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Encyclopedia > Pathan
Pashtuns
Total population c. 40-42 million (est.)[1]
Regions with significant populations Pakistan:
28,000,000[2]

Afghanistan:
12,500,000[3]
Iran:
   500,000
United Arab Emirates:
   126,000
United Kingdom:
   88,000
Turkey:
   54,000
United States:
   44,000
India:
   40,000
Germany:
   35,000
France:
   33,000
Austria:
   31,000
Tajikistan:
   26,000
Netherlands:
   26,000
Image File history File links Pashtuns. ...

Language Pashto
Religion Islam, Judaism, small groups of agnostic/atheists
Related ethnic groups Other Iranian peoples

    Tajiks
    Dards
Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ) is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the Quran. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people with around 15 million followers as of 2006 [1]. It is one of the first recorded monotheistic faiths and one of the oldest religious traditions still practiced today. ... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ... Atheism, in its broadest sense, is an absence of belief in the existence of gods. ... This article is about the group of peoples who speak Iranian languages. ... The Tajiks (Persian: تاجيك) are one of the principal ethnic groups of Central Asia, and are primarily found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Pakistan, and the Xinjiang province of China. ... The Dards are an Aryan people living in a few scattered villages in a remote region of Ladakh district, itself a remote region of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ...

    Punjabi Pathans

The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun (Persian: پختون) (Urdu: پشتون ), or Pathan) or ethnic Afghans[4] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. Small additional colonies can be found in the Northern Areas, Azad Kashmir, and they form a significant proportion of population of the city of Karachi. There are smaller communities in Iran and India, and a large migrant worker community in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula. The Pashtuns are typically characterized by their language, their pre-Islamic indigenous code of honor and culture Pashtunwali, and adherence to Islam. Hindko is an ancient language spoken in the Indian subcontinent. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, and Arabic influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are areas of Pakistan outside any of the four provinces, comprising a region of some 27,220 km² (10,507 mi²). Neighbouring regions are: Afghanistan to the west with the border marked by the Durand Line, North-West Frontier to the north, Punjab to the... The province of Balochistan (or Baluchistan) in Pakistan contains most of historical Balochistan and is named after the Baloch. ... The Northern Areas or Gilgit-Baltistan is the northernmost region of Pakistani-administered Kashmir. ... Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: آزاد کشمیر), is part of the Pakistani-administered part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, along with the Northern Areas. ... It has been suggested that Karachi District be merged into this article or section. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ) is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the Quran. ...


The Pashtuns are the world's largest segmentary lineage (patriarchal) tribal group in existence. The total population of the group is estimated to be over 40 million, but an accurate count remains elusive as there has not been an official census in Afghanistan since the 1970s, while in Pakistan, due to the migratory nature of many Pashtun tribes as well as the practice of secluding women, exact figures are to hard to attain. A segmentary lineage society is characterized by the organization of the society into segments. ...

Contents


History and origins

Pashtun culture is ancient and much of it is yet to be recorded in contemporary times. There are many conflicting theories, some contemporary and some ancient, about the origins of the Pashtun people, both among historians and the Pashtuns themselves.


Ancient references

The Greek historian Herodotus first mentions a people called 'Pactyan' living on the eastern frontier of Iran in the Persian Satrapy Arachosia as early as the 1st millennium BCE. It has been conjectured that these may be the ancestors of today's Pashtuns, but there is no specific evidence for this. some historians believe that the name Pakhtun has its origin in Pactyan, , and reported by Herodotus and contemporaries. This identification is uncertain.In addition, the Rig-Veda mentions a tribe called the 'Pakhat' as inhabiting present-day Afghanistan and some have speculated that they may have been early ancestors of the Pashtuns, but this too remains unproven. The Bactrians appear to have spoken a related Middle Iranian language and it is conceivable that some Pashtuns are at least partially descended from them. Bust of Herodotus at Naples Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: , Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Satrap (Greek σατράπης satrápēs, from Old Persian xšaθrapā(van), i. ... Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ... (Redirected from 1st millennium BCE) (2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – 1st millennium AD – other millennia) Events The Iron Age began in Western Egypt declined as a major power The Tanakh was written Buddhism was founded Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon and created the Persian Empire (6th century BC) Sparta... Bust of Herodotus at Naples Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: , Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit á¹›gveda from á¹›c praise + veda knowledge) is a collection of hymns(each hymn is called a Rucha.) counted among the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas, and contains the oldest texts preserved in any Indo-Iranian language. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... Numerous languages are spoken in Iran, yet all of them originate from the same linguistic roots. ...


