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Encyclopedia > Pathology
A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide
A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide

Pathology is the study and diagnosis of disease through examination of organs, tissues, cells and bodily fluids. The term encompasses both the medical specialty which uses tissues and body fluids to obtain clinically useful information, as well as the related scientific study of disease processes. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The term pathology most often refers to the study of disease: its causes, processes, development, consequences, and anatomic and functional manifestations. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... Åž:For other uses, see Organ (disambiguation) In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Bodily fluids are fluids, which are generally excreted or secreted from the human body. ... A medical specialist is someone who specializes in a particular field of medicine. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ...

Contents

History

The histories of both experimental and medical pathology can be traced to the earliest application of the scientific method to the field of medicine, a development which occurred in Western Europe during the Italian Renaissance.[1] Most early pathologists were also practicing physicians or surgeons. Like other medical fields, pathology has become more specialized with time, and most pathologists today do not practice in other areas of medicine. Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... Surgeon may refer to: a practitioner of surgery the moniker of British electronic music producer and DJ, Anthony Child; see Surgeon (musician) This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Origins of gross pathology

The concept of studying disease through the methodical dissection and examination of diseased bodies, organs, and tissues may seem obvious today, but there are few if any recorded examples of true autopsies performed prior to the Renaissance. The first physician known to have repeatedly used anatomic dissection to determine cause of death was an Italian, Antonio Benivieni (1443-1502).[1] Perhaps the most famous early gross pathologist was Giovanni Morgagni (1682-1771). His magnum opus, De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per Anatomem Indagatis, published in 1761, describes the findings of over 600 partial and complete autopsies, organised anatomically and methodically correlated with the symptoms exhibited by the patients prior to their demise. Although the study of normal anatomy was already well advanced at this date, De Sedibus was one of the first treatises specifically devoted to the corrolation of diseased anatomy with clinical illness.[2][3] By the late 1800s, an exhaustive body of literature had been produced on the gross anatomical findings characteristic of known diseases. The extent of gross pathology research in this period can be epitomized by the work of the Viennese pathologist Carl Rokitansky (1804-1878), who is said to have performed 20,000 autopsies, and supervised an additional 60,000, in his lifetime.[1][4] For the former Death Metal band called Autopsy, see Autopsy (band). ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Antonio Benivieni (1443-1502) was a Florentine physician who pioneered the use of the autopsy, a postmortum dissection of a deceased patients body used to understand the cause of death. ... Giovanni Battista Morgagni (February 25, 1682 - December 6, 1771), Italian anatomist, was born on at ForIi. ... Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... Karel Rokitansky Carl Freiherr¹ von Rokitansky (Czech: Karel Rokytanský) (b. ...


Origins of microscopic pathology

The German physician Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) is generally recognized to be the father of microscopic pathology. While the compound microscope had been invented approximately 150 years prior, Virchow was one of the first prominent physicians to emphasize the study of manifestations of disease which were visible only at the cellular level.[1][5] A student of Virchow's, Julius Cohnheim (1839-1884) combined histology techniques with experimental manipulations to study inflammation, making him one of the earliest experimental pathologists.[1] Cohnheim also pioneered the use of the frozen section; a version of this technique is widely employed by modern pathologists to render diagnoses and provide other clinical information intraoperatively.[6] [[ Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (born October 13, 1821, in Schivelbein (Pomerania); died September 5, 1902, in Berlin) was a German doctor, anthropologist, public health activist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist and politician. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... Julius Friedrich Cohnheim (July 20, 1839 - August 15, 1884) was a German-Jewish pathologist. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Experimental pathology or investigative pathology, is the study of disease mechanisms and pathophysiology. ...


Modern experimental pathology

As new research techniques, such as electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biology have expanded the means by which biomedical scientists can study disease, the definition and boundaries of investigative pathology have become less distinct. In the broadest sense, nearly all research which links manifestations of disease to identifiable processes in cells, tissues, or organs can be considered experimental pathology.[7] The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Experimental pathology or investigative pathology, is the study of disease mechanisms and pathophysiology. ...


