggy Reeves (1990), "Gender in Minangkabau Ideology", in PR Sanday and Ruth Gallagher Goodenough, Beyond the Second Sex, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press 


Mohammad Hatta, the first vice president of Indonesia, was a Minangkabau. Mohammad Hatta (August 12, 1902 - March 14, 1980) was born in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ...

Indonesia
Indonesia
Naxi
Mosuo

"The Naxi Kingdom flourished from the eighth century until 1724 when it came under direct Chinese rule. ... Their predominant tribe is the Moso, the name by which the Naxi were originally known. The Moso of today carry on the matrilineal family structure in the Naxi tradition. ... Naxi is the only living pictographic language. ... Although a large percentage of Naxi ceremonies deal with exorcism, the Library's collection also includes a pictographic creation story, a sacrifice to the Serpent King, accounts of Naxi warriors and other people of high social standing ascending to the realm of deities, and love-suicide stories." From Library of Congress website. Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... The Mosuo (also spelled Moso) (Chinese: 摩梭; pinyin: Mósuō) are a small ethnic group living in the Yunnan Province in China, south of Sichuan Province. ...


This secondary source describes the primary literature available regarding the Naxi. Unlike most of the other socieities in this list, the Naxi were literate and have left records of their beliefs and practices. The mention of "warriors" and "high social standing" and even "matrilineal" rather than "matriarchal", suggest an historically patriarchal society.

China
China
Nayar

"The Karanavan [mother's brother] was traditionally unequivocal head of the group... . He could command all other members, male and female, and children were trained to obey him with reverence." Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... This article is about a Hindu caste. ...


Gough, E Kathleen (1954). The Traditional Kinship System of the Nayars of Malabar (manuscript). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Social Science Research Council Summer Seminar on Kinship,Harvard University. 


Quoted in:


Stephens, William N (1963). The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 317. 

India
India
Tlingit

"The rank of chief ... passes from uncle to nephew." Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... A Tlingit totem pole in Ketchikan ca. ...


Krause, Aurel (1956). The Tlingit Indians: Results of a Trip to the Northwest Coast of America and the Bering Straits. Seattle: Washington University Press, 77. 


The excellent Wikipedia main entry provides a clear and detailed report of the matrilineality, matrilocality and patriarchy of this society.

USA
USA
Vanatinai

"About twelve women, dressed in the usual petticoat of grass-like stuff, followed at a distance, and kept close to the point for some time; but at length the natural curiosity of the sex (I suppose) overcame their fear, and although repeatedly ordered back by the men, they drew up closer and closer to have a peek at the strangers." Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Vanatinai is the name given to the isolated 800 square kilometre island 225 miles south-east of New Guinea by its indigenous inhabitants. ...


MacGillivray, John (1852). Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake: During the years 1846-1850, Including Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea, the Louisiade Archipelago. London: T. & W. Boone.  Moving westward from eastern end of the chain are the islands of Rossel and Tagula. ...


"Almost all sorcerers on Vanatinai, who often exercise political and economic control over their neighbours, are male. ... No Vanatinai women have ever been elected as a Local Government Councillor."


Lepowsky, Maria (1981). Fruit of the Motherland: Gender and Exchange on Vanatina, Papua New Guinea. University of California: unpublished PhD dissertation, 469-470. 


"Knowledge of sorcery is one of the primary means by which certain men gain political ascendancy over other men and women." (p. 205)


"Sorcerers are often, but not always, big men and/or ritual experts, protectors, and healers of their own kin and neighbors. Although there are big women, female witches and sorcerers, and female ritual experts and healers, men who are widely known as sorcerers often have more influence than anyone else." (p. 176)


"Sorcery on Vanatinai is almost entirely the province of males, but even so they do not have a monopoly on sorcery...for a few women have been adepts." (p. 203)


"Sorcerers on both Vanatinai and neighboring Rossel Island are almost always male." (p. 172.)


"The Vanatinai men who are known as sorcerers are often the most influential members of their hamlet." (p. 173.)


"The activities that are exclusively male...are high in prestige, while one that is exclusively female is very low in prestige." (p. 123f.)


