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Encyclopedia > Patna
  ?Patna
Bihar • India
Map indicating the location of Patna
 Patna 
Coordinates: 25°21′N 85°07′E / 25.35, 85.12
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area
Elevation
3,202 km² (1,236 sq mi)
• 53 m (174 ft)
District(s) Patna
Population
Density
1,200,000 (2001)
• 375/km² (971/sq mi)
Mayor
Codes
Pincode
Telephone
UN/LOCODE
Vehicle

• 800 0xx
• +0612
• INPAT
• BR-01-?

Coordinates: 25°21′N 85°07′E / 25.35, 85.12 p pronunciation  (Hindi: पटना) is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. There are two places called Patna: Patna, India Patna, Scotland in Ayrshire This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... The divisions of a district. ... Patna district is one of the districts of Bihar state, India, with Patna as the district headquarters. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... Example of a PIN: The PIN code of Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh A Postal Index Number or PIN or Pincode is the post office numbering or post code system used by the Indian Postal Service. ... For the past decade or so, telecommunication activities have gained momentum in India. ... UN/LOCODE is a geographic coding scheme developed and maintained by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, a unit of the United Nations. ... Licence plates on the back of a taxi in Kolkata. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Image File history File links Patna. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Capital City is a 60-minute television show produced by Euston Films that ran for 13 episodes in 1989 on ITV. This drama focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ...


The modern city of Patna lies on the southern bank of the Ganges, as it flows past with the combined waters of the rivers Ghagra, Son and Gandak. At the point where the city is located, the sacred Ganges looks more sea than river: mighty, wide and never-ending. “Ganga” redirects here. ...


A bustling city of 1,800,000 people, the city is approximately 25 km long and 9 km to 10 km wide.


The Buddhist and Jain pilgrim centres of Vaishali, Rajgir or Rajgriha, Nalanda, Bodhgaya, and Pawapuri are all nearby. Patna is a sacred city for Sikhs also. The tenth and last "human" guru, Guru Gobind Singh, was born here. It is the ideal gateway for all the places on this circuit. The monuments in and around the city take one down the history to its glorious past. Vaishali is one of the districts of Bihar state, India. ... , Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... This article is about the ancient town and university. ... Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya is the location of Gautama Siddharthas attainment of Enlightenment. ... Replica of Pavapuri temple at Pansara. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ...


Apart from being the administrative centre of the state and its historic importance, the city is also a major educational centre and medical centre. It's the epicentre for all the students from Bihar preparing for various competitive examinations. Various educational instituitions are coming up here.


The walled old area, called Patna City by the locals, is also a major trading centre.

Contents

Origin of name

The appellation Patna is etymologically derived from Patan, the name of the Hindu goddess Patan devi. [1] Another theory says the name comes from Pattan, or a port in Sanskrit since the city, located near the confluence of four rivers, has been a thriving river port.Another theory suggests that the name Patna may be a short form of Patliputra, one of the most popular ancient names of this city. An appellation in its broadest sense is a name or designation. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


The city has been known by various names during its more than two millennia long existence—Pataligram, Pataliputra, Kusumpur, Pushpapura, Azimabad, and the present day Patna. It got its name of Patna during the reign of Sher Shah Suri, a Bihari ruler who has the distinction of making the only interruption to the long rule of Mughals. His tomb is at Sasaram, a place near to Patna.


History of Patna

View of the Ganges from Patna
View of the Ganges from Patna

Legend ascribes the origin of Patna to a mythological king Putraka who created Patna by magic for his queen Patali, literally Trumpet flower, which gives it its ancient name Pataligrama. It is said that in honour of the first born to the queen, the city was named Pataliputra. Gram is the Sanskrit for village and Putra means son. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 542 pixelsFull resolution (1139 × 772 pixel, file size: 528 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 542 pixelsFull resolution (1139 × 772 pixel, file size: 528 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


From a scientific history perspective, it would be appropriate to surmise that the history of Patna started around the year 490 BC when Ajatashatru, the king of Magadh, wanted to shift his capital from the hilly Rajagriha to a more strategically located place to combat the Licchavis of Vaishali. He chose the site on the bank of Ganges and fortified the area. From that time, the city has had a continuous history, a record claimed by few cities in the world. Gautam Buddha passed through this place in the last year of his life, and he had prophesized a great future for this place, but at the same time, he predicted its ruin from flood, fire, and feud. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... Ajatasatrus stupa in Rajgir, where his ashes were interred Ajātashatru (Sanskrit अजातशत्रु; ruled 491-461 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire that ruled north India. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient kingdom in Nepal, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley from approximately 400 to 750. ... Vaishali is one of the districts of Bihar state, India. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhārtha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving...