Pathology as a science

Pathology is a broad and complex scientific field which seeks to understand the mechanisms of injury to cells and tissues, as well as the body's means of responding to and repairing injury. Disease processes may be incited or exacerbated by a variety of external and internal influences, including trauma, infection, poisoning, loss of blood flow, autoimmunity, inherited or acquired genetic damage, or errors of development. One common theme in pathology is the way in which the body's responses to injury, while evolved to protect health, can also contribute in some ways to disease processes.[8] Elucidation of general principles underlying pathologic processes, such as cellular adaptation to injury, cell death, inflammation, tissue repair, and neoplasia, creates a conceptual framework with which to analyze and understand specific human diseases. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ... Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts (down to the sub-molecular levels) as self, which results in an immune response against its own cells and tissues. ... A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ...


Adaptation to injury

Cells and tissues may respond to injury and stress by specific mechanisms, which may vary according to the cell types and nature of the injury. In the short term, cells may activate specific genetic programs to protect their vital proteins and organelles from heat shock or hypoxia, and may activate DNA repair pathways to repair damage to chromosomes from radiation or chemicals. Hyperplasia is a long-term adaptive response of cell division and multiplication, which can increase the ability of a tissue to compensate for an injury. For example, repeated irritation to the skin can cause a protective thickening due to hyperplasia of the epidermis. Hypertrophy is an increase in the size of cells in a tissue in response to stress, an example being hypertrophy of muscle cells in the heart in response to increased resistance to blood flow as a result of narrowing of the heart's outflow valve. Metaplasia occurs when repeated damage to the cellular lining of an organ triggers its replacement by a different cell type.[8] A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Heat shock proteins are a part of the cells internal repair mechanism. ... Hypoxia may refer to: Hypoxia (medical), the lack of oxygen in tissues Hypoxia or Oxygen depletion, a reduced concentration of dissolved oxygen in a water body leading to stress or even death in aquatic organisms This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... DNA damage resulting in multiple broken chromosomes DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ... Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. ... Hyperplasia (or hypergenesis) is a general term for an increase in the number of the cells of an organ or tissue causing it to increase in size. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... Hyperkeratosis results when an excess of proteins called keratins are produced. ... Look up Epidermis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bodybuilder Markus Rühl has marked hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. ... Myocardium is the muscular tissue of the heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a heart condition caused by the incomplete opening of the aortic valve. ... Metaplasia is the replacement of one differentiated cell type with another differentiated cell type. ...


Cell death

Necrosis is the irreversible destruction of cells as a result of severe injury in a setting where the cell is unable to activate the needed metabolic pathways for survival or orderly degeneration. This is often due to external pathologic factors, such as toxins or loss of oxygen supply. Milder stresses may lead to a process called reversible cell injury, which mimics the cell swelling and vacuolization seen early in the necrotic process, but in which the cell is able to adapt and survive. In necrosis, the componants of degenerating cells leak out, potentially contributing to inflammation and further damage. Apoptosis, in contrast, is a regulated, orderly degeneration of the cell which occurs in the settings of both injury and normal physiological processes.[8] Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow // Apoptosis is a process of deliberate life relinquishment by a cell in a multicellular organism. ...


Inflammation

A transmission electron microscope image of an immune cell crossing from the bone marrow into the circulation
A transmission electron microscope image of an immune cell crossing from the bone marrow into the circulation

Inflammation is a particularly important and complex reaction to tissue injury, and is particularly important in fighting infection. Acute inflammation is generally a non-specific response triggered by the injured tissue cells themselves, as well as specialized cells of the innate immune system and previously developed adaptive immune mechanisms. A localized acute inflammatory response triggers vascular changes in the injured area, recruits pathogen-fighting neutrophils, and begins the process of developing a new adaptive immune response. Chronic inflammation occurs when the acute response fails to entirely clear the inciting factor. While chronic inflammation can lay a positive role in containing a continuing infectious hazard, it can also lead to progessive tissue damage, as well as predisposing (in some cases) to the development of cancer.[8] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 746 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1560 × 1254 pixel, file size: 518 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 746 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1560 × 1254 pixel, file size: 518 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... The innate immune system comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms, in a non-specific manner. ... The immune system is the collection of organs and tissues involved in the adaptive defense of a body against foreign biological material. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into inflammation. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Tissue repair