Lipowsky, Maria (1981). Fruit of the Motherland: Gender in an Egalitarian Society. New York City: Columbia University Press. 

PNG
PNG
Wemale

Traditional origin of headhunting: Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ...


"Then Latulisa [war chief and leader of the baileo -- men's house] himself went to his sister who, at the time, was weaving a kanune [skirt], and he cut off her head. He hung up the head in the baileo which now was nicely decorated. From that time on people practiced headhunting."


Traditional story of war starting as game of "tag", eventually the losers took revenge by killing:

"From that time on war was waged with weapons, and there was headhunting. It was agreed that women should never again fight."

Translated from German original:


Jensen, Adolf E (1939). Hainuwele: Volkserzählungen von der Molukken-Insel Ceram. Leipzig: Frobenius Institute. 


Later commentary:


"[The Wemale men] filled-in their deficit as providers with ceremonial authority and with the terror of headhunting and cannibalism."


"Wemale men were obsolescent hunters who annually sacrificed a female Hainuwele [coconut girl] victim. Surely, they did not do so only because the mythical origin of tubers involved the death of a female dema deity, but also because the obsolescent hunters competed with their women for status."


Luckert, Karl W (1990). "Hainuwele and Headhunting Reconsidered". East and West: 261-279. 

Indonesia
Indonesia
Woorani

"Kaempaede [a male] was, in short, the patriarch." Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ...


Man, John (1982). Jungle Nomads of Ecuador: The Woorani. Amsterdam: Time Life Books, 65. 


"It is true that leadership does exist, but it is situational by nature. A man becomes a leader for a specific event, and when that event has passed, his cloak of leadership disappears."


Yost, James A (1981). "People of the Forest: The Woorani". Ecuador Ediciones Libri Mundi: 109. 

Ecuador
Ecuador
Yegali

This Madagascan tribe was mentioned in the textbook cited below. Hodges told Goldberg he'd heard about them from Donald Blender, but Goldberg and Hodges could find no evidence of them in any other academic literature. Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ...


Hodge, Harold (1971). Conflict and Consensus. New York: Harper and Row, 77. 

Madagascar
Madagascar

Image File history File links Flag_of_Madagascar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Madagascar. ...

See also

Look up patriarchy in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Antifeminism refers to disbelief regarding the economic, political, and or social equality of females as a sex. ... Mencius outlined the Three Subordinations. ... In Roman mythology, Domitius was the god who kept wives in the households of their husbands. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Two homemakers. ... Manliness redirects here. ... The mens movement is a social movement that includes a number of philosophies and organizations that seek to support men, change the male gender role and improve mens rights in regard to marriage and child access and victims of domestic violence. ... The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individuals innate qualities (nature) versus personal experiences (nurture) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Patriarch magazine was published from 1993 to 2004 by Philip Lancaster, a former minister in the Presbyterian Church in America and a pioneer in the modern home education movement. ... The Patriarchs, known as the Avot in Hebrew, are Abraham, his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob. ... The Sociology of fatherhood is a subbranch of sociology which studies gender role in society, with particular reference to the parental role of the father. ...