Greek Late Archaic style capital from Patna (Pataliputra), 3rd century BCE, Patna Museum (click image for references).

With the rise of the Mauryan empire, the place became the seat of power and nerve centre of the sub-continent. From Pataliputra, the famed emperor Chandragupta Maurya (a contemporary of Alexander) ruled a vast empire, stretching from the Bay of Bengal to Afghanistan. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (889x708, 418 KB) Summary Greek capital from Pataliputra (Patna), India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (889x708, 418 KB) Summary Greek capital from Pataliputra (Patna), India. ... Kouros of the Archaic period, Thebes Archaeological Museum The sculpture of Ancient Greece is by far the most important surviving form of Ancient Greek art, although only a small fragment of Greek sculptural output has survived. ... A capital of the Composite order In Western architecture, the capital (from the Latin caput, head) forms the crowning member of the column, which projects on each side as it rises, in order to support the abacus and unite the square form of the latter with the circular shaft. ... Patna Museum was built by the British during the British Raj in the year 1917 to house the historical artefacts found in the vicinity of Patna. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... ... This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Early Mauryan Patliputra was mostly built with wooden structures. Emperor Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, transformed the wooden capital into a stone construction around 273 BC. Chinese scholar Fa Hein, who visited India sometime around A.D. 399-414, has given a vivid description of the stone structures in his travelogue. Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 278 BC 277 BC 276 BC 275 BC 274 BC - 273 BC - 272 BC 271 BC 270... Faxian(Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ...


Megasthenes, Greek historian and ambassador to the court of Chandragupta gives the first written account of Patliputra. Much later, a number of Chinese travellers came to India in pursuit of knowledge and recorded their observation about Pataliputra in their travelogues. Megasthenes (c. ...


Megasthenes (350 BCE-290 BCE), in his book Indica has mentioned that the city of Palibothra (Pataliputra, modern day Patna) was situated on the confluence of the rivers Ganges and Arennovoas (Sonabhadra - Hiranyawah) and was 9 miles long and 1.75 miles wide. [2] Megasthenes (c. ... Indica (or indicum) means of India, or Indian, in Latin and is applied to things connected with India or South Asia: The specific epithets indica and indicum are used in binomial nomenclature to indicate species (or subspecies) of plants, animals etc thought to originate in, or associated with, India. ...



In the years that followed, the city saw many dynasties ruling the Indian subcontinent from here. It saw the rules of the Gupta empire and the Pala kings. However, it never reached the glory that it had under the Mauryas. The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... This article is about a village in Estonia. ...


With the disintegration of the Gupta empire, Patna passed through uncertain times. Bakhtiar Khilji captured Bihar in the 12th century AD and destroyed many ancient seats of learning, Patna lost its prestige as the political and cultural center of India. Muhammad Khilji (12th century CE) was one of the military generals of Qutab-ud-din. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


The Mughal period was a period of unremarkable provincial administration from Delhi. The most remarkable period during these times was under Sher Shah Suri who revived Patna in the middle of the 16th century. He visualised a fort and a town on the banks of Ganga. Sher Shah's fort in Patna does not survive, but the mosque built in Afghan architectural style survives. The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see Sher Shah (VC). ...


Mughal emperor Akbar came to Patna in 1574 to crush the Afghan Chief Daud Khan. Akbar's navratna and state's official historian and author of Ain-i-Akbari Abul Fazl refers to Patna as a flourishing centre for paper, stone and glass industries. He also refers to the high quality of numerous strains of rice grown in Patna famous as Patna rice in Europe. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... A variety of the species Oryza sativa. ...


Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb acceded to the request of his favourite grandson Prince Muhammad Azim to rename Patna as Azimabad, in 1704 while Azim was in Patna as the subedar. However, very little changed during this period other than the name. Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Subedar is a mid-level rank in the Indian Army. ...


With the decline of Mughal empire, Patna moved into the hands of the Nawabs of Bengal, who levied a heavy tax on the populace but allowed it to flourish as a commercial centre. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


During 17th century, Patna became a centre of international trade. The British started with a factory in Patna in 1620 for trading in calico and silk. Soon it became a trading centre for saltpetre, urging other Europeans—French, Danes, Dutch and Portuguese—to compete in the lucrative business. Peter Mundy, writing in 1632, calls this place, "the greatest mart of the eastern region".