Pashtuns are also historically referred to as ethnic Afghans as the terms Pashtun and Afghan were synymous until the advent of modern Afghanistan and the division of the Pashtuns by the Durand Line drawn by the British. According to W.K. Frazier Tyler, M.C. Gillet and several other scholars, "The word Afghan first appears in history in the Hudud-al-Alam in 982 AD." It was used by the Pashtuns and refers to a common legendary ancestor known as Afghana. The Durand Line is a term for the poorly marked 2,640 kilometer (1,610 mile) border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. ...


The Pashtuns are generally hypothesized to have emerged from the area around Kandahar and the Suleiman Mountains and began expanding millennia ago. Due to their geographic location, they have often been in close contact with the Persians, while religiously most Pashtuns, according to archaeological evidence, were most likely Buddhist and Zoroastrian with small minorities of pagans, Hindus, and Jews prior to the coming of Arab Muslims in the 8th century CE. For the 2001 movie by Mohsen Makhmalbaf, see Kandahar (film). ... Satellite image of a part of the Sulaiman Range. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Paganism (from Latin paganus) and heathenry are blanket terms used primarily by Christians which have come to connote a broad set of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices of natural or polytheistic religions, as opposed to the Abrahamic monotheistic religions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish:Müslüman, Persian:مسلمان) is an adherent of Islam. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ...


From the 1st century BCE to the 5th century CE the regions where the Pashtuns lived saw immense migrations of Eurasian peoples including the Aryans, Persians, Sakas, Scythians, Kushans, Huns, and Greeks. Later invaders would include Muslim Arabs and Central Asian Turkic tribes as well as the devastating assaults by the Mongols. The term Eurasian refers to the cultural ties and linkages between those in a wider view of the Eurasian continent, centering on the Silk Road, and Central Asia. ... Iranian may refer to: Of or relating to Iran, a country in the Middle East Iranian peoples Iranian languages This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... |image= |poptime=8. ...


Anthropological and linguistic evidence

The origins of the Pashtuns are not entirely clear [5], but their language is classified as an Eastern Iranian tongue, itself a sub-branch of the Indo-Iranian branch of the greater Indo-European family of languages, and thus the Pashtuns are often classified as an Iranian people.[6] [7][8] According to many academics, such as Yu V. Gankovsky, the Pashtuns began as a, "union of largely East-Iranian tribes which became the initial ethnic stratum of the Pashtun ethnogenesis dates from the middle of the first millennium AD and is connected with the dissolution of the Epthalite (White Huns) confederacy." [9][10] These tribes, who most likely spoke an early version of modern Pashto survived countless invasions and spread throughout the northeastern Iranian plateau. Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred languages and dialects (443 according to the SIL estimate), including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and Southern Asia. ... Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... The Iranian plateau is major geologic formation in the Middle East and the southern Eurasian Plate. ...


The Pashto-speaking Pashtuns refer to themselves as Pashtuns or Pukhtuns depending upon whether they are speakers of the southern dialect or northern dialect respectively. These Pashtuns compose the core of ethnic Pashtuns who are predominantly an Iranian people and found in southern and eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan. Many Pashto-speaking Pashtuns have however intermingled with various invaders, neighboring groups, and migrants (as have the other Iranian peoples) including possibly the Ghilzai who may have mingled with Turkic tribes, the Durrani who have interacted considerably with the Tajiks (another Iranian people), and Pashtun tribes north of Peshawar who have mingled with Dardic groups. In terms of phenotype, the Pashto-speaking Pashtuns overall are predominantly a Mediterranean Caucasoid people, but blonde hair and blue and green eyes are not uncommon, especially amongst remote mountain tribes.[11] The Ghilzais (also known as Khiljis or Ghaljis) are one of two largest groups of Pashtuns, along with the Durrani tribe, found in Afghanistan with a large group also found in neighboring Pakistan. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Durrani or Abdali tribe is one of the two largest Pashtun tribes of Afghanistan and are also found in large numbers in western Pakistan. ... The Tajiks (Persian: تاجيك) are one of the principal ethnic groups of Central Asia, and are primarily found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Pakistan, and the Xinjiang province of China. ... Peshāwar (پیشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pai-khawar in Pashto. ... The Dards are an Aryan people living in a few scattered villages in a remote region of Ladakh district, itself a remote region of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ...