References

  1. ^ Steven Goldberg, The Inevitability of Patriarchy, (William Morrow & Company, 1973).
  2. ^ Joan Bamberger,'The Myth of Matriarchy: Why Men Rule in Primitive Society', in M Rosaldo and L Lamphere, Women, Culture, and Society, (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1974), pp. 263-280.
  3. ^ Robert Brown, Human Universals, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press), 1991.
  4. ^ Steven Goldberg, Why Men Rule, (Chicago, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company, 1993).
  5. ^ Cynthia Eller, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Won't Give Women a Future, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001).
  6. ^ Jonathan Marks, 'Essay 8: Primate Behavior', in The Un-Textbook of Biological Anthropology, (Unpublished, 2007), p. 11.
  7. ^ 'Matriarchy', Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  8. ^ 'Matriarchy', Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  9. ^ Margaret Mead,'Review of Sex and Temperament in Three Privative Societies'. Redbook (October 1973): 48.
  10. ^ William D Mounce, The Morphology of Biblical Greek, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994), p. 209.
  11. ^ The letter i in patr-i-archy occurs because patēr comes into English via Latin, which had a different vowel flavour to Greek in the genitive (pater/patris). For example, the abbreviation DVP stands for Decessit Vita Patris (literally, died in the life of the father; meaning, died in the father's lifetime).
  12. ^ Bauer, Arndt and Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon, 3rd ed., (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), pp. 137.
  13. ^ Alfred Rahlfs ed., Septuaginta, (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1979), p. 1.
  14. ^ Bauer, Danker, Arndt and Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon, 3rd ed., (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), pp. 138.
  15. ^ Genesis 25:12-18.
  16. ^ Sura 37:99-109.
  17. ^ John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women, (London: Longmans, 1868).
  18. ^ Fredrika Scarth, The Other Within: Ethics, Politics and the Body in Simone de Beauvoir, (Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004), p. 100.
  19. ^ Mary Daly, Gyn/Ecology The Metaethics of Radical Feminism, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1978), p. 29.
  20. ^ Carole Pateman, The Sexual Contract, (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988), p. 207.
  21. ^ "People who praise it or disparage it disagree about what they are praising or disparaging.", Ronald Dworkin, Sovereign Virtue: The Theory and Practice of Equality, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000), p. 2.
  22. ^ Judith Squires, Gender in Political Theory, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1999), p. 97.
  23. ^ Hoff Sommers, Christina, Who Stole Feminism? How Women Have Betrayed Women (Touchstone/Simon & Schuster, 1995)
  24. ^ "In terms of academic achievement, international education figures from 43 developed countries, published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in 2003, showed a consistent picture of women achieving better results than men at every level, particularly in literacy assessments.", Ian W Craig, Emma Harper and Caroline S Loat, 'The Genetic Basis for Sex Differences in Human Behaviour: Role of the Sex Chromosomes', Annals of Human Genetics 68 (2004): 269–284.
  25. ^ Sally Haslanger, Article Title.
  26. ^ Steven Goldberg, The Inevitability of Patriarchy, (London: Temple Smith, 1977), p. 196.
  27. ^ Steven Goldberg, Why Men Rule, (Chicago, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company, 1993), p. 1.
  28. ^ Margaret Mead. Male and Female. London: Penguin, 1950.
  29. ^ Steven Goldberg, Why Men Rule, (Chicago, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company, 1993), p. 11.
  30. ^ John Brockman, 'Getting Human Nature Right: A Talk with Helena Cronin', Edge 73 (2000): 2.
  31. ^ Margaret Daphne Hampson, Theology and Feminism, (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 1990), p. x.
  32. ^ Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, (London: John Murray, 1859).
  33. ^ Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, 2 volumes, (London: John Murray, 1871).
  34. ^ Helena Cronin, The Ant and the Peacock: Altruism and Sexual Selection from Darwin to Today, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
  35. ^ Robert W Goy and Bruce S McEwen, Sexual Differentiation of the Brain: Based on a Work Session of the Neurosciences Research Program. MIT Press Classics. Boston: MIT Press, 1980.
  36. ^ a b Camilla Persson Benbow and Julian C Stanley, 'Sex Differences in Mathematical Reasoning Ability: More Facts', Science 222 (1983): 1029-1031.
  37. ^ Simon Baron-Cohen, 'The Extreme-Male-Brain Theory of Autism', in H Tager-Flusberg (ed.), Neurodevelopmental Disorders, (Boston: The MIT Press, 1999).
  38. ^ Simon Baron-Cohen. Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. (Boston: The MIT Press, 1997).
  39. ^ Elizabeth J. Susman, Gale Inoff-Germain, Editha D. Nottelmann, and others, 'Hormones, Emotional Dispositions, and Aggressive Attributes in Young Adolescents', Child Development 58 (1987): 1114-1134.
  40. ^ , 'Raising Darwin's Consciousness: Female Sexuality and the prehominid origins of patriarchy.' Human Nature 8 (1997): 1-49.
  41. ^ Alexandra M. Lopes and others,'Inactivation status of PCDH11X: sexual dimorphisms in gene expression levels in brain', Human Genetics 119 (2006): 1–9.

