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Encyclopedia > Patriarch of Constantinople

The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the "first among equals" in the Eastern Orthodox communion. In this capacity he is first in honor among all the Orthodox bishops, presides over any council of bishops in which he takes part and serves as primary spokesman for the communion, but has no jurisdiction over the other patriarchs or the other autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. Map of Constantinople. ... First among Equals could refer to Primus inter pares, a political concept or First Among Equals, a novel by Jeffrey Archer ... This article treats the manner in which the Eastern Orthodox Churches are organized, rather than the doctrines, traditions, practices, or other aspects of Eastern Orthodoxy. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... The Vladimir Icon, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary. ...

In addition to being spiritual leader of 300 million Orthodox Christians worldwide, he is the direct administrative head of some four million Ukrainian, Greek, Carpatho-Russian and Albanian Orthodox in the U.S., Canada, Central and South America, and Western Europe (where his flock consists mainly of the Greek diaspora).

His titular position is Patriarch of the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, one of the sixteen autocephalous churches and one of the five Christian centers comprising the ancient Pentarchy. In his role as head of the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, he additionally holds the title Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome. He should not be confused with the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, an office that is now extinct. His official title is "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch". Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. ... The Orthodox Church of Constantinople is one of the fifteen autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Pentarchy, the Five Great Sees or early Patriarchates, were the five major centers of the Christian church in the early Middle Ages: Rome (Sts. ... New Rome is a term that can be applied to a city or a country. ... The Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was an office established as a result of Crusader activity in the Middle East. ...


Early history

As Constantine the Great had made Byzantium "New Rome" in 330, it was thought appropriate that its bishop, once a suffragan of Heraclea, should become second only to the Bishop of Old Rome. Soon after the transfer of the Roman capital, the bishopric was elevated to an archbishopric.[1] For many decades Roman popes opposed this ambition, not because anyone thought of disputing their first place, but because they were unwilling to change the old order of the hierarchy. In 381, however, the First Council of Constantinople declared that: "The Bishop of Constantinople shall have the primacy of honour after the Bishop of Rome, because it is New Rome" (can. iii). Constantine. ... Byzantium was an ancient Greek city-state, founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas. ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... Heraclea was the name of a large number of ancient cities founded by the Greeks. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ... The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the successor of St. ... For the various types of hierarchy, see hierarchy (disambiguation) A hierarchy (in Greek: Ιεραρχία, it is derived from ιερός-hieros, sacred, and άρχω-arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is subordinate to a single other element. ... Events First Council of Constantinople - second Ecumenical council of the Christian Church: The Nicene creed is affirmed and extended, Apollinarism is declared a heresy. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ...

Popes Damasus and Gregory the Great refused to confirm this canon, a very unusual and controversial step, as Ecumenical Councils were considered binding on all Christian churches. Nonetheless, the prestige of the office continued to grow under the patronage of the Byzantine emperor. This is a current Biography collaboration of the week! Please help improve it to featured article standard. ... Pope Saint Gregory I or Gregory the Great (ca. ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... Look up Controversy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A controversy is a contentious dispute, a disagreement in opinions over which parties are actively arguing. ... In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ...

The Council of Chalcedon in 451 established Constantinople as a patriarchate with jurisdiction over Asia Minor, and Thrace, appellate jurisdiction over canon law decisions by the other patriarchs; and the second place in primacy after Rome (can. xxviii). Pope Leo I refused to admit this canon, claiming it was invalid since it was made in the absence of his legates, again a controversial position. In the 6th century, the official title of the bishop became "Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch". [2] The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8–November 1, 451 at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aetius in the Battle of Chalons. ... Map of Constantinople. ... A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. ... In law, jurisdiction refers to the aspect of a any unique legal authority as being localized within boundaries. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Thrace (Greek Θρᾴκη ThrákÄ“, Bulgarian Тракия Trakija, Turkish Trakya) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece, and European Turkey. ... Pope Saint Leo I, or Leo the Great, was a Roman aristocrat who was Pope from 440 to 461. ... A Papal Legate -from the Latin, authentic Roman title Legatus- is a personal representative of the Pope to the nations, or rather to some part of the universal church. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ...