Claimants of Pashtun descent

There are also various groups which claim Pashtun descent and are largely found amongst other groups in Afghanistan and South Asia and generally do not speak Pashto and are often considered either overlapping groups or are simply assigned to the ethno-linguistic group that fits their geographic location and their mother tongue. Some groups who claim Pashtun descent include the Hazaragi Pashtuns who are of mixed Pashtun and Hazara ancestry. The Punjabi Pathans are often surmised as a group of mixed Punjabi and Pashtun descent. Many claimants of Pashtun heritage in India have mixed with local Indian populations and refer to themselves (and Pashto-speaking Pashtuns and often Afghans in general) in the Urdu variant Pathan rather than Pashtun or Pukhtun. These populations are usually only part-Pashtun, to varying degrees, and often trace their Pashtun ancestry through a paternal lineage, and are not universally viewed as ethnic Pashtuns (see section below on 'Who is a Pashtun' for further analysis). South Asia or Southern Asia is a southern geopolitical region of the Asian continent comprising territories on and in proximity to the Indian subcontinent. ... Hazaragi is a dialect of the Persian language, with a significant deviation from it to be on the borderline of being a separate language. ... The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... Hindko is an ancient language spoken in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Punjabi people (also Panjabi people) are an Indo-Aryan people and speakers of the Punjabi language, an Indo-Aryan tongue, and can be found primarily in the Punjab region of Pakistan and Northern India. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, and Arabic influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ...


Indigenous oral tradition of Pashtun origins

In addition, some anthropologists lend credence to the oral traditions of the elder Pashtun tribes themselves. For example, according to the Encyclopedia of Islam, the Theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites is traced to Maghzan-e-Afghani who compiled a history for Khan-e-Jehan Lodhi in the reign of Mughal Emperor Jehangir in the 16th century CE. Another book, that corresponds with most Pashtun historical records, Taaqati-Nasiri, states that in the 7th century a people called the Bani Israel settled in Ghor, southeast of Herat, Afghanistan and then migrated south and east. These Bani Israel references are in line with the commonly held view by Pashtuns that when the twelve tribes of Israel were dispersed (see Israel and Judah, Lost Ten Tribes), the tribe of Joseph among other Hebrew tribes settled in the region. Hence the term 'Yusef Zai' in Pashto translates to the 'sons of Joseph'. The Afridis also claim through oral tradition that they are descendants of the Bani Israel tribe of Ephraim. The Encyclopedia of Islam (EI) is a scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of Islamic civilization and history. ... The theory that the Pashtun or ethnic Afghans are descended from the ancient Israelites—more precisely, from the perspective of Jewish history the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel— has a longstanding basis as a tradition among the Pashtun themselves, was widely accepted by 19th century British scholars, and has... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Nuruddin Jahangir (August 31, 1569 - October 28, 1627) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until 1627. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... In an Islamic context, Bani Israil may refer to: the Children of Israel surat al-Isra This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ghowr province (sometimes spelled Ghor) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ... In compiling the history of ancient Israel and Judah, there are many available sources, including the Jewish Tanakh (the Old Testament of the Christian Bible), other Jewish texts such as the Talmud, the Ethiopian book of history known as the Kebra Nagast, the writings of historians such as Nicolaus of... Lost Ten Tribes, also referenced as the Ten Lost Tribes or the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, usually refers to the tribes of the ancient Kingdom of Israel that disappear from the Biblical account after the Kingdom of Israel was totally destroyed, enslaved and exiled by ancient Assyria. ... Joseph is a given name originating from Hebrew, recorded in the Hebrew Bible, as יוֹסֵף, Standard Hebrew Yosef, and Tiberian Hebrew YôsÄ“pÌ„. In Arabic, including in the Quran, the name is spelt يوسف or YÅ«suf. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... The Afridi are a Pashtun tribe. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ...


Other Pashtun tribes claim descent from Arabs including some even claiming to be descendants of the Muslim Prophet Muhammad. Some groups such as the Afridis also claim to be descended from Alexander the Great's Greeks. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Afridi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Megas Alexandros) (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ...


Maghzan-e-Afghani's Bani-Israel theory has largely been debunked due to historical and linguistic inconsistencies. The oral tradition is a myth that grew out of a political and cultural struggle between Pashtuns and Mughals explains the historical backdrop for the creation of the myth, the inconsistencies of the myth, and the lingistical research that refutes any Semitic origins.[12]