After the decisive Battle of Buxar (1765), Patna fell in the hands of the East India Company which installed a puppet government. Ruled during the raj by a series of ineffectual Viceroys, the most well known was Rahul Gunderjaharagand. During this period it continued as a trading centre. Combatants Bengal, British East India Company Commanders Mir Kasim, Hector Munro Strength 40,000 infantry, 18,000 infantry, Casualties high low Battle of Buxar (October 1764) was a significant battle fought between the forces under the command of the British East India Company on the one side, and the combined... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... In many Indian languages, Raj literally means Prince or Royalty though is often used to mean something more like the English term of empire and as such is often used in reference to the Mughal Raj and the British Raj: the period of direct colonial rule of India by the... Rahul Gunderjaharagand (1813-1883) was the 23rd Viceroy of Patna, India, reigning from 1854-1866. ...


In 1912, Patna became of the capital of Orissa Province and Bihâr when Bengal Presidency was partitioned. It soon emerged as an important and strategic centre. A number of imposing structures were constructed by the British. Credit for designing the massive and majestic buildings of colonial Patna goes to the architect, I. F. Munnings. Most of these buildings reflect either Indo-Saracenic influence (like Patna Museum and the state Assembly), or overt Renaissance influence like the Raj Bhawan and the High Court. Some buildings, like the General Post Office (GPO) and the Old Secretariat bear pseudo-Renaissance influence. Some say, the experience gained in building the new capital area of Patna proved very useful in building the imperial capital of New Delhi. 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Government Museum in Chennai. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


Patna is important seat of business in the eastern part of India, major trading centre of cotton, tusser, readymade garments. Now it is emerging as a big centre of higher education as got. has started Chankya Law University, BIT Mesra Extension Centre etc. There are several prestigious educational institutions in Patna like Patna College, Patna Women's College, Patna Science College, Bihar National College, Anugrah Narayan College, Bihar College of Engineering, now National Institute of Technology, Patna, Patna Medical College (formerly, Prince of Wales Medical College), Nalanda Medical College, Patna Dental College, Bihar Veterinary College and the Lalit Narayan Mishra Institute. A new IIT is coming up at Bihta,near Patna. Japan is helping Bihar in it. Also the prestigious IGIMS is starting medical education in the near future. A few private medical & engineering colleges are also coming up in the near future. Patna Science College is an institution of higher science education located near the Ganges River in Bihar, India. ... The National Institute of Technology Patna is the eighteenth such institute, created by the Ministry of Human Resources Development, Govt. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ...


Orissa was created as a separate province in 1935. Patna continued as the capital of Bihar province under the British Raj. , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858...


Patna played a major role in the Indian independence struggle. Most notable are the Champaran movement against the Indigo plantation and the 1942 Quit India Movement.Patna's contribution in the freedom struggle has been immense with outstanding national leaders like Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, Basawon Singh (Sinha), Bihar Bibhuti[1]Anugrah Narayan Sinha , Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan, Bihar Kesari Sri Krishna Sinha , Sheel Bhadra Yajee, Sarangdhar Sinha(Singh) , Yogendra Shukla, and many others who worked for India's freedom relentlessly. The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... Champaran was once an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. ... The Quit India Movement (Bharat Chhodo Andolan or the August Movement) was a civil disobedience movement in India launched in August 1942 in response to Mahatma Gandhis call for immediate independence of India. ... Swami Sahajananad Saraswati (1889-1950), was born in a Jujhoutia Bhumihar Brahmin family of Gazipur of Uttar Pradesh state of India, was an ascetic Dandi sanyasi as well as a peasant leader of eastern India. ... Basawon Singh (Sinha) has been among the greatest nationalists who joined into the freedom struggle at a tender age of 13 and kept on his struggle for the independence of the country from the colonial yoke and fighting for the rights of the underprivileged, industrial labours and agricultural workers all... Anugrah Narayan Sinha (Singh) (June 18, 1887 – 1957), known as Bihar Bibhuti, was the first Finance Minister of the Indian state of Bihar (1946 – 1957). ... Jayaprakash Narayan (Devanāgarī: जयप्रकाश नारायण; October 11, 1902 - October 8, 1979), widely known as JP, was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader, remembered especially for leading the opposition to Indira Gandhi in the 1970s. ... Sri Krishna Sinha (Singh) (1887 – 1961), known as Bihar Kesari, was the first Chief Minister of the Indian state of Bihar (1946 – 1961). ... Sheel Bhadra Yajee (1906-1996) was a freedom fighter from Bihar who was associated with the non-violent and the violent form of freedom struggle. ... Yogendra Shukla: Among the greatest nationalist the country has produced and who also served in the Cellular Jail, Andamans(Kalapani), among the founders of HSRA (Hindustan Socialist Republican Army)Yogendra Shukla (1896-1966) as well as his nephew Baikunth Shukla (1907-1934) hailed from village Jalalpur in Muzaffarpur (now Vaishali...