The current Patriarch is Bartholomew I. His All Holiness Patriarch Bartholomew I Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I (born Demetrios Archontonis on February 29, 1940) has been the Patriarch of Constantinople, and thus first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion, since November 2, 1991. ...

Issues of Religious Freedom

When the Ottomans conquered Constantinople, now Istanbul, both the Emperor and the Patriarch were killed. The position of head of the Orthodox Church was handed to Gennadius II Scholarius by the conquering Islamic Ottoman ruler, Sultan Mehmed II. The modern Turkish state requires the Patriarch to be a Turkish citizen but allows the Synod of Constantinople to elect him. However when Sultan Mehmet II adopted a policy of formal dialogue with the "national" (largely defined by religion) communities, the major ethnarch recognised as official interlocutor was precisely the Ecumenical Patriarch. Motto: Peace at Home, Peace in the World (Turkish: Yurtta Sulh, Cihanda Sulh) Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı Capital Ankara Largest city Istanbul Official language(s) Turkish Government President Prime Minister Republic Ahmet Necdet Sezer Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan National Day  - Formation of Parliament  - Declaration of Republic April 23, 1920 October... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... The title of Ethnarch was used in the Roman east to refer to rulers of vassal kingdoms who did not rise to the level of Kings. ...

Human rights groups, EU governements, and the U.S. government, have long protested conditions placed by the government of Turkey on the Ecumenical Patriarch. For example, the Ecumenical status accorded him within Eastern Orthodoxy, and recognized by Ottoman governments, has on occasion been a source of controversy within the Republic of Turkey, which under its laws regarding religious minorities officially recognizes him as only the "Patriarch of Fener." (Fener is the district in Istanbul where his headquarters are located.) Expropriation of Church property and the closing of the Orthodox Theological School are also cited by human rights groups. Fanar (formerly Phanar, Fener in Turkish) is a neighborhood in Istanbul, Turkey (formerly Constantinople). ...

Notes and References

  1. ^ "Ecumencial Patriarchate of Constantinople", Encyclopedia Britannica 2005 Deluxe Edition CD-ROM.

1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt - look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) is the oldest English-language general encyclopedia. ...

See also

Bishops of Byzantium (until 325) St. ... Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. ...

External links

  • Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople
  • http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/byzantium/texts/byzpatcp.html
  • http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2004/35489.htm
  • http://www.archons.org/pdf/yalelawstudy.pdf | Lowenstein International Human Rights Center (Yale Law School) on Rights problems at the Patriarchate
  • http://www.csce.gov/index.cfm?Fuseaction=ContentRecords.ViewDetail&ContentRecord_id=98&Region_id=0&Issue_id=0&ContentType=G&CFID=3285732&CFTOKEN=56116027 United States Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe report on the Patriarchate

  Results from FactBites:
Latin Patriarch of Constantinople - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (253 words)
The Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was one of the four Roman Catholic "patriarchs of the east".
In 1204, the Fourth Crusade invaded, seized and sacked Constantinople, and established the Latin Empire.
The Latin establishment was defeated and dispossessed in 1261, although the Latin Patriarchate persisted, based at St.
Patriarch of Constantinople - definition of Patriarch of Constantinople in Encyclopedia (428 words)
His titular position is Patriarch of the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, one of the sixteen autocephalous Churches, and he is one of the original four Eastern Orthodox patriarchs.
Within Roman Catholic administration, it was not until the Roman Catholic Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 that the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was recognized as having such status; in 1439 the Council of Florence (not recognized by the Orthodox Church as ecumenical) gave it to the Greek patriarch.
Aft the fall of Constantinople, the Ottoman Sultan claimed the right of appointment, but the modern Turkish state simply requires the Patriarch to be a Turkish citizen and allows the Synod of Constantinople to elect him.
  More results at FactBites »



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