Genetic insights into the origins of the Pashtuns

Research into human DNA has emerged as a new and innovative tool being used to explore the genetic make-up of various populations in order to ascertain historical population movements. According to some recent genetic research (the source of which is disclosed under the references section below regarding random sampling of Pashtun populations in western Pakistan) the anthropological evidence that the Pashto-speaking Pashtuns are related to other Iranian groups as well as speakers of Dardic languages such as the Kalasha and the Nuristanis appears very probable but is not by any means conclusive at this time.[13] The testing, though still in its initial phases, has not shown any substantial connection between the general Pashtun population sampled to the genetic markers found amongst most Greeks, Jews, or Arabs. What may be the case is that the Pashtuns have been slightly modified over time by various invaders, while maintaining their eastern Iranian base genetically overall. Ultimately, more research and a wider sampling of DNA will be required before the findings can be deemed conclusive and generally representative of Pashto-speaking Pashtuns. The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid —usually in the form of a double helix— that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life, and most viruses. ... Genetic testing allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases, and can also be used to determine a persons ancestry. ... The Dardic languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Kalasha, also known as the Kalash, are an ethnic group that lives in the Hindu Kush region of Pakistan. ... The Nuristani are an ethnic/religious group in the Nurestan Province of Afghanistan. ...


Pashtuns in the modern era

The Pashtuns are intimately tied to the history of modern-era Afghanistan stretching back to the Durrani Empire. The country's founder, Ahmad Shah Durrani, was an Abdali (Durrani) and formerly a high-ranking military official under the Turko-Iranian ruler Nadir Shah in Iran. He founded the empire which covered all of what is today Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, and Iranian Mashad. (Map) His successors would rule this empire for the next 40 years, while truncated Afghanistan emerged following conflicts with the Sikhs (see also Ranjit Singh) and the British. The Pashtuns/Afghans fought the British to a standstill and kept the Russians at bay during the Great Game during which Afghanistan managed to remain an independent state that played in the hands of the two large empires against each other to maintain some semblance of autonomy. In the 20th century, Pashtun troops enlisted in the British Indian army and fought in World War II and became an important component of the Frontier Scouts and the Pakistan army as well as the modern Afghan military and were active in the opposition against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. However, at the same time, the major Communist factions during Communist rule of Afghanistan, the Khalq and the Parcham, were made up mostly of Pashtuns, epecically those from Paktia and Paktika Provinces. More recently the Pashtuns became known for being the primary ethnic group that comprised the Taliban, whose ideological basis began in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. Their activity was centered around the city of Peshawar and at the Madarassa-e-Haqqania in Akora, Khattak. The Durrani Empire was a state in present day Afghanistan. ... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ... The Durrani or Abdali tribe is one of the two largest Pashtun tribes of Afghanistan and are also found in large numbers in western Pakistan. ... Tomb of Nadir Shah, a popular tourist attraction in Mashhad Nadir Shah (Nadir Qoli Beg, also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan) (October 22, 1688 - June, 1747) ruled as shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Afsharid dynasty. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Imam Reza Shrine Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ... The Great Game is a term, usually attributed to Arthur Connolly, used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. ... Military manpower Military age 16 years of age Availability 39,028,014 (2005) Males ages 16-49 Reaching military age males: 1,969,055 (2005) Active troops 620,000 (Ranked 7th) Military expenditures Dollar figure $3. ... President Karzai reviews the first soldiers of the Afghan National Army. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... A communist group in Afghanistan formed in 1967 by USSRs help. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ... Peshāwar (پیشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pai-khawar in Pashto. ... The Khattak are a famous tribe of the Pashtun nation, originating from the region currently known as the Sarhad of Pakistan. ...


In addition to Peshawar, the cities of Kandahar and Kabul figure quite prominently in Pashtun culture and the city of Quetta in Baluchistan also has a Pashtun majority population. Peshāwar (پیشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pai-khawar in Pashto. ... For the 2001 movie by Mohsen Makhmalbaf, see Kandahar (film). ... A view of the old city Kabul Kabul (, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... Quetta (کویتہ) is the capital of the province Balochistan in Pakistan. ... Baluchistan (or Balochistan), also known as Greater Baluchistan is an arid region of south Asia, presently split between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. ...


Pashtuns have played an important role in the region. The current President of Afghanistan is an ethnic Pashtun, Hamid Karzai, while in neighboring Pakistan another ethnic Pashtun also attained the Presidency in the 1950s and 1960s, Ayub Khan. The Afghan royal family now represented by Muhammad Zahir Shah is also of ethnic Pashtun origin. Other prominent Pashtuns include the 17th century warrior poet Khushal Khan Khattak, Afghan "Iron" Emir Abdur Rahman Khan and in modern times Pakistani cricketer turned politician Imran Khan and US Ambassador to Iraq Zalmay Khalilzad among many others. Hamid Karzai (Pushtu: حامد کرزي, Dari: حامد کرزی) (born December 24, 1957) is the current and first democratically elected President of Afghanistan (since December 7, 2004). ... Not to be confused with Ayub Khan (Afghan commander), (1857-1914). ... Mohammed Zahir Shah (born October 16, 1914) was the last King of Afghanistan from 1933 to 1973. ... Khushal Khan Khattak Khushal Khan Khattak (1613 - 1690) was a famous Afghan warrior, poet, and tribal chief of the Khattak tribe. ... Amir Abdur Rahman Khan Abdur Rahman Khan (c. ... Imran Khan seen here with actress Elizabeth Hurley. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Demography of Pashtun population