Patna continued to be the capital of the state of Bihar after independence in 1947, though Bihar itself was partitioned again in 2000 when Jharkhand was carved out as a separate state of the Indian union. For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ...


Geography

Patna is located on the south bank of the Ganges River, called Ganga locally. Patna has a very long riverline, and it is surrounded on three sides by rivers—the Ganga, Sone, and Poonpun (also spelt Punpun). Just to the north of Patna across the river Ganga flows the river Gandak making it a unique place having four largish rivers in its vicinity. It is the largest riverine city in the world. a historical city on the banks of Ganges was nomenclated by princess Sarika, daughter of king Patliputra. This article is about the river. ... The Gandak is a tributary of the Ganges river. ...


The bridge over the river Ganga, named after Mohandas Gandhi, is 5850m long is said to be the longest single river bridge in the world. Mahatma Gandhi Setu View of the bridge from Patna side Mahatma Gandhi Setu is a bridge over the river Ganges connecting Patna in the south to Hajipur in north in Bihar, India. ...


Climate

In Patna, as most of Bihar, has a subtropical climate with hot summers from late March to early June, the monsoon season from late June to early August and a mild winter from November to February. The table below details historical monthly averages for climate variables.

Climate Table
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Mean daily maximum temperature (°C) 22 25 31 36 36 35 31 32 31 30 27 23
Mean daily temperature (°C) 16 19 25 30 31 31 29 30 28 26 22 17
Mean daily minimum temperature (°C) 10 13 17 23 26 27 26 27 26 22 16 11
Average precipitation (cm) 1 0 1 0 4 12 22 26 17 7 1 0
Source: Weatherbase

Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...

Demographics

The population of Patna is over 1,885,470 , The population density is 1132 persons per square kilometre. There are 839 females to every 1,000 males. Overall Literacy rate is 62.9%, and female Literacy rate is 50.8%. Source – District Elementary Education Report Card 2004 of National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, New Delhi Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ...


Many languages are spoken in Patna. Hindi is the official language. you can see official board and all official adds and works in Hindi and in Urdu too.Thanks to the British influence since early days, English is also spoken extensively.


The native dialect is Magahi named after Magadha the ancient name of Bihar . Other dialects from other regions of Bihar spoken widely in Patna are Angika, Bhojpuri, and Maithili. Other languages spoken in Patna include Bengali, and Oriya. The Magadhi language (also known as Magahi) is a language of India. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Angika is a language of Anga region of India which is spoken by more than 3 crores people. ... Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of India | Language stubs ... Maithili is of the family of Indo-Aryan languages, which are part of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Bangla redirects here. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


People and culture

Though geographically located in the Magadh region of Bihar, there are ample people who are natives from the Bhojpur, Mithila, Vajj and Ang regions. These are the five regions of Bihar, which differ from each other slightly. Intermarriages and cultural intemixing between the people from these five regions have always been there. Hence it may be difficult for an outsider to even discern the differences between them. Intermixing of people are wide-speard from different locations in Bihar, in many cases it goes upto village-level e.g. Gulni consitutes people from Gaya, Ganga-par etc. , Gulni is a village in the heart of the State of Bihar, India. ...


Family orientation

People are religious and family oriented, and their lives are deeply rooted in tradition. The interests of the family take precedence over that of an individual. Families are generally large, though the government is actively encouraging family planning to curb rapid population growth. Extended families often live together in one home because of economic necessity. Although the culture is same but the language varies among all these regions.Also the dilect of the people is quite different.


Marriage

Most marriages are still arranged by parents; the degree to which the children are consulted depends on the family. Marriage is sacred and is considered to endure beyond death. Weddings are times of great celebration, expense, and feasting. Ceremonies are often elaborate. In many ceremonies, the bride and groom exchange garlands and promises before they circle around a fire seven times to solemnize the marriage. Bright clothing, jewelery, and flowers are part of almost every type of ceremony. The bride’s parents may still give a dowry, such as money or land, to the groom, even though the practice is illegal. This practice is often called Tilak. Mostly marriages (arranged ones) are caste based.


But things are changing rapidly. People are getting progressive and have started understanding that modernization is the order of the day. People are marrying people from different cultures and castes. Patna is a very holy place.