Tissue repair, as seen in wound healing, is triggered by inflammation. The process may proceed even before the resolution of a precipitating insult, through the formation of granulation tissue. Healing involves the proliferation of connective tissue cells and blood vessel-forming cells as a result of hormonal growth signals. While healing is a critical adaptive response, an aberrent healing response can lead to progressive fibrosis, contractures, or other changes which can compromise function.[8] Wound healing, or wound repair, is the bodys natural process of regenerating dermal and epidermal tissue. ... Granulation tissue is the tissue that replaces a fibrin clot in healing tissue. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue as a reparative or reactive process, as opposed to a formation of fibrous tissue as a normal constituent of an organ or tissue. ...


Neoplasia

Neoplasia, or "new growth," is a proliferation of cells which is independent of any physiological process. The most familiar examples of neoplasia are benign tumors and cancers. Neoplasia results from genetic changes which cause cells to activate genetic programs inappropriately. Dysplasia is an early sign of a neoplastic process in a tissue, and is marked by persistance of immature, poorly differentiated cell forms. Interestingly, there are many similarities in the gene pathways activated in cancer cells, and those activated in cells involved in wound healing and inflammation.[8] Neoplasia (new growth in Greek) is abnormal proliferation of cells in a tissue or organ. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Dysplasia (from Greek, roughly: bad form) is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality in maturation of cells within a tissue. ...


Pathology as a medical specialty

Physicians who practice pathology diagnose and characterize disease in living patients by examining biopsies and other specimens. For example, the vast majority of cancer diagnoses are made or confirmed by a pathologist. Pathologists may also conduct autopsies to investigate causes of death. The medical practice of pathology grew out the tradition of investigative pathology, and many of the academic leaders in pathology today are accomplished in both basic science research and diagnostic practice. However, as with other specialties in medicine, most modern physician-pathologists are employed in full-time practice, and do not perform original research. Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ...


Pathology is a unique medical specialty in that pathologists typically do not see patients directly, but rather serve as consultants to other physicians (often referred to as "clinicians" within the pathology community). However, in the United States and in many other countries, pathologists receive the same doctorate training, and undergo the same medical licensure process as other physicians. Pathology is a diverse field, and the organization of subspecialties within pathology vary between nations. A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ...


Anatomical Pathology

This mastectomy specimen contains an infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. A pathologist will use immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in-situ hybridization to detect markers which determine the optimal chemotherapy regimen for this patient.
This mastectomy specimen contains an infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. A pathologist will use immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in-situ hybridization to detect markers which determine the optimal chemotherapy regimen for this patient.
Main article: Anatomical pathology

Anatomical pathologists diagnose disease and gain other clinically significant information through the examination of tissues and cells. This generally involves gross and microscopic visual examination of tissues, with special stains and immunohistochemistry employed to visualize specific proteins and other substances in and around cells. More recently, anatomical pathologists have begun to employ molecular biology techniques to gain additional clinical information from these same specimens. Anatomic pathologists serve as the definitive diagnosticians for most cancers, as well as numerous other diseases. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty (a branch of pathology) that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, and molecular examination of cells and tissues. ... Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty (a branch of pathology) that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, and molecular examination of cells and tissues. ... Look up gross, groß in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Histopathology is a field of pathology which specialises in the histologic study of diseased tissue. ...

  • Surgical pathology is the most significant and time-consuming area of practice for most anatomical pathologists. Surgical pathology involves the gross and microscopic examination of surgical specimens, as well as biopsies submitted by non-surgeons such as general internists, medical subspecialists, dermatologists, and interventional radiologists.
  • Cytopathology is concerned with the microscopic examination of whole, individual cells obtained from smears or fine needle aspirates.
  • Molecular pathology refers to the use of nucleic acid-based techniques, such as in-situ hybridization, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and nucleic acid microarrays for specialised diagnostic studies of disease in tissues and cells.
  • Autopsies are used to provide definitive evidence of the disease processes contributing to a person's death.
  • Forensic pathology receive specialized training in determining the cause of death and other legally relevant information from the bodies of persons who died in a non-medical or potentially criminal circumstances.

Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty (a branch of pathology) that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, and molecular examination of cells and tissues. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Brain biopsy A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... Surgeon may refer to: a practitioner of surgery the moniker of British electronic music producer and DJ, Anthony Child; see Surgeon (musician) This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Doctors of internal medicine (internists) are medical specialists who focus on adult medicine and have had special study and training focusing on the prevention and treatment of adult diseases. ... Doctors of internal medicine (internists) are medical specialists who focus on adult medicine and have had special study and training focusing on the prevention and treatment of adult diseases. ... Dermatology is a branch of medicine dealing with the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases (from Greek derma, skin), as well as its appendages (nails, hair, sweat glands). ... Interventional Radiology (abbreviated IR or sometimes IVR) is a subspecialty of radiology in which minimally invasive procedures are performed using image guidance. ... Cytopathology is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level. ... Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within anatomic pathology which is focused on the use of nucleic acid-based techniques such as DNA sequencing, fluorescent in-situ hybridization, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and nucleic acid microarrays for specialised studies of disease in tissues and cells. ... Post-mortem, postmortem and post mortem redirect here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ...

Clinical pathology

Main article: Clinical pathology
Pathogenic organisms are grown from patient specimens in clinical microbiology labs, allowing selection of the correct antibiotics
Pathogenic organisms are grown from patient specimens in clinical microbiology labs, allowing selection of the correct antibiotics

Clinical pathology, also known as laboratory medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with diagnosing diseases based on the analysis of body fluids, such as plasma, urine, stool, respiratory or mucosal secretions, inflammatory exudates, and pleural, pericardial, peritoneal, synovial, or cerebrospinal fluid. The practice of clinical pathology is centered around the clinical laboratory. In modern clinical laboratories, many routine studies are largely automated. The clinical pathologist is responsible for overseeing the work of laboratory technicians, performing quality assurance to assure the validity of test results, performing interpretations of more complex studies, and serving as a consultant to clinicians so that the most appropriate studies can be performed for the diagnosis or assessment of an individual patient's condition. In some areas, non-pathologists, such as other physicians or Ph.D.'s may run clinical labs and perform functions within those specific labs which are similar to the role of a board-certified clinical pathologist. Clinical Pathology is one of the two major divisions of Pathology. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 599 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1412 × 1413 pixel, file size: 639 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 599 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1412 × 1413 pixel, file size: 639 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Clinical Pathology is one of the two major divisions of Pathology. ... Clinical pathology is one of the two major divisions within the medical specialty of pathology. ... The lungs are surrounded by two membranes, the pleurae. ... Synovial fluid is a thick, stringy fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints. ... A technician is generally someone in a technological field who has a relatively practical understanding of the general theoretical principles of that field, e. ...


Sub-specialties within clinical pathology include the following:

Clinical chemistry (also known as clinical biochemistry, chemical pathology or pure blood chemistry) is the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids. ... Clinical chemistry (also known as clinical biochemistry, chemical pathology or pure blood chemistry) is the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids. ... Hematology is the branch of medicine that is concerned with blood and its disorders. ... Analysis of a marine sample of photosynthetic picoplankton by flow cytometry showing three different populations (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes) Flow cytometry is a technique for counting, examining and sorting microscopic particles suspended in a stream of fluid. ... Hematology is the branch of medicine that is concerned with blood and its disorders. ... A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood components. ... Medical microbiology is a branch of microbiology which deals with the study of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites which are of medical importance and are capable of causing diseases in human beings. ... A metaphase cell positive for the bcr/abl rearrangement using FISH Cytogenetics is the study of the structure of chromosome material. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ...

Dental pathology

In the United States, subspecialty-trained doctors of dental surgery (D.D.S), rather than medical doctors, can be certified by a professional board to practice dental pathology. A Dentist and Dental Assistant perform surgery on a patient. ... Dental pathologists are doctors of dental science who specialise in the diagnosis and characterization of diseases of the teeth, jaw, and maxilla through the examination of tissue specimens. ...