Pashtuns (in green) in Pakistan and Afghanistan, 1980
Pashtuns (in green) in Pakistan and Afghanistan, 1980

Pashtuns comprise over 15% of Pakistan's population or 28 million and about 42% of Afghanistan's population totalling 12.5 million. This suggests a total of roughly 40 million. All the figures are uncertain, particularly those for Afghanistan, and are affected by 4 million Afghan refugees that have settled in Pakistan. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1014x972, 166 KB) Pakistan (Major Ethnic Groups) 1980 This image is a copy of pakistan_ethnic_80. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1014x972, 166 KB) Pakistan (Major Ethnic Groups) 1980 This image is a copy of pakistan_ethnic_80. ... Pakistan has an estimated population of over 162. ... It has been suggested that People of Afghanistan be merged into this article or section. ...


Who is a Pashtun?

Amongst historians, anthropologists, and the Pashtuns themselves, there is some debate as to who exactly is a Pashtun. The most prominent views are (1) that Pashtuns are predominantly an Eastern Iranian people who are speakers of the Pashto language and live in a contiguous geographic location (this is the generally accepted academic view) in Afghanistan and Pakistan, (2) Pashtuns, in addition to being Pashto-speakers and meeting other criteria, are also Muslim and follow Pashtunwali and thus Jews, Christians, or atheists would be excluded, (3) to define the Pashtuns in terms of patrilineal descent going back to legendary times in accordance with the legend of Qais Abdur Rashid who is seen as the progenitor of the Pashtun people. We may call these the ethno-linguistic definition, religious-cultural definition, and the patrilineal definition. Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish:Müslüman, Persian:مسلمان) is an adherent of Islam. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Qias Abdur Rashid is thought, among Pashtoons, to be the first Pashtoon who traveled to Mecca and Madina during the early days of Islam. ...


Ethnic definition

The ethno-linguistic definition is the most prominent and accepted view as to who is and is not a Pashtun. Generally, this most common view holds that Pashtuns are defined within the parameters of having mainly eastern Iranian ethnic origins, sharing a common language, culture and history, living in relatively close geographic proximity to each other, and acknowledging each other as kinsmen. Thus, tribes that speak even disparate yet mutually intelligible dialects of Pashto will acknowledge each other as ethnic Pashtuns and even subscribe to certain dialects as 'proper' such as the Pukhtu spoken by the Yousafzai and the Pashto spoken by the Durrani. These criteria tend to be used by most Pashtuns in Afghanistan and Pakistan as the basis for who can be counted as a Pashtun. The Yousafzai or Yusufzai (also Esapzey) (Urdu: یوسف زئی ) are an Afghan tribe. ... The Durrani or Abdali tribe is one of the two largest Pashtun tribes of Afghanistan and are also found in large numbers in western Pakistan. ...


Cultural definition

The religious and cultural definition is more stringent and requires Pashtuns to be Muslim and adherants of the Pashtunwali code. This is the most prevalent view amongst the more orthodox and conservative tribesmen who do not view Pashtuns of the Jewish faith as actual Pashtuns even if they themselves might claim to be of Hebrew ancestry depending upon which tribe is in question. The religious definition for Pashtuns is partially based upon the laws of Pashtunwali, and that those who are Pashtun must follow and honor Pashtunwali. This notion of religion fused with ethnicity is found amongst various other groups as well such as the Armenians who, for example, also identify themselves as Armenian only if there is adherence to the Christian faith. Even amongst predominantly Sunni Muslim Pashtuns, there is a Shia minority amongst the Pashtuns. In addition, the Pashtun Jewish population (once numbering in the thousands) has largely relocated to Israel. Overall, more flexibility can be found amongst Pashtun intellectuals and academics who sometimes simply define who is and is not a Pashtun based upon other criteria that often excludes religion. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Jews have lived in Afghanistan for at least 2,000 years, but the community has been reduced greatly because of persecution and emigration. ...