Cuisine

Staple food of majority of the population is “bhat, dal, roti, tarkari and achar”, prepared basically from rice, lentils, wheat flour, vegetables, and pickle grade raw, unripe fruits. Traditionally, mustard oil has been the popular cooking medium for Patnaites. Plain boiled milk as well as curd is widely used by all section of the Patnaites. "Khichdi", the broth of rice and lentils, seasoned with spices, and served with several accompanying items like curd, chutney, pickles, papads, ghee (clarified butter) and chokha (boiled mashed potatoes, seasoned with finely cut onions, green chilies) constitutes the lunch for most Patnaites on Saturdays. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Lens culinaris. ... An ingredient used in many foods, flour is a fine powder made from grain or other starchy food sources. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pickle. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Curd is a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then draining off the liquid portion (called whey). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ...


Patna is also known for the sweet delicacies of central Bihar including Khaja, Motichoor ka Ladoo, Kala Jamun, Kesaria Peda, Parwal ki Mithai, Khubi ka Lai and Chena Murki. These owe their origin to towns in the vicinity of Patna: Khaja from Silao, Ladoo from Maner, Kala Jamun from Vikram, Khubi ka Lai from Barh, Kesaria Peda from Gaya and Chena Murki from Koelwar, Poori from Behea. Descendants of the original family members of the cooks, called halwais in the local language, have migrated to urban Patna and authentic sweet delicacies are now available in the city itself. Unlike the Bengali sweets which are soaked in syrup of sugar and are therefore wet, sweets of Patna and Bihar are mostly dry. The mangoes of Digha, Patna are very delicious & famous. Khaja is a sweet delicacy usually from Kakinada,Andhra Pradesh,India. ... Motichoor Ka Ladoo is a sweet delicacy of the central Bihar made from grilled gram flour flakes which are sweetened, mixed with almonds and pressed into balls and fried in ghee. ... Its sweet made of milk and sugar. ... Silao is a city in the state of Guanajuato in Mexico. ... Maner is a city and a notified area in Patna district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Vikram may refer to: Vikram (name) is a male name in the Hindu community Vikramāditya, a semi-legendary king of India Vikram, a character in Baital Pachisi, identified with Vikramāditya Vikram (film) is a 1986 Indian (Tamil-language) film Vikram, An alias used by Ross Geller on Friends... Barh is a city and a municipality in Patna district in the state of Bihar, India. ... Gaya(गया) is a city in Bihar, India, and it is also the headquarters of Gaya District. ... Behea is a small town and a notified area in Bhojpur district in the state of Bihar, India. ... Bihari is a name given to a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken in the Bihar region of India. ...


There are several other traditional snacks and savouries: A snack food is seen in Western culture as a type of food that is not meant to be eaten as part of one of the main meals of the day (breakfast, lunch, supper). ... Savoury () denotes a broad band of flavour which is characteristically salty or spicy. ...

  • Pua', prepared from a mixture of refined wheat flour(maida), milk, ghee (clarified butter), sugar, dry fruits and honey
  • Pittha, steam cooked, made by powdered rice with sttufed ground gram(chana)OR khoya etc.
  • Tilkut, referred to as 'Palala' in Buddhist literature, is made of pounded 'tila' or sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum) and jaggery or sugar
  • Chiwra, beaten rice, served with a coat of creamy curd and sugar or jaggery
  • Makhana (a kind of water fruit) is prepared from lotus seeds and is taken puffed or as kheer, prepared with milk and sugar
  • Sattu, powdered baked gram, is a high energy giving food. It is taken mixed with water or with milk. Sometimes, sattu mixed with spices are used to prepare stuffed 'chapattis', locally called as 'makuni roti'.
  • Litti Chokha, A baked round shape, made by wheat flour with stuffed sattu(litti), the combination of smashed boiled potatoes, bringals & tomatoes(chokha).
  • Makuni,a stuffed paratha with sattu (ingredients:sattu, onion,chilli, pickles,mustard oil, salt)
  • Paan, a dessert made out of betel nuts, spices, tobacco, and certain other ingredients, wrapped in a betel leaf and had after a meal.

A variety of non-vegetarian items are also prepared by a section of the population. Fish curries are widely used by a cross section of non-vegetarian population of all social groups. Mughal cuisine are well known and widely relished in Patna. Of late, Continental dishes are also catching up fancy. Various types of rolls which are also available in New York owe their origin to Patna. Some Muslim families moved from here to Karachi in Pakistan during partition, and then to the U.S., taking with them their culture and cuisine. They sell various vegetarian and non vegetarian rolls and are rather popular by the generic name Roll Bihari in and around Lexington Avenue (South) in New York. The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Continental may refer to: The adjective of continent, such as in continental Europe, continental breakfast, or continental climate, or Continental Glacier; The culture of the continental nation states of Europe, inasmuch as it contrasts with the culture of Anglo-Saxon England; The Lincoln Continental, a car made by Lincoln division... This article is under construction. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Lexington Avenue is an avenue on the East Side of the borough of Manhattan in New York City that carries southbound one-way traffic from East 131st Street to Gramercy Park at East 21st Street. ... This article is about the state. ...