Training of medical pathologists

Pathology in the United States

In the United States, pathologists are medical doctors (M.D.) or doctors of osteopathic medicine (D.O.), that have completed a four-year undergraduate program, four years of medical school training, and three to four years of postgraduate training in the form of a pathology residency. Training may be within two primary specialties, as recognized by the American Board of Pathology: Anatomic Pathology, and Clinical Pathology, each of which requires separate board certification. Many pathologists seek a broad-based training and become certified in both fields. These skills are complementary in many hospital-based private practice settings, since the day-to-day work of many clinical laboratories only requires the intermittent attention of a physician. Thus, pathologists are able to spend much of their time evaluating anatomic pathology cases, while remaining available to cover any special issues which might arise in the clinical laboratories. Pathologists may pursue specialised fellowship training within one or more sub-specialties of either anatomic or clinical pathology. Some of these sub-specialities permit additional board certification, while others do not.[9] The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ... Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty (a branch of pathology) that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, and molecular examination of cells and tissues. ... Clinical Pathology is one of the two major divisions of Pathology. ...


Pathology in the United Kingdom

In the UK pathologists are medical doctors registered with the UK General Medical Council. They will have completed an undergraduate medical education which in most countries lasts 4-6 years. The training to become a pathologist is under the oversight of the Royal College of Pathologists. Typically a one year training attachment is followed by an aptitude test. This is followed by further specialist training in surgical pathology, cytopathology, and post mortem pathology. There are two examinations run by the Royal College of Pathologists termed Part 1 and Part 2. The Part 2 examination is designed to test competence to work as an independent practitioner in pathology and is typically taken after 5 years specialist training. All post-graduate medical training and education in the UK is overseen by the Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board. It is possible to take a specialist part 2 examination in paediatric pathology or neuropathology. It is possible to take a special diploma in dermatopathology or cytopathology, recognising additional specialist training and expertise. The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... The General Medical Council (the GMC) is the regulator of the medical profession in the United Kingdom. ... General information The Royal College of Pathologists is a medical organization that promotes the study of pathology. ... General information The Royal College of Pathologists is a medical organization that promotes the study of pathology. ...


Non-human pathology

Veterinary pathologists are veterinary practitioners who specialise in the diagnosis and characterization of veterinary diseases through the examination of animal tissue and body fluids. Veterinary pathologists are veterinarians with advanced training (board certification or Ph.D.) in either diagnostic pathology or research into the biological processes underlying disease (pathobiology). Diagnostic veterinary pathologists are further subcategorized as either anatomical pathologists or clinical pathologists. Clinical pathologists examine specimens such as blood, excretions or biopsy material to diagnose disease in living animals. Anatomical pathologists utilize post mortem examinations of dead animals to arrive at a diagnosis. Post mortem examinations entail a necropsy (an animal autopsy), histopathologic (microscopic) study of tissue specimens collected at the necropsy and sometimes specialized studies (radiographic, toxicologic, etc.)[citation needed]Plant pathologists are specialized scientists who investigate the causes of diseases in plants. Veterinary pathologists are doctors of veterinary medicine who specialise in the diagnosis and characterization of verterinary diseases through the examination of animal tissue and body fluids. ... Phytopathology or Plant Pathology is the science of diagnosing and managing plant diseases. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e [1] History of Pathology, at the USC School of Dentistry
  2. ^ [2] A History of Medicine from the Biblioteca Centrale dell'Area Biomedica
  3. ^ [3] Founders of Modern Medicine: Giovanni Battista Morgagni. Medical Library and Historical Journal. 1903 October; 1(4): 270–277.
  4. ^ [4] Karl von Rokitansky at Whonamedit.com
  5. ^ [5] Rudolf Virchow at Whonamedit.com
  6. ^ [6] Jewish Encyclopedia entry on Julius Cohnheim
  7. ^ [7] Mission of the American Society for Investigative Pathology
  8. ^ a b c d e f Ramzi Cotran, Vinay Kumar, Tucker Collins (1999). Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, Sixth Edition. W.B. Saunders. ISBN 072167335X. 
  9. ^ [8] Homepage of the American Board of Pathology

See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

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