Ancestral definition

The patrilineal definition is based on an important orthodox law of Pashtunwali and tradition of Pashtun society. It states simply that if your father is not a Pashtun, neither are you. This law has kept the immemorial trait of the Pashtuns being an exclusively patriarchal tribe intact. Under this definition there is less regard as to what language you speak (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, English, etc.), while more emphasis is placed upon one's father in order to be an ethnic Pashtun. Thus, the Pathans in India, for example, who have lost both the language and presumably many of the ways of their ancestors, can, by being able to trace their fathers' ethnic heritage back to the Pashtun tribes (who some believe are descendants of the four grandsons of Qais Abdur Rashid, a possible legendary progenitor of the Pashtuns), remain 'Pashtun'. The legend states that Qais, after having heard of the new religion of Islam, travelled to meet the Muslim Prophet Muhammad in Medina and returned to Afghanistan a Muslim. Qais, in turn, purportedly had many children and one son, Afghana, had in turn had up to four sons who set out towards the east including one son who went towards Swat, another towards Lahore and India, another to Multan, and finally one to Quetta. This legend is one of many traditional tales amongst the Pashtuns regarding their disparate origins. Thus, under the patrilineal definition language is not in itself a defining issue. Qias Abdur Rashid is thought, among Pashtoons, to be the first Pashtoon who traveled to Mecca and Madina during the early days of Islam. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: swat Swat or SWAT may refer to: Swat (Pakistan), the valley, district or town in the basin of the Swat River Swat River, a river in northern Pakistan State of Swat, a princely state which existed in the north of the modern North... The Minar-e-Pakistan represents Pakistani independence The Hazuri Bagh, looking towards the Roshnai Gate The Hazuri Bagh, looking towards the Roshnai Gate in 1870 Lahore (Urdu: لاہور) is a major city of Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ... Quetta (کویتہ) is the capital of the province Balochistan in Pakistan. ...


Culture

See also Pashtun culture Pashtun culture is varied and is heavily influenced by that of Central Asia and other Afghan peoples. ...


Throughout Pashtun history poets, prophets, kings and warriors have been the most revered members of society. The term 'Pakhto' or 'Pashto' from which they derive their name is not merely the name of their language, but synonymous with an honour code and religion known as Pashtunwali. The main tenets of 'Pakhto' or formally known as Pashtunwali are: Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

  1. Hospitality and asylum to all guests seeking help.
  2. Justice: Ancient Israelite Moses' Law, Tooth for a Tooth.
  3. Defense of 'Zan, Zar and Zameen' (Women/Family, Treasury and Property).
  4. Personal Independence. Pashtuns are fiercely independent and there is a lot of internal competition.

Most decisions in tribal life are made by a 'Jirga' or 'Senate' of elected elders and wise men. However, Pashtun society is also marked by its matriarchal tendencies. Folktales involving reverence for Pashtun mothers and matriarchs are common and are passed down from parent to child, as most Pashtun heritage, through a rich oral tradition. A jirga (occasionally jirgah) is a tribal assembly which takes decisions by consensus. ... An elder can refer to various topics: Elder (administrative title) Elder (religious) Elder - person of knowledge or high degree Elderberry plant (Sambucus) Box-elder plant (maple) Box elder bug (Leptocoris trivittatus or Boisea trivittatus) Elderly person - see: Old age William Henry Elder bishop and Archbishop of Cincinnati Joycelyn Elders Elder... A matriarchy is a tradition (and by extension a form of government) in which community power lies with the eldest mother of a community. ... it comes from tribal times and it was passed down by mouth ...


Institutions

The Pashtuns are predominantly a tribal people, however, increasing numbers now dwell in cities and urban settlements. Many still identify themselves with various clans. A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ...


More precisely, there are several levels of organization: the Tabar (tribe) is subdivided into kinship groups each of which is a Khel. The Khel in turn is divided into smaller groups (Pllarina or plarganey), each of which consists of several extended families or Kahols. [Wardak, 2003, p. 7] "A large tribe often has dozens of sub-tribes whose members may see themselves as belonging to each, some, or all of the sub-tribes in different social situations (co-operative, competitive, confrontational) and identify with each accordingly." [ibid., p. 10] Tabar is Pashtun tribal organization. ... Khel is part of Pashtun tribal name signifying thier sub-tribe. ... Pllarina or Plarganey is sub-tribal layer in Pashtun tribal organization. ... Kahols is the smallest layer in Pashtun tribal organization. ...