Economy

From the very ancient time patna has rich socio economic background. Patna has long been a major agricultural center of trade, its most active exports being grain, sugarcane, sesame, and medium-grained Patna rice. It is also an important business centre of eastern India. Grain redirects here. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. ... A variety of the species Oryza sativa. ...


The hinterland of Patna is endowed with excellent agro-climatic resources and the gains of the green revolution have enabled the older eastern part of Patna (locally called as Patna City) to develop as a leading grain market of the state of Bihar, and one of the biggest in eastern India. Patna, being the state capital, with a growing middle income group households, has also emerged as a big and rapidly expanding consumer market, both for Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), as also for other consumer durable items. A large and growing population, and expanding boundaries of the city, is also spurring growth of service sector. The old and established educational institutions of the city have always been contributing to the national pool of excellent human resources. The meaning of hinterland and its history. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... The term human resources is variously defined in political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labor, one of three factors of production. ...

A View of Central Patna

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Places of interest

Pilgrimage to
Buddha's
Holy Sites
The Four Main Sites
Lumbini · Bodh Gaya
Sarnath · Kushinagar
Four Additional Sites
Sravasti · Rajgir
Sankissa · Vaishali
Other Sites
Patna · Gaya
  Kosambi · Mathura
Kapilavastu · Devadaha
Kesariya · Pava
Nalanda · Varanasi
Later Sites
Sanchi · Ratnagiri
Ellora · Ajanta
Bharhut
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The most important places of pilgrimage in Buddhism are located in Northern India and Southern Nepal, in the area between New Delhi and Calcutta. ... Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ... Lumbini(27° 28 60N, 83° 16 60E) (Sanskrit: , the lovely) is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in Rupandehi District, Lumbini Zone of Nepal. ... , Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya(24° 41 60N, 84° 58 60E) is a city in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana, Isipatana) is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. ... Kushinagar or Kusinagar (26. ... SrāvastÄ« or SāvatthÄ« (Chinese: 舍衛), a city of ancient India, was one of the largest cities during Gautama Buddha’s lifetime. ... , Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Sankassa (also Sankasia, Sankissa and Sankassya) was a city in India at the time of Gautama Buddha, thirty leagues from Savatthi[1]. Currently it has ruins of old monasteries and Buddhist monuments. ... Vaishali or Vesali (Pali) was a city, the capital of the Licchavis and the Vajjian Confederacy. ... Gaya(गया) is a city in Bihar, India, and it is also the headquarters of Gaya District. ... Kosambi (Pali) or Kausambi (Sanskrit) was one of the greatest cities in India in the Buddhas time (500 BC). ... , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Kapilvastu, formerly Taulihawa (or, Kapilbastu Kapilvastu District or Tilaurakot), aprox. ... Devadaha was a township of the Sākiyans. ... Kesariya is a small city in Bihar, India. ... Pawapuri in Bihar is a holy site for Jains, located 38 kilometers from Rajgir and 90 kilometers from Patna, India. ... This article is about the ancient town and university. ... , Varanasi (Sanskrit: वाराणसी VārāṇasÄ«, IPA:  ), also known as Benares (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA: ), or Kashi (Hindi: ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , Sanchi is a small village in India, located 46 km north east of Bhopal, and 10 km from Besnagar and Vidisha in the central part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. ... The following was moved here from the page for Ratnagiri (Maharashtra). ... Kailasanatha Temple Ellora is an ancient village 30 km from the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra famous for its magnificent rock cut architecture comprising of Buddhist, Hindu and Jaina cave temples and monasteries built between the 6th and 10th century A.D. These structures were excavated... Ajanta takes the name after the village AjinÅ£hā in Aurangabad district in the state of Maharashtra(N. lat. ... Indian relief of probable Indo-Greek king, with Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. ...