The Inevitability of Patriarchy is a book by Steven Goldberg, published by William Morrow and Company in 1973. ... Human Universals is a book by Donald Brown, an American professor of anthropology (emeritus) who worked at the University of California, Santa Barbara. ... Why Men Rule is a book by Steven Goldberg, published by the Open Court Publishing Company in 1993. ... The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why An Invented Past Wont Give Women A Future[1] is a 2000 book by Cynthia Eller, a professor at Montclair State University. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Inevitability of Patriarchy is a book by Steven Goldberg, published by William Morrow and Company in 1973. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Why Men Rule is a book by Steven Goldberg, published by the Open Court Publishing Company in 1993. ... The Open Court Publishing Company is a publisher with offices in Chicago and La Salle, Illinois. ... Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ...

External links

Phillip Longman (born April 21, 1956, Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) is a renowned demographer. ...

Literature

  • Adeline, Helen B. Fascinating Womanhood. New York: Random House, 2007.
  • Baron-Cohen, Simon. The Essential Difference: The Truth about the Male and Female Brain. New York: Perseus Books Group, 2003.
  • Beauvoir, Simone de. Le Deuxième Sexe. Paris: Éditions Gallimard, 1949. (original French edition)
  • Beauvoir, Simone de. The Second Sex. London: Jonathan Cape, 1953. (first UK edition, in translation)
  • Beauvoir, Simone de. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1953. (first USA edition, in translation)
  • Bourdieu, Pierre. Masculine Domination. Translated by Richard Nice. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001.
  • Brizendine, Louann. The Female Brain. New York: Morgan Road Books, 2006.
  • Brown, Donald E. Human Universals. New York: McGraw Hill, 1991.
  • Jay, Jennifer W. 'Imagining Matriarchy: "Kingdoms of Women" in Tang China'. Journal of the American Oriental Society 116 (1996): 220-229.
  • Konner, Melvin. The Tangled Wing: Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit. 2nd edition, revised and updated. (Owl Books, 2003). 560p. ISBN 0805072799 [first published 1982, Endnotes
  • Lepowsky, Maria. Fruit of the Motherland: Gender in an Egalitarian Society. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
  • Mead, Margaret. 'Do We Undervalue Full-Time Wives'. Redbook 122 (1963).
  • Mies, Maria. Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labour. Palgrave MacMillan, 1999.
  • Moir, Anne and David Jessel. Brain Sex: The Real Difference Between Men and Women.
  • Ortner, Sherry Beth. 'Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?'. In MZ Rosaldo and L Lamphere (eds). Woman, Culture and Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974, pp. 67-87.
  • Ortner, Sherry Beth. 'So, Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?'. In S Ortner. Making Gender: The Politics and Erotics of Culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996, pp. 173-180.
  • Pilcher, Jane and Imelda Wheelan. 50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies. London: Sage Publications, 2004.
  • Pinker, Steven. The Blank Slate: A Modern Denial of Human Nature. London: Penguin Books, 2002.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Patriarchy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (774 words)
The term patriarchy is also used in systems of ranking male leadership in certain hierarchical churches or religious bodies (see patriarch and Patriarchate).
In gender studies, the word patriarchy often refers to a social organization marked by the supremacy of a male figure, group of male figures, or men in general.
Patriarchy as an embodied set of beliefs about the 'natural' gender order (frequently backed up by notions of biological or deific determinism) often operates through a collective willingness towards 'gender blindness', a refusal to observe and study the effects of gender on social relations and power.
Understanding Patriarchy by bell hooks : AZ IMC (4285 words)
Patriarchy is a political-social system that insists that males are inherently dominating, superior to everything and everyone deemed weak, especially females, and endowed with the right to dominate and rule over the weak and to maintain that dominance through various forms of psychological terrorism and violence.
Patriarchy as a system has denied males access to full emotional well-being, which is not the same as feeling rewarded, successful, or powerful because of one's capacity to assert control over others.
Psychological patriarchy is a "dance of contempt," a perverse form of con­nection that replaces true intimacy with com­plex, covert layers of dominance and submission, collusion and manipulation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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