Main Pashtun tribes

See main article for a complete list of Pashtun tribes: Pashtun tribes
See also: Category:Pashtun tribes

Pashtun tribes are divided into four 'greater' tribal groups: Sarbans, Batans, Ghurghusht and Karlans. Pashtun tribes are divided into four tribal groups: Sarbans, Batans, Ghurghusht and Karlans. ... Sarbans are a tribal group of Pashtuns in Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Qias Abdur Rashid is thought, among Pashtoons, to be the first Pashtoon who traveled to Mecca and Madina during the early days of Islam. ... Qias Abdur Rashid is thought, among Pashtoons, to be the first Pashtoon who traveled to Mecca and Madina during the early days of Islam. ... Qias Abdur Rashid is thought, among Pashtoons, to be the first Pashtoon who traveled to Mecca and Madina during the early days of Islam. ...


Social conditions

The Pashtuns today are a diverse population with widely varying lifestyles and perspectives. The effects of globalization have led to the proliferation of Western ideas as well as the infilitration of Saudi-style Wahhabist Islam. Though many Pashtuns remain tribal and illiterate, others have become urbanized and highly educated. The ravages of the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan and the Afghan wars leading up to the rise and fall of the Taliban have caused substantial misery amongst the Pashtuns. Currently, Afghanistan is in a rebuilding phase, while Pashtuns in Pakistan have grown in numbers and influence. Stability remains elusive for Pashtuns who have had to balance a practical necessity to survive with a desire to work hard and seek out opportunity. However, changes amongst the Pashtuns have not come without difficulty.


Pashtun women

Sharbat Gula as seen in the photo used for the 1985 issue of National Geographic
Sharbat Gula as seen in the photo used for the 1985 issue of National Geographic

Pashtun women greatly vary from the traditional housewives who live in seclusion to urban workers some of whom seek (and have attained) parity with men. They share with their menfolk a free-willed, strong and fiercely independent character that values freedom and self rule. Image File history File links Sharbat_Gula. ... Image File history File links Sharbat_Gula. ... Sharbat Gula as seen in the photo used for the 1985 issue of National Geographic Sharbat Gula (born c. ...


Social obstacles

Due to numerous social hurdles, the literacy rate for Pashtun women remains considerably lower than that of males. Abuse against women is also widespread and yet is increasingly being challenged by women's rights organizations who find themselves struggling with conservative religious groups as well as government officials in both Afghanistan and Pakistan. According to researcher Benedicte Grima's book Performance of Emotion Among Paxtun Women, "a powerful ethic of forbearance severely limits traditional Pashtun women's ability to mitigate the suffering they acknowledge in their lives."


Pashtun women often have their legal rights curtailed in favor of their husbands or male relatives as well. For example, though women are technically allowed to vote in Afghanistan and Pakistan, many have been kept away from ballot boxes by males.[14] Traditionally, Pashtun women have few inheritance rights and are often charged with taking care of large extended families of their spouses.[15]


Positive changes

In-spite of obstacles, many Pashtun women have begun a process of slow change. Some Pashtun women in cities in Pakistan have attained more personal freedom and autonomy when it comes to their personal lives and some have chosen to abandon the burqa and often either use the chador or do not cover their heads at all, which has not been received well by conservative Pashtun men and women. Others have joined men in business, finance, and other male dominated fields. While most Pashtun women (like many men) are illiterate, a rich oral tradition and resurgence of poetry has sparked some interest on the part of both men and women and given hope to many Pashtun women seeking to learn to read and write.[16] As a sign of further female emancipation, a Pashtun woman recently became one of the first female fighter pilots in Pakistan's Airforce.[17] In addition, numerous Pashtun women have attained high political office in both Pakistan and, following recent elections, in Afghanistan where female representatives compose one of the highest percentages in the world.[18] Substantial work remains though for Pashtun women who hope to gain equal rights with Pashtun men who remain disproportionately dominant in most aspects of Pashtun society. Human rights organizations including the Afghan Women's Network continue to struggle for greater women's rights as does the Aurat Foundation in Pakistan which often attempts to safeguard women from domestic abuse.