In Patna

Some of the places of interest in the city are:

  • Agam Kuan, literally the unfathomable well which is said to date back to the Ashokan period.
  • Hanuman Mandir The favourite Deity of the Patnaite. It is situated right in front of the Patna Junction, the central railway station of the City. Long winding queues can be seen at the temple on Saturdays and Tuesdays, the traditional worshipping days of the deity.
  • Kumhrar, the site of the ruins of the Ashokan Patliputra.
  • Takht Shri Harmandir Saheb, constructed by Punjab ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh, consecrates the birthplace of Guru Gobind Singh Jee
  • State Secretariat Building and its Clock Tower, including the Martyrs Memorial commemorating the seven school and college students who were brutally killed by the armed forces under the command of the British Raj in front of the Patna Secretariat during the Quit India movement of 1942.
  • Phulwari Shareef is a place of great Religious&Historical importance for Muslims.
  • Imarat-E-Shariya or the "Shariyat" of Patna looks after whole of Bihar, Jharkhand,Orrisa, WestBengal and all North-Eastern states.
  • High Court Building and a famous Dargah beside it.
  • Patna Planetorium on Dak Bungalow Road. One of the largest Planetarium in Asia, the Patna Planetarium attracts large number of domestic as well as foreign tourists. The planetarium has regular film shows on subjects related to astronomy. It also holds exhibitions which attracts lots of visitors.
  • Moin-Ul-Haque Stadium boasts of its Cricket Ground which is 2nd largest in India, next only to "The Eden Gardens".
  • Golghar ( a beehive shaped granary) - One of the oldest British buildings in Patna.
  • Patna Museum called the Jadu Ghar: The well-known museum has a fine collection of stone and bronze sculptures and terracotta figures of Hindu and Buddhist artists. Didarganj Yakshi is the most prized collection of this museum.
  • Khuda Baksh Oriental Library: It has a collection of rare ancient manuscripts.
  • Lalit Narayan Mishra Institute of Economic Development and Social Change, Bailey Road, Patna (A Bihar Govt. Autonomous Institute). One of the prominent educational centre for Management studies and Computer Sciences in Eastern India. The Institute offers courses like MBA, MHRM, MCA et al. It is one of the most important and reputed education centre in Bihar with modern amenities, well built infrastructure, clubs and excellent Placement opportunity for Students.
  • A. N. Sinha Institute Of Social Sciences : A prominent social research institute with has vast literary collection and rare historical documentation.
  • SINHA Library which owns the reputation of being one of the largest in the region.
  • Begu Hajjam's mosque, built in 1489 by the Bengal ruler Alauddin Hussani Shah
  • Pathar ki Masjid built by Pervez, the elder brother of Shah Jehan and the first Mughal prince who made Bihar his residence
  • Qila House (Jalan House) houses an interesting museum famous for its jade collection, Chinese paintings and other far eastern work of art, Collected by Diwan Bahadur Radhakrishan Jalan.
  • Sadaqat Ashram on the banks of the river Ganga [The land was donated by Mulana Mazharul Haque to the then congress party] which later became the retreat of Dr. Rajendra Prasad
  • Zoological and Botanical garden called Sanjay Gandhi Jaivik Udyan
  • Bissleboron, birthplace of Rahul Gunderjaharagand.
  • Padri Ki Haveli, deemed to be the oldest church in Bihar dating back to 1772
  • Bankipore Club on the banks of the river Ganges. The dance hall of this club is said to be one of the original buildings built by the Dutch in the 17th century.
  • Congress Maidan A historic ground that symbolises the Indian independence movement in Bihar.It was used to hold meetings by great illumanaries like Rajendra Prasad,Nehru,Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Sri Babu, Jayaprakash Narayan and others.
  • Darbhanga House, also called Nav Lakha building. This was built by Maharaja Sir Kameshwar Singh of Darbhanga. This beautiful building on the banks of Ganges now houses the post graduate departments of Patna University. It houses the Kali Mandir, which has been a place of worship of the goddess, the Maharaja himself was a great devotee and the students of the Patna University rarely take an exam without offering a prayer.
  • Patna College administrative block building was initially part of a Dutch Opium factory established on the banks of the Ganga as a part of the flourishing Opium Trade from the northern China and Nepal region.
  • Patna Science College boasts of its numerous great Alumnis and very good research facilities, as said by Sir C V Raman when he first visited the varsity "...it has its mark at the international platform."
  • National Institute of Technology, Patna-- 6th oldest engg. college of the country. (B.C.E.) was upgraded into NIT on 28th JAN 2004.
  • Gandhi Maidan called the Patna Lawns during the British Raj.
  • Anugrah Seva Sadan It was established by Loknayak Jayprakash Narayan to serve the underprivilaged masses and to serve as a care home for the poor.It bears the pious name of reverend leader Bihar Bibhuti Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha.
  • Very old Church Known as Christ Church which also has a school with same name near Gandhi Maidan.
  • Kargil Chowraha near gandhi maidan built in the memory of our brave soldier who get shaheed in kargil war "SALUTE TO THEM"
  • Saheed smarak, situated near Bihar Vidhan Sabha. is a memory of seven extra ordinary students who attempted to hoist the Indian flag on the top of Bihar Vidhan Sabha in 1942 during English rule. The six were shot dead by the forces under the command of the-then colonial government of India, while the last and the seventh one was able to hoist the flag.
  • Nagholkothi Located in Old city of Patna. Built by Nawabs of Patna, it is an example of unique architecture of midlive time with beautiful garden of Mughal style.