See also

An Afghan or an Afghani is the name used to describe a person from the country of Afghanistan. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ... In an Islamic context, Bani Israil may refer to: the Children of Israel surat al-Isra This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Current distribution of the Iranian languages. ... This article is about the group of peoples who speak Iranian languages. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Pan-Iranism is an ideology that advocates solidarity and reunification of the peoples living in the Iranian plateau (falaat-e-Iran), including Azeris, Armenians, Baluchis, Georgian and Russian Ironians (Ossetians), Kurds, Qizilbash, Hazaras, Pashtuns, Persians and Tajiks. ... Pashtunistan as envisioned by proponents in Pakistan Pashtunistan, sometimes also referd to as Pakhtoonistan, is what many Pashtun nationalists call the Afghan-dominated areas of Pakistan. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... The theory that the Pashtun or ethnic Afghans are descended from the ancient Israelites—more precisely, from the perspective of Jewish history the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel— has a longstanding basis as a tradition among the Pashtun themselves, was widely accepted by 19th century British scholars, and has... The Hotaki were a Ghilzai Pashtun (Afghan) dynasty (1709-1738) that ruled the remnants of the Persian Empire (Iran) from 1722 to 1736 following the decline of the Safavids. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ethnologue report for Northern Pashto
  2. ^ Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan - Population by Mother Tongue
  3. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Afghanistan
  4. ^ Banuazizi, Ali and Myron Weiner (eds.). 1994. "The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan (Contemporary Issues in the Middle East)." Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0815626088.
  5. ^ Pashtun - Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. ^ CAIS - Articles on: Anthropology, Genealogy & Folkloric Traditions of Iranian Peoples
  7. ^ Awde, Nicholas and Sarwan, Asmatullah. 2003. "Pashto Dictionary & Phrasebook: Pashto-English English-Pashto". Hippocrene Books (January 2003). ISBN 078180972X.
  8. ^ Ethnologue report for Pashto
  9. ^ Gankovsky, Yu. V., et al "A History of Afghanistan." Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1982. 8vo. Cloth. 359 p. USD 22.50
  10. ^ History of Pakistan - Pashtuns
  11. ^ US Library of Congress - Afghanistan Ethnic Groups: Pashtun
  12. ^ Afghanology.com - Bani-Israelite Theory of Paktoons Ethnic Origin
  13. ^ Investigation of the Greek ancestry of populations from northern Pakistan - Biomedical and Genetic Engineering Division, Dr. A.Q. Khan Research Laboratories
  14. ^ BBC World Service - I have a right to - Muhammad Dawood Azami: Pashto
  15. ^ Illinois Institute of Technology - Paul V. Galvin Library - Government Documents Depository Website - Afghanistan Country Study
  16. ^ The Boston Globe - "The tale of the Pashtun poetess", by Leela Jacinto - May 22, 2005
  17. ^ BBC News - "Pakistan's first women fighter pilots", by Zaffar Abbas - 11 May, 2005
  18. ^ BBC News - "Warlords and women in uneasy mix", by Andrew North - 14 November 2005

References

  • Ahmad, Aisha and Boase, Roger. 2003. "Pashtun Tales from the Pakistan-Afghan Frontier: From the Pakistan-Afghan Frontier." Saqi Books (March 1, 2003). ISBN 0863564380.
  • Ahmed, Akbar S. 1976. Millennium and Charisma among Pathans: A Critical Essay in Social Anthropology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Ahmed, Akbar S. 1980. Pukhtun economy and society. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • Banuazizi, Ali and Myron Weiner (eds.). 1994. "The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan (Contemporary Issues in the Middle East)." Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0815626088.
  • Banuazizi, Ali and Myron Weiner (eds.). 1988. "The State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan (Contemporary Issues in the Middle East)." Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0815624484.
  • Caroe, Olaf. 1984. "The Pathans: 500 B.C.-A.D. 1957 (Oxford in Asia Historical Reprints)". Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195772210
  • Dani, Ahmad Hasan. 1985. "Peshawar: Historic city of the Frontier." Sang-e-Meel Publications (1995). ISBN 9693505549.
  • Dupree, Louis. 1997. "Afghanistan." Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195776348.
  • Elphinstone, Mountstuart. 1815. "An account of the Kingdom of Caubul and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India,: comprising a view of the Afghaun nation." Akadem. Druck- u. Verlagsanst (1969).
  • Habibi, Abdul Hai. 2003. "Afghanistan: An Abridged History." Fenestra Books. ISBN 1587361698.
  • Hopkirk, Peter. 1984. "The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia." Kodansha Globe; Reprint edition. ISBN 1568360223.
  • Wardak, Ali "Jirga - A Traditional Mechanism of Conflict Resolution in Afghanistan", 2003, online at UNPAN (the United Nations Online Network in Public Administration and Finance).
  • A Study of the Greek Ancestry of Northern Pakistani Ethnic Groups Using 115 Microsatellite Markers. A. Mansoor, Q. Ayub, et al.Am. J. Human Genetics, Oct 2001 v69 i4 p399.
  • Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in Pakistan.
  • Where west meets east: the complex mtDNA landscape of the southwest and Central Asian corridor.

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