Agam Kuan, literally the unfathomable well is said to date back to the period of Maurya emperor Ashoka, the great. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... The Quit India Movement (Bharat chhodo) was a call for immediate independence of India from British rule. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Golghar, is located to the west of Gandhi Maidan in Patna, capital city of Bihar state, India . ... Patna Museum was built by the British during the British Raj in the year 1917 to house the historical artefacts found in the vicinity of Patna. ... Posted July 16th, 2007 by Rashid Mahmood by Charu Bahri IndianMuslims. ... Dr. Rajendra Prasad (Hindi: डाक्टर राजेन्द्र प्रसाद) (December 3, 1884 – February 28, 1963) was the first President of India. ... Rahul Gunderjaharagand (1813-1883) was the 23rd Viceroy of Patna, India, reigning from 1854-1866. ... The National Institute of Technology Patna is the eighteenth such institute, created by the Ministry of Human Resources Development, Govt. ... Gandhi Maidan, previously known as the Patna Lawns, is a historic ground at Patna near the banks of Ganges. ... Jayaprakash Narayan (October 11, 1902 - October 8, 1979), widely known as JP, was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Around Patna

See also

, Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya(24° 41 60N, 84° 58 60E) is a city in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Vaishali is one of the districts of Bihar state, India. ... This article is about the ancient town and university. ... , Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Vikramshila University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India, along with Nalanda University. ... , Bhagalpur is a city and municipal corporation in Bihar state in eastern India. ...

Education

Most of the government-run schools in Patna are affiliated to Bihar School Examination Board, whereas most of the private schools are affiliated to ICSE and CBSE boards. The major ones being St. Paul's High School, Notre Dame Academy, St. Joseph's Convent High School, Loyola High School,St. Xavier's High School, Don Bosco Academy, St Michael's Higher Secondary School & St Karen's School. There are a plenty of government schools too but they lack many facilities.
Unlike the rest of India, many colleges also provide an option for the plus 2 level of education (Class 11 and 12) raising the standard of education due to access to superior teachers of colleges. As a result, a high percent of the students are able to qualify in All India competitive examinations like IIT JEE, All India Medical Entrance Exam and CAT. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... Shortcut: WP:CSD Current list: Category:Candidates for speedy deletion There are a few, limited, cases where admins can delete Wikipedia pages on sight. Non-admins can ask for an admin to delete such a page, either by listing it on speedy deletions, or by adding either a {{delete}} or... The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) examination is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations for class 10, i. ... The Central Board of Secondary Education is a board of school education in India. ... St. ... Don Bosco Academy,Patna Don Bosco Academy is a premier eductional institution located in Digha area of Patna. ... St. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... IIT is an initialism which may refer to: A number of institutes of technology, including: Illinois Institute of Technology, in Chicago Indian Institutes of Technology, a group of 7 autonomous institutes Indiana Institute of Technology, known primarily as Indiana Tech, in Fort Wayne Institute for Information Technology, a research institute...


References

  1. ^ Kamat. [www.kamat.com/kalranga/freedom/congress/c127.htm Great freedom Fighters]. Kamat's archive. Retrieved on 2006-02-25.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

External links


Faxian(Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Patna, India - LoveToKnow 1911 (882 words)
PATNA, a city, district, and division of British India, in the Behar province of Bengal.
The greater part of the ancient city still lies buried in the silt of the rivers under Patna and Bankipur at a depth of from to 20 ft. The two events in the modern history of the district are the massacre of Patna (1763) and the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857.
It comprised the seven districts of Patna, Gaya, Shahabad, Saran, Champaran, Muzaffarpur and Darbhanga.
EC orders fresh polling in Patna (530 words)
After four days of consultations with the Bihar chief electoral officer and returning officers in the state, the Commission declared the February 16 polls in Patna "null and void" and ordered fresh polls be held with the date to be decided later.
The Commission's Secretary K J Rao held an enquiry in Patna where he heard the views of all the contesting candidates, police officers and electoral officers in the state.
The Commission also directed that a number of senior officials involved in conducting the polls be transferred out of Patna, including the District Magistrate of Patna who was the returning officer for the constituency, theDeputy Inspector General of police, the Superindentendent of Police and and city SP.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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